Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Turnmills building was a warehouse on the corner of Turnmill Street and Clerkenwell Road in the London Borough of Islington. It became a bar in the 1980s a nightclub; the club closed in 2008 and the building was demolished, replaced with an office building. The Victorian building opened in 1886 and was used as a warehouse and stables by the Great Northern Railway Company; the building became a warehouse for Booth’s Dry Gin distillery before changing hands in 1985 and becoming a bar. The Clerkenwell area was well known for its gin distilleries during the Victorian era. Gordon's Gin distillery was sited in Goswell Road/Moreland Street, EC1, not far from Turnmills. In a bid to try and save the building from demolition various objections were put forward to Islington Council. William Palin, secretary of Save Britain’s Heritage, said that "It may not be as architecturally stunning as the Sessions House across the road but it’s a good-quality commercial and industrial building. It’s a good example of an old building that’s been re-used in a number of ways."
Although English Heritage argued that the building possessed historic and an aesthetic value, the building was deemed not to be of considerable significance to be saved from the wrecking ball. The building closed on 24 March 2008. In 1985 John Newman opened a bar/restaurant on the site. In 1990, the venue evolved into a nightclub; the first successful club night held at Turnmills was Xanadu, run and co-hosted by London club promoters Robert Pereno and Laurence Malice. The venue was the first to obtain a 24-hour dance licence in the United Kingdom, spearheading the move to all-night clubbing in the 1990s and became the home of several club nights including Trade, the first after-hours club in Britain. Essence. DJs from the Bedlam free sound system, with the Liberator crew as regulars with guests including Aztek and Murph. Playing London underground pure acid and hard trance; the Gallery playing progressive house and techno. Xanadu - co-hosted and run by Robert Pereno & Laurence Malice Heavenly Social Trade — hosted and run by Laurence Malice.
Together Smartie Partie, monthly resident. City Loud — House music. Release Yourself Elements Roach, Tom Stephan hosted a monthly tech session. FF Warriors Hard House Techno Club run by Buffalo. Melt Techno, Nu-Nrg Club. Habit The Well: Progressive trance music. On 24 January 2008, Danny Newman announced the building would close on 23 March 2008 as a clubbing venue, due to the expiry of the lease on the building; the building was demolished and a new office building was built in its place. Starcom MediaVest Group are now located in the new building. List of electronic dance music venues Afterhour clubs Superclub Official website
A disc jockey abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJ, club DJ who performs at a nightclub or music festival and turntablist who uses record players turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records; the disc in disc jockey referred to gramophone records, but now DJ is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including cassettes, CDs or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop. The title DJ is used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names. In recent years it has become common for DJs to be featured as the credited artist on tracks they produced despite having a guest vocalist that performs the entire song: like for example Uptown Funk. DJs use audio equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs; this involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when played together or to enable a smooth transition from one song to another.
DJs use specialized DJ mixers, small audio mixers with crossfader and cue functions to blend or transition from one song to another. Mixers are used to pre-listen to sources of recorded music in headphones and adjust upcoming tracks to mix with playing music. DJ software can be used with a DJ controller device to mix audio files on a computer instead of a console mixer. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the "disc" in "disc jockey" referred to gramophone records, but now "DJ" is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including vinyl records, cassettes, CDs, or digital audio files stored on USB stick or laptop. DJs perform for a live audience in a nightclub or dance club or a TV, radio broadcast audience, or in the 2010s, an online radio audience. DJs create mixes and tracks that are recorded for sale and distribution. In hip hop music, DJs may create beats, using percussion breaks and other musical content sampled from pre-existing records.
In hip hop, rappers and MCs use. DJs use equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together; this allows the DJ to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs. This involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when they are played together, either so two records can be played at the same time, or to enable the DJ to make a smooth transition from one song to another. An important tool for DJs is the specialized DJ mixer, a small audio mixer with a crossfader and cue functions; the crossfader enables the DJ to transition from one song to another. The cue knobs or switches allow the DJ to listen to a source of recorded music in headphones before playing it for the live club or broadcast audience. Previewing the music in headphones helps the DJ pick the next track they want to play, cue up the track to the desired starting location, align the two tracks' beats in traditional situations where auto sync technology is not being used.
This process ensures that the selected song will mix well with the playing music. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the title "DJ" is commonly used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names as a title to denote their profession. Some DJs focus on creating a good mix of songs for the club dancers or radio audience. Other DJs use turntablism techniques such as scratching, in which the DJ or turntablist manipulates the record player turntable to create new rhythms and sounds. DJs need to have a mixture of artistic and technical skills for their profession, because they have to understand both the creative aspects of making new musical beats and tracks, the technical aspects of using mixing consoles, professional audio equipment, and, in the 2010s, digital audio workstations and other computerized music gear. In many types of DJing, including club DJing and radio/TV DJing, a DJ has to have charisma and develop a good rapport with the audience. Professional DJs specialize in a specific genre of music, such as house music or hip hop music.
DJs have an extensive knowledge about the music they specialize in. Many DJs are avid music collectors of rare or obscure tracks and records. Radio DJs or radio personalities introduce and play music broadcast on AM, FM, digital or Internet radio stations. Club DJs referred as DJs in general, play music at musical events, such as parties at music venues or bars, music festivals and private events. Club DJs mix music recordings from two or more sources using different mixing techniques in order to produce non-stopping flow of music. One key technique used for seamlessly transitioning from one song to another is beatmatching. A DJ who plays and mixes one specific music genre is given the title of that genre; the quality of a DJ performance consists of two main features: technical skills, or how well can DJ operate the equipment and produce sm
A remix is a piece of media, altered from its original state by adding, and/or changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, video, or photograph can all be remixes; the only characteristic of a remix is that it appropriates and changes other materials to create something new. Most remixes are a subset of audio mixing in music and song recordings. Songs may be remixed for a variety of reasons: to adapt or revise a song for radio or nightclub play to create a stereo or surround sound version of a song where none was available to improve the fidelity of an older song for which the original master has been lost or degraded to alter a song to suit a specific music genre or radio format to use some of the same materials, allowing the song to reach a different audience to alter a song for artistic purposes. To provide additional versions of a song for use as bonus tracks or for a B-side, for example, in times when a CD single might carry a total of 4 tracks to create a connection between a smaller artist and a more successful one, as was the case with Fatboy Slim's remix of "Brimful of Asha" by Cornershop to improve the first or demo mix of the song to ensure a professional product.
To provide an alternative version of a song to improve a song from its original stateRemixes should not be confused with edits, which involve shortening a final stereo master for marketing or broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should be made between a remix, which recombines audio pieces from a recording to create an altered version of a song, a cover: a re-recording of someone else's song like Mike D's remix of Moby's "Natural Blues". While audio mixing is one of the most popular and recognized forms of remixing, this is not the only media form, remixed in numerous examples. Literature, film and social systems can all be argued as a form of remix Since the beginnings of recorded sound in the late 19th century, technology has enabled people to rearrange the normal listening experience. With the advent of editable magnetic tape in the 1940s and 1950s and the subsequent development of multitrack recording, such alterations became more common. In those decades the experimental genre of musique concrète used tape manipulation to create sound compositions.
Less artistically lofty edits produced medleys or novelty recordings of various types. Modern remixing had its roots in the dance hall culture of late-1960s/early-1970s Jamaica; the fluid evolution of music that encompassed ska, rocksteady and dub was embraced by local music mixers who deconstructed and rebuilt tracks to suit the tastes of their audience. Producers and engineers like Ruddy Redwood, King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry popularized stripped-down instrumental mixes of reggae tunes. At first they dropped the vocal tracks, but soon more sophisticated effects were created, dropping separate instrumental tracks in and out of the mix and repeating hooks, adding various effects like echo and delay; the German krautrock band Neu! used other effects on side two of their album Neu! 2 by manipulating their released single Super/Neuschnee multiple ways, utilizing playback at different turntable speeds or mangling by using of a cassette recorder. From the mid-1970s, DJs in early discothèques were performing similar tricks with disco songs to get dancers on the floor and keep them there.
One noteworthy figure was Tom Moulton. Though not a DJ, Moulton had begun his career by making a homemade mix tape for a Fire Island dance club in the late 1960s, his tapes became popular and he came to the attention of the music industry in New York City. At first Moulton was called upon to improve the aesthetics of dance-oriented recordings before release, he moved from being a "fix it" man on pop records to specializing in remixes for the dance floor. Along the way, he invented the 12-inch single vinyl format. Walter Gibbons provided the dance version of the first commercial 12-inch single. Contrary to popular belief, Gibbons did not mix the record. In fact his version was a re-edit of the original mix. Moulton and their contemporaries at Salsoul Records proved to be the most influential group of remixers for the disco era; the Salsoul catalog is seen as being the "canon" for the disco mixer's art form. Pettibone is among a small number of remixers whose work transitioned from the disco to the House era.
His contemporaries included François Kevorkian. Contemporaneously to disco in the mid-1970s, the dub and disco remix cultures met through Jamaican immigrants to the Bronx, energizing both and helping to create hip-hop music. Key figures included Grandmaster Flash. Cutting and scratching became part of the culture, creating what Slate magazine called "real-time, live-action collage." One of the first mainstream successes of this style of remix was the 1983 track Rockit by Herbie Hancock, as remixed by Grand Mixer D. ST. Malcolm McLaren and the creative team behind ZTT Records would feature the "cut up" style of hip hop on such records as "Duck Rock". Early pop remixes were simple.
A rave is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music. DJs at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, house, drum & bass and post-industrial. Live performers have been known to perform, in addition to other types of performance artists such as go-go dancers and fire dancers; the music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system with large subwoofers to produce a deep bass sound. The music is accompanied by laser light shows, projected coloured images, visual effects and fog machines. While some raves may be small parties held at nightclubs or private homes, some raves have grown to immense size, such as the large festivals and events featuring multiple DJs and dance areas; some electronic dance music festivals have features of raves, but on a larger commercial scale.
Raves may last for a long time, with some events continuing for twenty-four hours, lasting all through the night. Law enforcement raids and anti-rave laws have presented a challenge to the rave scene in many countries; this is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA, LSD, GHB, methamphetamine and cannabis. In addition to drugs, raves make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars; these concerns are attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture. In the late 1950s in London, England the term "rave" was used to describe the "wild bohemian parties" of the Soho beatnik set. Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers". In 1958, Buddy Holly recorded the hit "Rave On", citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it never to end; the word "rave" was used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general.
People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers". Pop musicians such as Steve Marriott of The Small Faces and Keith Moon of The Who were self-described "ravers". Presaging the word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-1960s garage rock and psychedelia bands. Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback, it was part of the title of an electronic music performance event held on 28 January 1967 at London's Roundhouse titled the "Million Volt Light and Sound Rave". The event featured the only known public airing of an experimental sound collage created for the occasion by Paul McCartney of The Beatles – the legendary Carnival of Light recording. With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage.
During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday" by David Bowie which includes the line, "It's a crash course for the ravers." Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy". The perception of the word "rave" changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica. In the mid to late 1980s, a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music, most notably acid house music, emerged from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States. After Chicago acid house artists began experiencing overseas success, acid house spread and caught on in the United Kingdom within clubs and free-parties, first in Manchester in the mid-1980s and later in London. In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement.
Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Greek and German youth on vacation, who would hold raves and dance parties. By the 1990s, genres such as acid, breakbeat hardcore, happy hardcore, post-industrial and electronica were all being featured at raves, both large and small. There were mainstream events. Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Genesis P-Orridge during a television interview. In 1990, raves were held "underground" in several cities, such as Berlin and Patras, in basements and forests. British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend. Politicians began to fine promoters who held unauthorized parties. Police crackdowns on these unauthorized parties drove the rave scene into the countryside; the word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at vario
Neath is a town and community situated in the principal area of Neath Port Talbot, Wales with a population of 19,258 in 2011. The wider urban area, which includes neighbouring settlements, had a population of 50,658 in 2011. In Glamorgan, the town is located on the river of the same name, 7 miles east northeast of Swansea. Neath was the crossing place of the River Neath and has existed as a settlement since the Romans established the fort of Nido or Nidum in the AD 70s; the Roman fort took its name from the River Nedd. Neath is the Anglicised form; the Antonine Itinerary names only nine places in one of them being Neath. There is evidence of undated prehistoric settlements Celtic, on the hills surrounding the town; the fort covered a large area which now lies under the playing fields of Dŵr-y-Felin Comprehensive School. In the late 1960s, there were reports in the local media of a massive Roman marching camp being found above Llantwit which would have accommodated many thousands of troops. St Illtyd visited the Neath area and established a settlement in what is now known as Llantwit on the northern edge of the town.
The church of St Illtyd was enlarged in Norman times. The Norman and pre-Norman church structure remains intact and active to day within the Church in Wales; the Welsh language name for Neath is Castell-nedd, referring to the Norman Neath Castle, visited by English kings Henry Curtmantle, John Lackland and Edward Longshanks. Neath was a market town that expanded with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century with new manufacturing industries of iron and tinplate; the Mackworth family, who owned the Gnoll Estate were prominent in the town's industrial development. Coal was mined extensively in the surrounding valleys and the construction of canals and railways made Neath a major transportation centre and the Evans & Bevan families were major players in the local coal mining community as well as owning the Vale of Neath Brewery. Silica was mined in the Craig-y-Dinas area of Pontneddfechan, after Quaker entrepreneur William Weston Young invented the blast furnace silica firebrick moving brick production from the works at Pontwalby to the Green in Neath.
The town continued as a market trading centre with a municipal cattle market run by W. B. Trick. Industrial development continued throughout the 20th century with the construction by BP of a new petroleum refinery at Llandarcy. Admiral Lord Nelson stayed at the Castle Hotel en route to Milford Haven when the fleet was at anchor there. Lt. Lewis Roatley, the son of the landlord of the Castle Hotel, served as a Royal Marines officer with Nelson aboard HMS Victory in the Battle of Trafalgar; the River Neath is a navigable estuary and Neath was a river port until recent times. The heavy industries are no more with the town being a tourism centre. Attractions for visitors are the ruins of the Cistercian Neath Abbey, the Gnoll Park and Neath Indoor Market. Neath hosted the National Eisteddfod of Wales in 1918, 1934 and 1994. See Category:People from NeathLetty Hayward born in Cwmgrach in 1939–1993, Welsh Ladies champion in Snooker twice and Embassy Ladies World snooker championship in 1976 where Letty played until the Semi-finals and she was beaten by the reigning champion Vera Selby.
Letty Hayward received £ 500.00 for her semi-final finish. She has a daughter who still lives in the village of Glynneath next to Cwmgrach. Roger Blake, actor and impressionist. Ben Davies, Tottenham Hotspur, Wales footballer David Davies, Welsh international rugby union forward. Led Glamorgan to 2nd County Championship, 1969. Writer and broadcaster. Andrew Matthews-Owen, pianist.