Fellow of the British Academy
Fellowship of the British Academy is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences. There are three kinds of fellowship Fellows, for scholars resident in the United Kingdom Corresponding Fellows, for scholars not resident in the UK Honorary Fellows, an honorary academic titleThe award of fellowship is evidenced by published work and fellows may use the post-nominal letters: FBA. Examples of fellows include Mary Beard, Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford, Jeremy Horder, Michael Lobban, M. R. James and Rowan Williams. List of Fellows of the British Academy
Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea
The Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea was a Metropolitan borough of the County of London between 1900 and 1965. It was created by the London Government Act 1899 from most of the ancient parish of Chelsea, it was amalgamated in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, with the Metropolitan Borough of Kensington to form the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The ancient parish, was dedicated to All Saints, but by the late 17th century it had been rededicated to St Luke, it was in the Diocese of London. In 1824 a new parish church was built in the centre of the parish, it was dedicated to St Luke and the original parish church became a chapel-at-ease known as All Saints, Chelsea or Chelsea Old Church. From 1831, as the population of Chelsea increased, a number of new parishes were formed: Holy Trinity, Upper Chelsea in 1831 St Saviour, Upper Chelsea in 1840 St Jude, Upper Chelsea in 1844, All Saints, Chelsea voluntarily took care of certain streets from 1855, became a separate parish in 1951 Park Chapel, Chelsea Park in c.1855, St Simon Zelotes, Upper Chelsea in 1859 Christ Church, Chelsea in 1860 St John, Chelsea World's End in 1877In the detached part of Chelsea parish, around the hamlet of Kensal Green, a number of new parishes were formed: St John the Evangelist, Kensal Green in 1845 with parts of Kensington, Paddington and Willesden St Luke the Evangelist, Kensal Green in 1877 with parts of Holy Trinity, Kilburn St Jude, Kensal Green in 1879 The area of the borough was 660 acres, once Kensal Town was transferred to Kensington and Paddington.
The population recorded in the Census was: Chelsea Vestry 1801–1899 Metropolitan Borough 1900–1961 The borough was granted a coat of arms by the College of Arms on 28 February 1903. The blazon was: Gules within a cross voided or a crozier in pale of the last in the first quarter a winged bull statant in the second a lion rampant reguardant both argent in the third a sword point downwards proper pomel and hilt gold between two boars' heads couped at the neck of the third and in the fourth a stag's head caboshed of the second; the winged bull is the symbol of patron saint of Chelsea. The other emblems referred to various holders of the manor over the centuries: the crozier for Westminster Abbey, the lion for Earl Cadogan, the boars' heads and sword for the Sloane family and the stag's head for the Stanley family; the motto was Nisi dominus frustra or "It is vain without the Lord". The fourfold division of the shield was a design favoured by Albert Woods, Garter King of Arms for municipal grants: other examples in London being the metropolitan boroughs of Bermondsey, Islington, Southwark Under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards.
In 1894 as its population had increased the incorporated vestry was re-divided into five wards: Stanley, Church & Cheyne, Hans Town, Royal Hospital and Kensal Town. The metropolitan borough was divided into five wards for elections: Cheyne, Hans Town, Royal Hospital and Stanley; the borough council was controlled by the Municipal Reform Party, allied to the Conservative Party, from its creation until 1949. In that year, the "Municipal Reform" label was discarded, the Conservative party governed the borough until the borough's abolition in 1965; the Chelsea Town Hall, a neo-classical building containing frescos, remains in use. It is situated at the corner of Chelsea Manor Street. For elections to parliament, the borough formed a single constituency. By 1950, the decline in population meant that the Chelsea constituency included the Brompton area of the Metropolitan Borough of Kensington. A Vision of Britain Robert Donald, ed.. "London: Chelsea". Municipal Year Book of the United Kingdom for 1907.
London: Edward Lloyd
Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978. A 2009 poll conducted among analytic philosophers named Quine as the fifth most important philosopher of the past two centuries, he won the first Schock Prize in Logic and Philosophy in 1993 for "his systematical and penetrating discussions of how learning of language and communication are based on available evidence and of the consequences of this for theories on knowledge and linguistic meaning." In 1996 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy for his "outstanding contributions to the progress of philosophy in the 20th century by proposing numerous theories based on keen insights in logic, philosophy of science and philosophy of language."Quine falls squarely into the analytic philosophy tradition while being the main proponent of the view that philosophy is not conceptual analysis but the abstract branch of the empirical sciences.
His major writings include Two Dogmas of Empiricism, which attacked the distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions and advocated a form of semantic holism, Word and Object, which further developed these positions and introduced Quine's famous indeterminacy of translation thesis, advocating a behaviorist theory of meaning. He developed an influential naturalized epistemology that tried to provide "an improved scientific explanation of how we have developed elaborate scientific theories on the basis of meager sensory input." He is important in philosophy of science for his "systematic attempt to understand science from within the resources of science itself" and for his conception of philosophy as continuous with science. This led to his famous quip that "philosophy of science is philosophy enough." In philosophy of mathematics, he and his Harvard colleague Hilary Putnam developed the "Quine–Putnam indispensability thesis," an argument for the reality of mathematical entities. According to his autobiography, The Time of My Life, Quine grew up in Akron, where he lived with his parents and older brother Robert Cloyd.
His father, Cloyd Robert, was a manufacturing entrepreneur and his mother, Harriett E. was a schoolteacher and a housewife. He received his B. A. in mathematics from Oberlin College in 1930, his Ph. D. in philosophy from Harvard University in 1932. His thesis supervisor was Alfred North Whitehead, he was appointed a Harvard Junior Fellow, which excused him from having to teach for four years. During the academic year 1932–33, he travelled in Europe thanks to a Sheldon fellowship, meeting Polish logicians and members of the Vienna Circle, as well as the logical positivist A. J. Ayer, it was Quine who arranged for Tarski to be invited to the September 1939 Unity of Science Congress in Cambridge, for which Tarski sailed on the last ship to leave Danzig before the Third Reich invaded Poland. Tarski survived the war and worked another 44 years in the US. During World War II, Quine lectured on logic in Brazil, in Portuguese, served in the United States Navy in a military intelligence role, deciphering messages from German submarines, reaching the rank of lieutenant commander.
At Harvard, Quine helped supervise the Harvard graduate theses of, among others, David Lewis, Daniel Dennett, Gilbert Harman, Dagfinn Føllesdal, Hao Wang, Hugues LeBlanc, Henry Hiz and George Myro. For the academic year 1964–1965, Quine was a fellow on the faculty in the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University. In 1980 Quine received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Humanities at Uppsala University, Sweden. Quine was an atheist, he had four children by two marriages. Guitarist Robert Quine was his nephew. In the foreword to the new edition of Word and Object, Quine's student Dagfinn Føllesdal noted that Quine began to lose his memory toward the end of his life; the deterioration of his short-term memory was so severe that he struggled to continue following arguments. Quine had considerable difficulty in his project to make the desired revisions to Word and Object. Before passing away, Quine noted to Morton White, "I do not remember what my illness is called, Althusser or Alzheimer, but since I cannot remember it, it must be Alzheimer."
He passed away from the illness on Christmas Day in 2000. Quine was politically conservative, but the bulk of his writing was in technical areas of philosophy removed from direct political issues, he did, write in defense of several conservative positions: for example, in Quiddities: An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary, he wrote a defense of moral censorship. Quine's Ph. D. thesis and early publications were on formal set theory. Only after World War II did he, by virtue of seminal papers on ontology and language, emerge as a major philosopher. By the 1960s, he had worked out his "naturalized epistemology" whose aim was to answer all substantive questions of knowledge and meaning using the methods and tools of the natural sciences. Quine roundly rejected the notion that there should be a "first philosophy"
Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a rich landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durham, who provided the foundation and endowment for the college; when de Balliol died in 1269 his widow, Dervorguilla, a woman whose wealth far exceeded that of her husband, continued his work in setting up the college, providing a further endowment, writing the statutes. She is considered a co‑founder of the college. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers, Harald V of Norway, five Nobel laureates, numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Aldous Huxley. John Wycliffe, who translated the Bible into English, was Master of the college in the 1360s. In 2018 Balliol had an endowment of £139.3m. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol under the guidance of Walter of Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham.
According to legend, the founder had abducted the bishop as part of a land dispute and as a penance he was publicly beaten by the bishop and had to support a group of scholars at Oxford. After de Balliol's death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day. Along with University and Merton, Balliol can claim to be the oldest Oxford college. Balliol’s claim is that a house of scholars was established by the founder in Oxford in around 1263, before Merton in 1274 and University in around 1280. Under a statute of 1881, New Inn Hall, one of the remaining medieval halls, was merged into Balliol College in 1887. Balliol acquired New Inn Hall's admissions and other records for 1831–1887 as well as the library of New Inn Hall, which contained 18th-century law books; the New Inn Hall site was sold and is now part of St Peter's College, Oxford.
In 1880, seven mischievous Balliol undergraduates published The Masque of B-ll--l, a broadsheet of forty quatrains making light of their superiors – the Master and selected Fellows and Commoners – and themselves. The outraged authorities suppressed the collection, only a few copies survived, three of which found their way into the College Library over the years, one into the Bodleian Library. Verses of this form are now known as Balliol rhymes; the best known of these rhymes is the one on Benjamin Jowett. This has been quoted and reprinted in every book about Jowett and about Balliol since. First come I. My name is J-W-TT. There's no knowledge but I know it. I am Master of this College; this and 18 others are attributed to Henry Charles Beeching. The other quatrains are much less well known. William Tuckwell included 18 of these quatrains in his Reminiscences in 1900, but they all came out only in 1939, thanks to Walter George Hiscock, an Oxford librarian, who issued them then and in a second edition in 1955.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate neighbour to the east, Trinity College. It has manifested itself on the river; the rivalry reflects that which exists between Trinity College and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge. In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, President of Trinity, was observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, in its modern form, the rivalry appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side; the traditional words run: Gordouli Face like a ham,Bobby Johnson says so And he should know. The shouting of chants over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli", the tradition continues as the students gather to sing following boat club dinners and other events; the traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia in the First World War.
Balliol became known for its radicalism and political activism in the 20th century, saw an abortive coup in the 1960s in which students took over the college and declared it "the People's Republic of Balliol". The contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and the traditional conservatism and social exclusivity of Trinity gave the rivalry an extra edge; the fact that Balliol had admitted a number of Indian and Asiatic students gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos". In Five Red Herrings, a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Somerville alumna Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey.'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise: Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR.
The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalisation of Trinity's SCR pond, which led to the death of all but one of the fish. For
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre is a Scottish philosopher known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but known for his work in history of philosophy and theology. MacIntyre's After Virtue is recognised as one of the most important works of Anglophone moral and political philosophy in the 20th century, he is senior research fellow at the Centre for Contemporary Aristotelian Studies in Ethics and Politics at London Metropolitan University, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame, Permanent Senior Distinguished Research Fellow at the Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture. During his lengthy academic career, he taught at Brandeis University, Duke University, Vanderbilt University, Boston University. MacIntyre was born on 12 January 1929 to Eneas and Greta MacIntyre, he was educated at Queen Mary, University of London, has a Master of Arts degree from the University of Manchester and from the University of Oxford. He began his teaching career in 1951 at Manchester.
He taught at the University of Leeds, the University of Essex and the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, before moving to the US in around 1969. MacIntyre has been something of an intellectual nomad, having taught at many universities in the US, he has held the following positions: Professor of History of Ideas, Brandeis University, Dean of the College of Arts and Professor of Philosophy, Boston University, Henry Luce Professor, Wellesley College, W. Alton Jones Professor, Vanderbilt University, Professor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Professor of Philosophy, Vanderbilt University, Visiting scholar, Whitney Humanities Center, Yale University, McMahon-Hank Professor of Philosophy, Notre Dame, Arts & Sciences Professor of Philosophy, Duke University, he has been a visiting professor at Princeton University, is a former president of the American Philosophical Association. In 2010, he was awarded the Aquinas Medal by the American Catholic Philosophical Association. From 2000 he was the Rev. John A. O'Brien Senior Research Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, US.
He is professor emerit and emeritus at Duke University. In April 2005 he was elected to the American Philosophical Society, in July 2010 became senior research fellow at London Metropolitan University's Centre for Contemporary Aristotelian Studies in Ethics and Politics. Since his retirement from active teaching in 2010, he remains the senior distinguished research fellow of the Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture, where he retains an office, he continues to make public presentations, including an annual keynote as part of the Center for Ethics and Culture's Fall Conference. He has been married three times. From 1953 to 1963 he was married to Ann Peri. From 1963 to 1977 he was married to former teacher and now poet Susan Willans, with whom he had a son and daughter. Since 1977 he has been married to philosopher Lynn Joy, on the philosophy faculty at Notre Dame. MacIntyre's approach to moral philosophy interweaves a number of complex strands. Although he aims to revive an Aristotelian moral philosophy based on the virtues, he claims a "peculiarly modern understanding" of this task.
This "peculiarly modern understanding" concerns MacIntyre's approach to moral disputes. Unlike some analytic philosophers who try to generate moral consensus on the basis of rationality, MacIntyre uses the historical development of ethics to circumvent the modern problem of "incommensurable" moral notions, whose merits cannot be compared in any common framework. Following Hegel and Collingwood, he offers a "philosophical history" in which he concedes from the beginning that "there are no neutral standards available by appeal to which any rational agent whatsoever could determine" the conclusions of moral philosophy. In his most famous work, After Virtue, he deprecates the attempt of Enlightenment thinkers to deduce a universal rational morality independent of teleology, whose failure led to the rejection of moral rationality altogether by successors such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, Charles Stevenson, he emphasizes how this overestimation of reason led to Nietzsche's utter repudiation of the possibility of moral rationality.
By contrast, MacIntyre attempts to reclaim more modest forms of moral rationality and argumentation which claim neither finality nor logical certainty, but which can hold up against relativistic or emotivist denials of any moral rationality whatsoever. He revives the tradition of Aristotelian ethics with its teleological account of the good and of moral actions, as fulfilled in the medieval writings of Thomas Aquinas; this Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition, he proposes, presents "the best theory so far," both of how things are and how we ought to act. More according to MacIntyre, moral disputes always take place within and between rival traditions of thought relying on an inherited store of ideas, types of arguments and shared understandings and approaches. Though there is no definitive way for one tradition in moral philosophy to logically refute another opposing views can dispute each others' internal coherence, resolution of imaginative dilemmas and epistemic crises, achievement of fruitful results.
His most read work, After Virtue was written when MacIntyre was in his fifties. Up to MacIntyre had been a influential analytic philosopher of Marxist bent whose moral