World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Joseph M. Barr
Joseph M. Barr was an American politician who held a variety of positions, including an eleven-year tenure as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1959 to 1970. Barr was born in Pittsburgh to Blanche E. Moran Barr, he married Alice White, when she was 29 and he was 43. White had been active with women's Republican groups in Chicago but left the Republican party in support of her Democrat husband. Together they had two children and Joseph. In 1959 Barr the consummate Harrisburg insider and Lawrence the seasoned Pittsburgh chief swapped roles, with Barr coming "home" and running for Mayor and Lawrence becoming Governor of Pennsylvania, he was instrumental as mayor in completing many of the Lawrence programs, while at the same time having the city's infrastructure catch up to all the progress that Lawrence instituted. Expanded and modernized street lights, water services and the stadiums were all hallmarks of Barr's leadership, he oversaw the completion of both Three Rivers Stadium and the Pittsburgh Civic Arena, both having bogged down in heated political disputes during Lawrence's tenure.
In 1940, Barr became the state's youngest state senator. Barr was elected chair of the State Democratic Party in 1954, was elected Pennsylvania's male representative on the Democratic National Committee following Lawrence's death in 1966, he retired from public life in 1972. Barr died on August 26, 1982, he is buried in Pittsburgh's St. Mary Cemetery
The Pittsburgh Steelers are a professional American football team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Steelers compete in the National Football League, as a member club of the league's American Football Conference North division. Founded in 1933, the Steelers are the oldest franchise in the AFC. In contrast with their status as perennial also-rans in the pre-merger NFL, where they were the oldest team never to win a league championship, the Steelers of the post-merger era are one of the most successful NFL franchises. Pittsburgh is tied with the New England Patriots for the most Super Bowl titles, has both played in and hosted more conference championship games than any other NFL team; the Steelers have won 8 AFC championships, tied with the Denver Broncos, but behind the Patriots' record 11 AFC championships. The Steelers share the record for second most Super Bowl appearances with the Broncos, Dallas Cowboys; the Steelers lost their most recent championship appearance, Super Bowl XLV, on February 6, 2011.
The Steelers, whose history traces to a regional pro team, established in the early 1920s, joined the NFL as the Pittsburgh Pirates on July 8, 1933, owned by Art Rooney and taking its original name from the baseball team of the same name, as was common practice for NFL teams at the time. To distinguish them from the baseball team, local media took to calling the football team the Rooneymen, an unofficial nickname which persisted for decades after the team adopted its current nickname; the ownership of the Steelers has remained within the Rooney family since its founding. Art's son, Dan Rooney owned the team from 1988 until his death in 2017. Much control of the franchise has been given to Dan's son Art Rooney II; the Steelers enjoy a widespread fanbase nicknamed Steeler Nation. The Steelers play their home games at Heinz Field on Pittsburgh's North Side in the North Shore neighborhood, which hosts the University of Pittsburgh Panthers. Built in 2001, the stadium replaced Three Rivers Stadium.
Prior to Three Rivers, the Steelers had played their games in Forbes Field. The Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL first took to the field as the Pittsburgh Pirates on September 20, 1933, losing 23–2 to the New York Giants. Through the 1930s, the Pirates never finished higher than second place in their division, or with a record better than.500. Pittsburgh did make history in 1938 by signing Byron White, a future Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, to what was at the time the biggest contract in NFL history, but he played only one year with the Pirates before signing with the Detroit Lions. Prior to the 1940 season, the Pirates renamed themselves the Steelers. During World War II, the Steelers experienced player shortages, they twice merged with other NFL franchises to field a team. During the 1943 season, they merged with the Philadelphia Eagles forming the "Phil-Pitt Eagles" and were known as the "Steagles"; this team went 5–4–1. In 1944, they were known as Card-Pitt; this team finished 0–10, marking the only winless team in franchise history.
The Steelers made the playoffs for the first time in 1947, tying for first place in the division at 8–4 with the Philadelphia Eagles. This forced a tie-breaking playoff game at Forbes Field, which the Steelers lost 21–0; that would be Pittsburgh's only playoff game for the next 25 years. In 1970, the year they moved into Three Rivers Stadium and the year of the AFL–NFL merger, the Pittsburgh Steelers were one of three old-guard NFL teams to switch to the newly formed American Football Conference, in order to equalize the number of teams in the two conferences of the newly merged league; the Steelers received a $3 million relocation fee, a windfall for them. The Steelers' history of bad luck changed with the hiring of coach Chuck Noll for the 1969 season. Noll's most remarkable talent was in his draft selections, taking Hall of Famers "Mean" Joe Greene in 1969, Terry Bradshaw and Mel Blount in 1970, Jack Ham in 1971, Franco Harris in 1972, in 1974, pulling off the incredible feat of selecting four Hall of Famers in one draft year, Lynn Swann, Jack Lambert, John Stallworth, Mike Webster.
The Pittsburgh Steelers' 1974 draft was their best ever. The players drafted in the early 1970s formed the base of an NFL dynasty, making the playoffs in eight seasons and becoming the only team in NFL history to win four Super Bowls in six years, as well as the first to win more than two, they enjoyed a regular season streak of 49 consecutive wins against teams that would finish with a losing record that year. The Steelers suffered a rash of injuries in the 1980 season and missed the playoffs with a 9–7 record; the 1981 season was no better, with an 8–8 showing. The team was hit with the retirements of all their key players from the Super Bowl years. "Mean" Joe Greene retired after the 1981 season, Lynn Swann and Jack Ham after 1982's playoff berth, Terry Bradshaw and Mel Blount after 1983's divisional championship, Jack Lambert after 1984's AFC Championship Game appearance. After those retirements, the franchise skidded to its first losing seasons since 1971. Though still competitive, the Steelers would not finish above.500 in 1985, 1986, 1988.
In 1987, the year
Chuck Cooper (basketball)
Charles Henry Cooper was an American professional basketball player. He and two others, Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton and Earl Lloyd, became the first African-American players in the NBA in 1950. Cooper was the first African American to be drafted by a National Basketball Association team, as the first pick of the second round by the Boston Celtics. Cooper was died in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the son of Emma Cooper. Daniel was a mailman, Emma was a schoolteacher, he attended Pittsburgh's Westinghouse High School and graduated in 1944. For his senior year, he was an All-City first team center, he attended and played a semester of basketball for West Virginia State College before being drafted to serve in the United States Navy in the final stages of World War II. Following his service, he enrolled at Duquesne University where he was an All-American, started all four years, set the school record for total points with 990 in four seasons. During his time at Duquesne, the team had a 78–19 record and was invited to the then-prestigious National Invitation Tournament twice.
He was a captain for the 1949–50 team, the first team from the university to be nationally ranked all season, finishing with a 23-6 record and ranked sixth nationally. He was the first African American to participate in a college basketball game south of the Mason–Dixon line. Coming out of college in 1950, he signed onto the Harlem Globetrotters. On April 25, 1950, he became the first African American drafted into the NBA when the Boston Celtics chose him with the 14th overall pick. Cooper was played for coach Red Auerbach, he made his NBA debut on November 1950, against the Fort Wayne Pistons. He played four years with the Celtics was traded to the Milwaukee Hawks before ending his career as a member of the Ft. Wayne Pistons. After that he spent a year playing for the Harlem Magicians before injuring his back in a car crash and leaving basketball. During his NBA career, Cooper played a total of 409 games, scored 2,725 points for an average of 6.66 points per game, had 2431 rebounds for an average of 5.9 per game, had 733 assists for an average of 1.79 per game.
As some statistics were not kept during that time, it is not known how many blocked shots, steals or turnovers he had during his career. After his NBA career, Cooper graduated with a Masters in Social Work from the University of Minnesota, he was married twice, first in 1951, in 1957 to Irva Lee, with whom he had four children. He worked to improve his hometown of Pittsburgh, serving on the Pittsburgh school board, was appointed the director of parks and recreation for the city, becoming the first black department head, he helped the Pittsburgh's National Bank's affirmative action program as an urban affairs officer until he died at the age of 57 on February 5, 1984, of liver cancer at Forbes Hospice. Race and ethnicity in the NBA Chuck Cooper's career NBA Stats from databasketball.com Biography at answers.com Chuck Cooper at Find a Grave Phil Axelrod, "Duquesne honors legacy of Chuck Cooper", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 6, 2009
Carlow University is a private, co-educational, Catholic university located in the heart of Pittsburgh’s “Tech, Ed, Med” district. Founded by the Sisters of Mercy, Carlow’s thirteen athletic teams are known as the Celtics, a reflection of the university’s Irish heritage and roots. In 2017-2018, the student body is 16 % men; the Sisters of Mercy arrived in Pittsburgh on December 21, 1843. They traveled from County Carlow, Ireland to the Oakland area of Pittsburgh, where they purchased 13 acres within the Diocese of Pittsburgh; this land became Our Lady of Mercy Academy. Some reports state that the site of the current campus was the location of a Civil War fortification named Fort Zug. In 1929, the Sisters of Mercy opened Mount Mercy College; the first Commencement ceremony for Mount Mercy College was conducted in 1933. The college’s seal and motto was established that year. Aquinas Hall was built to house the library and administrative offices in 1936. Five years Trinity Hall opened as the science center for the college.
In 1945, men were admitted to the school under the G. I. Bill. One of these men was the late Peter F. Flaherty, who went on to become a two-term Mayor of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County Commissioner. In 1948, Antonian Hall opened with office and theater space. Thirteen years in 1961, Frances Warde Hall dormitory was opened. Prior to this, students lived in halls in the surrounding area. Mount Mercy College’s name was changed to Carlow College in 1969. A year Curran Hall was renovated to house the nursing school. In 1975, Carlow's mission statement was drafted. In 1978, Carlow College went where few institutions of higher education had gone - accelerated classes designed for working adults. In 2004, Carlow College became Carlow University and a year appointed its first lay president, Dr. Mary Hines. In 2011, Carlow University was selected for the U. S. President’s Community Service Honor Roll. In the fall of 1983, Carlow began offering coed housing for men on-campus by housing a single male student. In Fall 2012, Carlow began competition in men's and women's cross country, the first male sport offered at Carlow.
Carlow announced on March 17, 2014, that it would field a men's basketball team for the 2014-15 season. In September 2015, Carlow announced it would add men’s soccer and men’s and women’s golf teams beginning in Fall 2016. In December 2016, Carlow announced that it would add men's and women's track and field teams beginning spring 2018. Carlow University is organized into three colleges: College of Leadership and Social Change College of Learning and Innovation College of Health and Wellness Carlow University consists of three campuses, Oakland and Greensburg; the main campus, the Oakland campus, consists of 14 buildings. Frances Warde Hall Carlow's first "dorm", replacing five large, old houses used for residences for boarders. Frances Warde was one of the original Sisters of Mercy. In 1837, she founded the school in Carlow, Ireland; this "hub" of the University is home to student residence halls, in addition to the Campus Information Center, Student Assembly Room, the office, Art classrooms, Health Services, Campus Ministry and Chapel, Campus Police, Early Learning Center, the University Business Office, Human Resources, the Office of Student Affairs.
Dougherty Hall This building is an addition to Frances Warde Hall and was named for Mother Irenaeus Dougherty, co-founder and titular president of Mount Mercy. Most of the building houses students; the popular Franny's Snack Bar, an informal eatery, is located on the 3rd floor. A. J. Palumbo Hall of Science and Technology The building is located on site, called "the Gateway to Oakland," spanning Craft Avenue, between Fifth and Forbes Avenues. Construction was completed in the summer of 1999; the newest Carlow academic building is home to the Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. There are several floors of labs. Opened in fall 2007, the Celtic Café serves soups and sandwiches and features a seating area in the lobby. Aquinas Hall Sister Aquinas Ragen, the building's namesake, was Mother General when the plans for Mount Mercy College were first proposed. Home to academic departments including: English, Theology, History and Women's Studies, as well as the Patricia Dobler Writing Center, the Dr. Samuel Hazo Graduate Seminar Room, International Studies, The Critical Point.
Antonian Hall The building was constructed atop St. Anthony's Park; the theater was named for Rosemary Heyl, a composer, faculty member, chairwoman of the Music department from 1929-85. Today the building has multiple uses. In addition to the theater, it houses administrative offices, including Financial Aid, Adult Degree Center, Information Technology, University Communications and Community Relations, Student Accounts. In addition, it holds Academic offices and classrooms reside in the building, including Art, Psychology and Communication. University Commons Originally called Grace Library and named for Sister Regis Grace, niece of Bishop Regis Canevin, co-founder and first dean of the University; the building is undergoing an extensive renovation and will re-open in August 2015, when it will not only house the library, but a cafe, the Bookstore, Mail Room, Student Affairs offices, Career Center, Center for Academic Achievement, Center for Digital Learning and Innovation, Center for Mercy Heritage and Service, Kresge Theatre, the Office of the President.
Curran Hall Mother Rose Curran, a nurse and innovative superintendent of Mercy Hospital, served as Mother General and introduced the