Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Yaakov Ziv is an Israeli electrical engineer who, along with Abraham Lempel, developed the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms. Ziv was born in Tiberias, British-ruled Palestine, on 27 November 1931, he received the B. Sc. Dip. Eng. and M. Sc. degrees, all in electrical engineering, from the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in 1954, 1957 and the D. Sc. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1962. Ziv joined the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in 1970 and is Herman Gross Professor of Electrical Engineering and a Technion Distinguished Professor, his research interests include data compression, information theory, statistical communication theory. Ziv was Dean of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering from 1974 to 1976 and Vice President for Academic Affairs from 1978 to 1982. Since 1987 Ziv has spent three sabbatical leaves at the Information Research Department of Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA. From 1955 to 1959, he was a Senior Research Engineer in the Scientific Department Israel Ministry of Defense, was assigned to the research and development of communication systems.
From 1961 to 1962, while studying for his doctorate at M. I. T, he joined the Applied Science Division of Inc.. Watertown, MA, where he was a Senior Research Engineer doing research in communication theory. In 1962 he returned to the Scientific Department, Israel Ministry of Defense, as Head of the Communications Division and was an Adjunct of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. From 1968 to 1970 he was a Member of the Technical Staff of Inc.. Ziv was the Chairman of the Israeli Universities Planning and Grants Committee from 1985 to 1991, he has been a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities since 1981 and served as its president between 1995 and 2004. In 1993, Ziv was awarded the Israel Prize, for exact sciences. Ziv received in 1995 the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal, for "contributions to information theory, the theory and practice of data compression", in 1998 a Golden Jubilee Award for Technological Innovation from the IEEE Information Theory Society.
Ziv is the recipient of the 1997 Claude E. Shannon Award from the IEEE Information Theory Society and the 2008 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the category of Information and Communication Technologies; these prestigious awards are considered second only to the Nobel Prize in their monetary amount. List of Israel Prize recipients A Conversation with Jacob Ziv ACM Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award 1977: Jacob Ziv Jacob Ziv at DBLP Bibliography Server
Thomas Kailath is an electrical engineer, information theorist, control engineer and the Hitachi America Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, at Stanford University. Professor Kailath has authored several books, including the well-known book Linear Systems, which ranks as one of the most referenced books in the field of linear systems. In 2012, Kailath was awarded the National Medal of Science, presented by President Barack Obama in 2014 for "transformative contributions to the fields of information and system science, for distinctive and sustained mentoring of young scholars, for translation of scientific ideas into entrepreneurial ventures that have had a significant impact on industry." Kailath is listed as an ISI cited researcher and is recognized as one of the preeminent figures of twentieth-century electrical engineering. Kailath was born in 1935 in Pune, India, to a Malayalam-speaking Syrian Christian family named Chittoor, his parents hailed from Kerala. He studied at St. Vincent's High School and received his engineering Bachelor's degree from the Government College of Engineering, the University of Pune in 1956.
He received his Master's degree in 1959 and his doctorate degree in 1961, both from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was the first Indian-born student to receive a doctorate in electrical engineering from MIT. Kailath is Hitachi America Professor of Emeritus, at Stanford University. Here he has supervised about 80 Ph. D. theses. Kailath has been an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Fellow since 1970, he is a member of the United States National Academy of Engineering, the United States National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Indian National Academy of Engineering and the Silicon Valley Engineering Hall of Fame. Kailath was awarded the 2007 IEEE Medal of Honor for "exceptional development of powerful algorithms in the fields of communications, computing and signal processing", the 2006 IEEE Jack S. Kilby Signal Processing Medal, the 1996 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan award in 2009 by the Government of India for his contribution to Science and Engineering.
He has been awarded with the 2009 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Information and Communication Technology for break the miniaturization barrier of chips. Kailath received praise from Dr. Patrick Dewilde, the Director of Delft Institute of Microelectronics and Submicron Technology at Delft University in the Netherlands, he was married to Sarah Kailath from 1962 until her death in 2008, with whom he had four children: Ann, Paul and Ryan. In 2013, Kailath married Dr. Anuradha Luther Maitra, retired economics professor and former President of the UC Santa Cruz Foundation Board, former CEO of Floreat, Inc. Kailath is the brother-in-law of journalist T. J. S. George, a recipient of the Padma Bhushan. Kailath has co founded several high technology companies, including Integrated Systems, Numerical Technologies, Excess Bandwidth Corporation, he was selected by President Barack Obama for the National Medal of Science along with other prominent scientists for "invaluable contributions to their fields and help improve countless lives."
He was elected to the 2018 class of fellows of the American Mathematical Society. 1979, Linear Systems 1987, Indefinite-Quadratic Estimation and Control: A Unified Approach to H2 and H-infinity Theories with Ali H. Sayed & Babak Hassibi 1997, Discrete Neural Computation: A Theoretical Foundation with Kai-Yeung Siu & Vwani Roychowdhury 2000, Linear Estimation with Ali H. Sayed & Babak Hassibi Kailath' Stanford website Stanford biography IEEE Spectrum article IEEE 2007 Medal of Honor: Thomas Kailath IEEE History Center: Thomas Kailath oral history from IEEE Sarah Kailath Chair in India Studies Indolink piece on Dr. Kailath, mentions malayalam script on his house Thomas Kailath at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications. Codes are used for data compression, error detection and correction, data transmission and data storage. Codes are studied by various scientific disciplines—such as information theory, electrical engineering, mathematics and computer science—for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods; this involves the removal of redundancy and the correction or detection of errors in the transmitted data. There are four types of coding: Data compression Error control Cryptographic coding Line codingData compression attempts to remove redundancy from the data from a source in order to transmit it more efficiently. For example, Zip data compression makes data files smaller, for purposes such as to reduce Internet traffic. Data compression and error correction may be studied in combination. Error correction adds extra data bits to make the transmission of data more robust to disturbances present on the transmission channel.
The ordinary user may not be aware of many applications using error correction. A typical music CD uses the Reed-Solomon code to correct for scratches and dust. In this application the transmission channel is the CD itself. Cell phones use coding techniques to correct for the fading and noise of high frequency radio transmission. Data modems, telephone transmissions, the NASA Deep Space Network all employ channel coding techniques to get the bits through, for example the turbo code and LDPC codes. In 1948, Claude Shannon published "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", an article in two parts in the July and October issues of the Bell System Technical Journal; this work focuses on the problem of. In this fundamental work he used tools in probability theory, developed by Norbert Wiener, which were in their nascent stages of being applied to communication theory at that time. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while inventing the field of information theory.
The binary Golay code was developed in 1949. It is an error-correcting code capable of correcting up to three errors in each 24-bit word, detecting a fourth. Richard Hamming won the Turing Award in 1968 for his work at Bell Labs in numerical methods, automatic coding systems, error-detecting and error-correcting codes, he invented the concepts known as Hamming codes, Hamming windows, Hamming numbers, Hamming distance. The aim of source coding is to make it smaller. Data can be seen as a random variable X: Ω → X, where x ∈ X appears with probability P. Data are encoded by strings over an alphabet Σ. A code is a function C: X → Σ ∗. C is the code word associated with x. Length of the code word is written as l. Expected length of a code is l = ∑ x ∈ X l P The concatenation of code words C = C C... C; the code word of the empty string is the empty string itself: C = ϵ C: X → Σ ∗ is non-singular if injective. C: X ∗ → Σ ∗ is uniquely decodable if injective. C: X → Σ ∗ is instantaneous if C is not a prefix of C.
Entropy of a source is the measure of information. Source codes try to reduce the redundancy present in the source, represent the source with fewer bits that carry more information. Data compression which explicitly tries to minimize the average length of messages according to a particular assumed probability model is called entropy encoding. Various techniques used by source coding schemes try to achieve the limit of Entropy of the source. C ≥ H, where H is entropy of source, C is the bitrate after compression
Elwyn Ralph Berlekamp was an American mathematician known for his work in computer science, coding theory and combinatorial game theory. He was a professor emeritus of EECS at the University of California, Berkeley. Berlekamp was the inventor of an algorithm to factor polynomials, was one of the inventors of the Berlekamp–Welch algorithm and the Berlekamp–Massey algorithms, which are used to implement Reed–Solomon error correction. Berlekamp had been active in money management. In 1986, he began information-theoretic studies of commodity and financial futures. Berlekamp was born in Ohio, his family moved to Northern Kentucky, where Berlekamp graduated from Ft. Thomas Highlands high school in Ft. Thomas, Campbell county, Kentucky. While an undergraduate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he was a Putnam Fellow in 1961, he completed his bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering in 1962. Continuing his studies at MIT, he finished his Ph. D. in electrical engineering in 1964.
Berlekamp taught electrical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley from 1964 until 1966, when he became a mathematics researcher at Bell Labs. In 1971, Berlekamp returned to Berkeley as professor of mathematics and EECS, where he served as the advisor for over twenty doctoral students, he was a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996, became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society in 2012. In 1991, he received the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal, in 1993, the Claude E. Shannon Award. In 1998, he received a Golden Jubilee Award for Technological Innovation from the IEEE Information Theory Society, he was on its board for many years. In the mid-1980s, he was president of Cyclotomics, Inc. a corporation that developed error-correcting code technology. He co-authored the book Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays with John Horton Conway and Richard K. Guy, leading to his recognition as one of the founders of combinatorial game theory.
He has studied various games, including dots and boxes and Geese, Go. Berlekamp and co-author David Wolfe describe methods for analyzing certain classes of Go endgames in the book Mathematical Go. In 1989, Berlekamp purchased the largest interest in a trading company named Axcom Trading Advisors. After the firm's futures trading algorithms were rewritten, Axcom's Medallion Fund had a return of 55%, net of all management fees and transaction costs; the fund has subsequently continued to realize annualized returns exceeding 30% under management by James Harris Simons and his Renaissance Technologies Corporation. Berlekamp had a son with his wife Jennifer, he lived in California. He died in April 2019 at the age of 78. Block coding with noiseless feedback. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, 1964. Algebraic Coding Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. Revised ed. Aegean Park Press, 1984, ISBN 0-89412-063-8. Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays. 1st edition, New York: Academic Press, 2 vols.
1982. 1, hardback: ISBN 0-12-091150-7, paperback: ISBN 0-12-091101-9. 2, hardback: ISBN 0-12-091152-3, paperback: ISBN 0-12-091102-7. 2nd edition, Massachusetts: A. K. Peters Ltd. 4 vols. 2001–2004. Mathematical Go. Wellesley, Massachusetts: A. K. Peters Ltd. 1994. ISBN 1-56881-032-6; the Dots-and-Boxes Game. Natick, Massachusetts: A. K. Peters Ltd. 2000. ISBN 1-56881-129-2. Elwyn Berlekamp home page at the University of California, Berkeley. Elwyn Berlekamp at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
Robert G. Gallager
Robert Gray Gallager is an American electrical engineer known for his work on information theory and communications networks. He was elected an IEEE Fellow in 1968, a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 1979, a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1992, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1999, he received the Claude E. Shannon Award from the IEEE Information Theory Society in 1983, he received the IEEE Centennial Medal in 1984, the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1990 "For fundamental contributions to communications coding techniques", the Marconi Prize in 2003, a Dijkstra Prize in 2004, among other honors. For most of his career he was a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Gallager received the B. S. E. E. Degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1953, he was a member of the technical staff at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1953–1954 and served in the U. S. Signal Corps 1954–1956, he returned to graduate school at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, received the S.
M. degree in 1957 and Sc. D. in 1960 in electrical engineering. He has been a faculty member at MIT since 1960 where he was co-director of the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems from 1986 to 1998, was named Fujitsu Professor in 1988, became Professor Emeritus in 2001, he was a visiting associate professor at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1965 and a visiting professor at the École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, Paris, in 1978. Gallager's 1960 Sc. D. thesis, on low-density parity-check codes, was published by the MIT Press as a monograph in 1963. The codes, which remained useful over 50 years, are sometimes called "Gallager codes". An abbreviated version appeared in January 1962 in the IRE Transactions on Information Theory and was republished in the 1974 IEEE Press volume, Key Papers in The Development of Information Theory, edited by Elwyn Berlekamp; this paper won an IEEE Information Theory Society Golden-Jubilee Paper Award in 1998 and its subject matter is a active area of research today.
Gallager's January 1965 paper in the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, "A Simple Derivation of the Coding Theorem and some Applications", won the 1966 IEEE W. R. G. Baker Award "for the most outstanding paper, reporting original work, in the Transactions and Magazines of the IEEE Societies, or in the Proceedings of the IEEE" and won another IEEE Information Theory Society Golden-Jubilee Paper Award in 1998, his book, Information Theory and Reliable Communication, Wiley 1968, placed Information Theory on a sound mathematical foundation and is still considered by many as the standard textbook on information theory. Gallager consulted for Melpar as a graduate student, for Codex Corporation when since was founded in 1962, he served Codex as acting vice president for research in 1971–1972. His work on quadrature amplitude modulation led to the 9600 bit/s modems that provided Codex's commercial success, he has consulted for the MIT Lincoln Laboratory and a number of other companies. He has been granted five patents on his inventions.
In the mid-1970s, Gallager's research focus shifted to data networks, focusing on distributed algorithms, congestion control, random access techniques. Data Networks, Prentice Hall, published in 1988, with second edition 1992, co-authored with Dimitri Bertsekas, helped provide a conceptual foundation for this field. In the 1990s, Gallager's interests shifted back to stochastic processes, he wrote Discrete Stochastic Processes. Gallager's current interests are in information theory, wireless communication, all optical networks, data networks, stochastic processes. Over the years, Gallager has taught and mentored many graduate students, many of whom are now themselves leading researchers in their fields, he received the MIT Graduate Student Council Teaching Award for 1993. In 1999 he received the Harvey Prize from the American Society for the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. Gallager's textbook, Principles of Digital Communication was published by Cambridge University Press in 2008. Gallager was President of the IEEE Information Theory Society in 1971, a member of its board of governors from 1965 to 1972 and again from 1979 to 1988.
He served the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory as associate editor for coding 1963–1964 and as associate editor for computer communications from 1977 to 1980. He was chairman of the advisory committee to the National Science Foundation Division on Networking and Communication Research and Infrastructure from 1989 to 1992, has been on numerous visiting committees for electrical engineering and computer science departments. Gallager has 3 children, 4 stepchildren, 7 grandchildren, 10 step grandchildren and 2 great step children, he is married to Marie Gallager. Biography from the IEEE History Center. Marconi Fellow biography Mathematics Genealogy Project data Home page at MIT. Publications from Google Scholar. Publications from DBLP
New Brunswick, New Jersey
New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. The city is the county seat of Middlesex County, the home of Rutgers University. New Brunswick is on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River; as of 2016, New Brunswick had a Census-estimated population of 56,910, representing a 3.1% increase from the 55,181 people enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, which in turn had reflected an increase of 6,608 from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census. Due to the concentration of medical facilities in the area, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick is known as both the Hub City and the Healthcare City; the corporate headquarters and production facilities of several global pharmaceutical companies are situated in the city, including Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian; the Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital. The area around present-day New Brunswick was first inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans; the first European settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was called Prigmore's Swamp known as Inian's Ferry. In 1714, the settlement was given the name New Brunswick, after the city of Braunschweig, in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League and was an administrative seat for the Duchy of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Elector of Hanover, became King George I of Great Britain.
Alternatively, the city gets its name from King George II of Great Britain, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Centrally located between New York City and Philadelphia along an early thoroughfare known as the King's Highway and situated along the Raritan River, New Brunswick became an important hub for Colonial travelers and traders. New Brunswick was incorporated as a town in 1736 and chartered as a city in 1784, it was incorporated into a town in 1798 as part of the Township Act of 1798. It was occupied by the British in the winter of 1776–1777 during the Revolutionary War; the Declaration of Independence received one of its first public readings, by Col. John Neilson, in New Brunswick on July 9, 1776, in the days following its promulgation by the Continental Congress; the Trustees of Queen's College, founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting the city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, several freshmen at a tavern called the'Sign of the Red Lion' on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets.
The Sign of the Red Lion was purchased on behalf of Queens College in 1771, sold to the estate of Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh in 1791. Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808, it remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School was established in 1766, shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1945, the Trustees of Rutgers divested itself of Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County; the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784 in New York, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College. The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to tract of land covering 7 acres located less than one-half mile west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.
New Brunswick was formed by royal charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex and Somerset counties and was reformed by royal charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784; the existence of an African American community in New Brunswick dates back to the 18th century, when racial slavery was a part of life in the city and the surrounding area. Local slaveholders bought and sold African American children and men in New Brunswick in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century. In this period, the Market-House was the center of commercial life in the city, it was located at the corner of Queen Street adjacent to the Raritan Wharf. The site was a place where residents of New Brunswick sold and traded their goods which made it an integral part of the city's economy; the Market-House also