Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Department for Education and Skills (United Kingdom)
The Department for Education and Skills was a United Kingdom government department between 2001 and 2007, responsible for the education system as well as children's services in England. The department was led by Secretary of State for Skills; the DfES had offices at four main locations: London, Sheffield and Runcorn. The DfES was represented in regional Government Offices; the DfES had jurisdiction only in England as education was the responsibility of the Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government and the Northern Ireland Assembly. On 28 June 2007, the DfES was split up into the Department for Children and Families and the Department for Innovation and Skills; the DCSF was reorganised as the Department for Education in 2010. The Department of Education and Science was created in 1964 with the merger of the offices of Minister of Education and the Minister of Science, with Quintin Hogg as minister. In 1992 the responsibility for science was transferred to the Cabinet Office's Office of Public Service and the Department of Trade and Industry's Office of Science and Technology, the department was renamed Department for Education.
In 1995, in the reshuffle after the Conservative leadership election of that year, the department merged with the Department of Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment. After the 2001 general election, the employment functions were transferred to the new Department for Work and Pensions, with the DfEE becoming the Department for Education and Skills. In 2007, the responsibilities for adult education, further education, higher education were transferred to the new Department for Innovation and Skills; the remainder of the education system moved to the DCSF. Colour key: Labour The permanent secretary of a UK Department is the senior civil servant. While working under the direction of the political ministers, the PS has many traditional and statutory responsibilities that are aimed at ensuring that government departments are, as far as possible, run in the public interest. Permanent Secretaries: David Bell: Jan 2006 - Jun 2007 Sir David Normington: May 2001 - Dec 2005 Sir Michael Bichard: Jul 1995 - May 2001 Sir Timothy Patrick Lankester: Feb 1994 - Jul 1995 Sir Geoffrey Holland: Jan 1993 - Jan 1994 Sir John Caines: Jul 1989 - Jan 1993 Sir David Hancock: May 1983 - June 1989 Sir James Arnot Hamilton: May 1976 - May 1983 Sir William Pile: Aug 1970 - May 1976 British Educational Communications and Technology Agency Learning and Skills Council United Kingdom budget Official Archived Website Science Learning Centres website The national network of Science Learning Centres provides Continuing Professional Development for everyone involved in science education.
The network is a joint initiative by the Department for Education and Skills and the Wellcome Trust
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon is a Scottish politician serving as the fifth and current First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party since November 2014. She is the first woman to hold either position. Sturgeon has been a member of the Scottish Parliament since 1999, first as an additional member for the Glasgow electoral region from 1999 to 2007 and as the member for Glasgow Southside since 2007. A law graduate of the University of Glasgow, Sturgeon worked as a solicitor in Glasgow. After being elected to the Scottish Parliament, she served successively as the SNP's shadow minister for education and justice. In 2004 she announced that she would stand as a candidate for the leadership of the SNP following the resignation of John Swinney. However, she withdrew from the contest in favour of Alex Salmond, standing instead as depute leader on a joint ticket with Salmond. Both were subsequently elected, as Salmond was still an MP in the House of Commons, Sturgeon led the SNP in the Scottish Parliament from 2004 to 2007.
The SNP won the highest number of seats in the Scottish Parliament in the 2007 election and Salmond was subsequently appointed First Minister. He appointed Sturgeon as Deputy First Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, she was appointed as Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure and Cities in 2012. Following the defeat of the "Yes" campaign in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Salmond announced that he would be resigning as party leader at the SNP party conference that November, would resign as First Minister after a new leader was chosen. No one else was nominated for the post by the time nominations closed, leaving Sturgeon to take the party leadership unopposed at the SNP's annual conference, she was formally elected to succeed Salmond as First Minister on 19 November. Forbes magazine ranked Sturgeon as the 50th most powerful woman in the world in 2016 and 2nd in the United Kingdom. In 2015, BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour assessed Sturgeon to be the most powerful and influential woman in the United Kingdom.
Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon was born in Ayrshire Central Hospital in Irvine, on 19 July 1970. She is the eldest of three daughters born to Robin Sturgeon, an electrician, Joan Kerr Sturgeon, a dental nurse, her family has some roots in North East England. Sturgeon grew up in Dreghorn, she attended Dreghorn Primary School from 1975 to 1982 and Greenwood Academy from 1982 to 1988. She studied at the University of Glasgow, where she studied Law. Sturgeon graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1992 and a Diploma in Legal Practice the following year. During her time at Glasgow University she was active as a member of the Glasgow University Scottish Nationalist Association and the students' representative council. Following her graduation, Sturgeon completed her legal traineeship at McClure Naismith, a Glasgow firm of solicitors, in 1995. After qualifying as a solicitor, she worked for Bell & Craig, a firm of solicitors in Stirling, at the Drumchapel Law Centre in Glasgow from 1997 until her election to the Scottish Parliament in 1999.
In an interview with BBC's Women's Hour, Sturgeon revealed that it was Margaret Thatcher that inspired her to enter politics, due to rising unemployment in Scotland at the time, she developed "a strong feeling that it was wrong for Scotland to be governed by a Tory government that we hadn't elected". Sturgeon joined the Scottish National Party in 1986, having become a member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, became their Youth Affairs Vice Convener and Publicity Vice Convener, she first stood for election in the 1992 general election as the SNP candidate in the Glasgow Shettleston constituency, was the youngest parliamentary candidate in Scotland, failing to win the seat. Sturgeon stood unsuccessfully as the SNP candidate for the Irvine North ward on Cunninghame District Council in May 1992, for the Baillieston/Mount Vernon ward on Strathclyde Regional Council in 1994, for the Bridgeton ward on Glasgow City Council in 1995. In the mid-1990s, Sturgeon and Charles Kennedy went together on a political study visit to Australia.
The 1997 general election saw Sturgeon selected to fight the Glasgow Govan seat for the SNP. Boundary changes meant. However, infighting between the two rival candidates for the Labour nomination, Mohammed Sarwar and Mike Watson, along with an energetic local campaign, resulted in Glasgow Govan being the only Scottish seat to see a swing away from Labour in the midst of a Labour landslide nationwide. Sarwar did, win the seat with a majority of 2,914 votes. Shortly after this, Sturgeon was appointed as the SNP's spokesperson for energy and education matters. Sturgeon stood for election to the Scottish Parliament in the first Scottish Parliament election in 1999 as the SNP candidate for Glasgow Govan. Although she failed to win the seat, she was placed first in the SNP's regional list for the Glasgow region, was thus elected as a Member of the Scottish Parliament. During the first term of the Scottish Parliament, Sturgeon served as a member of the Shadow Cabinets of both Alex Salmond and John Swinney.
She was Shadow Minister for Children and Education from 1999 to 2000, Shadow Minister for Health and Community Care from 2000 to 2003, Shadow Minister for Justice from 2003 to 2004. She served as a member of the Education and Sport Committee and the Health and Community Care Committee. On 22 June 2004, John Swinney resigned as Leader of the SNP following poor results in the Eu
Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council. It borders Shropshire to the north, Worcestershire to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, the Welsh counties of Monmouthshire and Powys to the west. Hereford is the county town. Situated in the historic Welsh Marches, Herefordshire is one of the most rural and sparsely populated counties in England, with a population density of 82/km², a 2017 population of 191,000 - the fourth-smallest of any ceremonial county in England; the land use is agricultural and the county is well known for its fruit and cider production, the Hereford cattle breed. From 1974 to 1998, Herefordshire was part of the former non-metropolitan county of Hereford and Worcester. Herefordshire was reconstituted both as a new district and as a new county by Statutory Instrument as defined in The Hereford and Worcester Order 1996; this Order established Herefordshire as a unitary authority on 1 April 1998, combining county and district functions into a single council.
Herefordshire is commonly called a unitary district, but this is not official nomenclature. Herefordshire is known as a unitary authority for local government purposes, it is governed by Herefordshire Council, created in 1998 with the new unitary district that absorbed the previous administrative areas of Leominster District Council, South Herefordshire District Council, Hereford City Council, parts of Hereford-Worcester County Council, parts of Malvern Hills District Council. The Lieutenancies Act 1997 made Herefordshire a ceremonial county, covering the exact area of the unitary district. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region; the River Wye, which at 135 miles is the fifth-longest in the United Kingdom, enters the county after being its border with Powys. It flows through both Ross-on-Wye before returning to Wales. Leominster is situated on a tributary of the Wye. There are two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the county.
The Wye Valley is located in the river's valleys south of Hereford, while the Malvern Hills are in the east of the county, along its border with Worcestershire. Herefordshire is one of the 39 historic counties of England. In 1974 it was merged with neighbouring Worcestershire to form the Hereford and Worcester administrative county. Within this, Herefordshire was covered by the local government districts of South Herefordshire and part of Malvern Hills and Leominster districts. However, the county was dissolved in 1998, resulting in the return of Herefordshire and Worcestershire as counties; the current ceremonial county and unitary district have broadly the same borders as the pre-1974 historic county. Herefordshire's growth rate has in recent decades been higher than the national average, with the population increasing by 14.4% between 1991 and 2011 – the population of England as a whole increased by only 10.0%. However this has been from a lower base, with only Northumberland and Cumbria having lower population densities than Herefordshire.
The population is White 98.2%, Asian 0.8%, Mixed 0.7%, Black 0.2%, Other 0.1%. Gypsies and Travellers have been Herefordshire's largest minority ethnic group, they are made up of three main groups: Romanichal or Romany "Gypsies" Irish Travellers New Travellers or New Age TravellersRomany Gypsies and Irish Travellers fall within the definition of a minority ethnic group under the Race Relations Amendment Act. They have contributed to the development of the county, for example through seasonal working in orchards. There were 400 people within this minority group in the county at the 2011 Census; the major settlements in the county include Hereford, the county town and Herefordshire's only city, as well as the towns of Leominster, Ross-on-Wye and Bromyard. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Herefordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding Many well-known cider producers are based in Herefordshire.
These include Weston's cider of Much Marcle, Bulmer's cider, from Hereford, which produces the UK market leader Strongbow. Most employment in Herefordshire is in agriculture and services. According to Herefordshire Council's online document "worklessness", 10% of people are unemployed in Herefordshire including out-of-work, homeless and disabled and their carers. Cargill Meats and H. P. Bulmers are two of the largest private sector employers, with the Council and NHS being the largest public sector employers. There are two parliamentary constituencies in Herefordshire; as of January 2017, Bill Wiggin represents North Herefordshire and Jesse Norman represents Hereford and South Herefordshire. Both politicians are members of the Conservative Party; the Council is Conservative controlled. The Chairman is Councillor Brian Wilcox and the Leader of the Council is Councillor Jonathan Lester; the Cabinet Leader is appointed yearly by the full council of 53 councillors. The Cabinet Leader picks their deputy and up to 8 other councillors to form the executive cabinet.
Nottinghamshire is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county town is Nottingham, though the county council is based in West Bridgford in the borough of Rushcliffe, at a site facing Nottingham over the River Trent; the districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Broxtowe, Mansfield and Sherwood, Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1988, but is now a unitary authority, remaining part of Nottinghamshire for ceremonial purposes. In 2017, the county was estimated to have a population of 785,800. Over half of the population of the county live in the Greater Nottingham conurbation; the conurbation has a population of about 650,000, though less than half live within the city boundaries. Nottinghamshire lies on the Roman Fosse Way, there are Roman settlements in the county; the county was settled by Angles around the 5th century, became part of the Kingdom, Earldom, of Mercia.
However, there is evidence of Saxon settlement at the Broxtowe Estate, near Nottingham, Tuxford, east of Sherwood Forest. The name first occurs in 1016, but until 1568, the county was administratively united with Derbyshire, under a single Sheriff. In Norman times, the county developed woollen industries. During the industrial revolution, the county held much needed minerals such as coal and iron ore, had constructed some of the first experimental waggonways in the world. In the 18th and 19th centuries, mechanised deeper collieries opened, mining became an important economic sector, though these declined after the 1984–85 miners' strike; until 1610, Nottinghamshire was divided into eight Wapentakes. Sometime between 1610 and 1719, they were reduced to six – Newark, Thurgarton, Rushcliffe and Bingham, some of these names still being used for the modern districts. Oswaldbeck was absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay division, Lythe in Thurgarton. Nottinghamshire is famous for its involvement with the legend of Robin Hood.
This is the reason for the numbers of tourists who visit places like Sherwood Forest, City of Nottingham, the surrounding villages in Sherwood Forest. To reinforce the Robin Hood connection, the University of Nottingham in 2010 has begun the Nottingham Caves Survey, with the goal "to increase the tourist potential of these sites"; the project "will use a 3D laser scanner to produce a three dimensional record of more than 450 sandstone caves around Nottingham". Nottinghamshire was mapped first by Christopher Saxton in 1576; the map was the earliest printed map at a sufficiently useful scale to provide basic information on village layout, the existence of landscape features such as roads, tollbars and mills. Nottinghamshire, like Derbyshire, South Yorkshire, sits on extensive coal measures, up to 900 metres thick, occurring in the north of the county. There is an oilfield near Eakring; these are overlaid by sandstones and limestones in the west, clay in the east. The north of the county is part of the Humberhead Levels lacustrine plain.
The centre and south west of the county, around Sherwood Forest, features undulating hills with ancient oak woodland. Principal rivers are the Trent, Idle and Soar; the Trent, fed by the Soar and Idle, composed of many streams from Sherwood Forest, run through wide and flat valleys, merging at Misterton. A point just north of Newtonwood Lane, on the boundary with Derbyshire is the highest point in Nottinghamshire; the lowest is Peat Carr, east of Blaxton, at sea level. Nottinghamshire is sheltered by the Pennines to the west, so receives low rainfall at 641 to 740 millimetres annually; the average temperature of the county is 8.8–10.1 degrees Celsius. The county receives between 1470 hours of sunshine per year. Nottinghamshire contains one green belt area, first drawn up from the 1950s. Encircling the Nottingham conurbation, it stretches for several miles into the surrounding districts, extends into Derbyshire. Nottinghamshire is represented by eleven members of parliament. Kenneth Clarke of Rushcliffe is a former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer and Lord High Chancellor.
Following the 2017 County Council elections, the County Council is controlled by a coalition of Conservatives and Mansfield Independent Forum, having taken control from the Labour administration. The seats held are 31 Conservatives, 23 Labour, 11 Independents, 1 Liberal Democrat. In the previous 2013 election, the County Council was Labour controlled, a gain from the Conservatives. Local government is devolved to seven local district councils. Ashfield, Bassetlaw and Mansfield
Scottish independence is the political movement for Scotland to become a sovereign state independent from the United Kingdom. In 2014, a national referendum was held in Scotland. Voters were asked: "Should Scotland be an independent country?" 45 percent of voters answered "Yes" and 55 percent answered "No" with a turnout of 85 percent. Scotland emerged as an independent polity during the Early Middle Ages, with some historians dating its foundation from the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin in 843; the level of independence of the Scottish kingdom was fought over by the Scottish kings and by the Norman and Angevin rulers of England who petitioned the Pope and other foreign rulers. A popular myth in English folklore was that Britain had been founded by Brutus of Troy, who had left England to his eldest son and Scotland to his youngest son, Albanactus. Scots disputed this and established their own popular myth, that Scotland had been founded earlier, by a Greek prince Goídel Glas and his wife Scota, daughter of the Pharaoh.
According to legend, Scota carried the Stone of Destiny from Egypt to Scotland. A watershed in the Scottish kingdom's history was a succession crisis that erupted in 1290 where Edward I of England claimed the right of succession to the Scottish throne; the Auld Alliance of Scotland and France against English interests was first invoked at this time and remained active through to the 1500s. The Wars of Scottish Independence ended in a renewed kingdom under Robert the Bruce, whose grandson Robert II of Scotland was the first Scottish king of the House of Stuart. From 1603, Scotland and England shared the same monarch in a personal union when James VI of Scotland was declared King of England and Ireland in what was known as the Union of the Crowns. After James VII of Scotland was deposed in 1688 amid Catholic-Protestant disputes, as the line of Protestant Stuarts showed signs of failing, English fears that Scotland would select a different monarch causing conflict within Great Britain, the bankruptcy of many Scottish nobles through the Darien scheme led to the formal union of the two kingdoms in 1707, with the Treaty of Union and subsequent Acts of Union, to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Scottish Jacobite resistance to the union, led by descendants of James VII/II including Bonnie Prince Charlie, continued until 1746. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was formed by the Acts of Union 1800, which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland; the 26 southern counties of Ireland left the Union in 1922, which became known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The "Home Rule" movement for a Scottish Assembly was first taken up in 1853 by the National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights, a body close to the Conservative Party. A key element in this movement was the comparison with Ireland; the original movement broadened its political appeal and soon began to receive Liberal Party backing. In 1885, the post of Secretary for Scotland and the Scottish Office were re-established to promote Scotland's interests and express its concerns to the British Parliament. In 1886, William Ewart Gladstone introduced the Irish Home Rule Bill.
When many Scots compared what they had to the Irish offer of Home Rule, the status quo was considered inadequate. It was not regarded as an immediate constitutional priority however when the Irish Home Rule Bill was defeated in the House of Commons. Before the First World War, the Liberal Government led by H. H. Asquith supported the concept of "Home Rule all round", whereby Scottish home rule would follow the Irish home rule proposed in the Government of Ireland Act 1914. Asquith believed that there was an iniquity in that the component parts of the United Kingdom could come together to act together in common purposes, but those components could not deal with internal matters that did not require consent across the UK; this was not a nationalist philosophy, but instead Asquith was acting in the belief that federalism was the "true basis of union" and that centralising power in Westminster was the "worst of all political blunders". A Scottish Home Rule bill was first presented to parliament in 1913, but its progress was soon ended as Parliament focused on emergency measures necessitated by the First World War.
Unlike Ireland, which rebelled in the Easter Rising and fought a War of Independence, Scotland did not resist central rule. There was, however; the Scottish Office was relocated to St Andrew's House in Edinburgh during the 1930s. The Scottish Covenant was a petition to the UK government asking for home rule, it was first proposed in 1930 by John MacCormick and formally written in 1949. The petition "was signed by two million people"; the covenant was ignored by the main political parties. In 1950, the Stone of Destiny was removed from Westminster Abbey by nationalists; the question of full independence, or the less controversial home rule, did not re-enter the political mainstream until 1960, after the famous Wind of Change speech by UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan. This speech marked the start of the end of the British Empire; the UK had suffered the international humiliation of the 1956 Suez Crisis, which showed that it was no longer the superpower it had been before World War II. For many in Scotland, this served to undermine one of the principal raisons d'être for the United Kingdom and symbolised the end of popular imperialism and the Imperial unity that had united the then-prominent Scottish Unionist