France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Gorky Park (Taganrog)
The Gorky Park is a municipal park of culture and recreation in the city of Taganrog, Russia. On June 30,1806, the first trees were planted for the Taganrog’s Chemist’s garden, in 1825, Russian Emperor Alexander I and the Empress Consort Elizabeth Alexeievna often went for a walk in the garden during their stay in the city. Anton Chekhov who frequently visited the garden in his years and during his visits to Taganrog wrote in one of his letters to his sister Maria Chekhova. In 1895 the project of the new garden’s planning according to new European standards was approved, in 1903, Monument to Peter the Great was placed on Petrovskaya Street in front of the main entrance to the park. In the early 20th century, a rotunda with a hall facing the Petrovskaya Street was built. In 1924, the Peter the Great monument was dismantled and removed, in 1932, the municipal garden became the Park of Culture and Recreation and in 1934 it was named Gorky Park after Maxim Gorky. In 1941-1943, during the Occupation of Taganrog, the City Park was partially destroyed and was used by the forces of Nazi Germany as a cemetery.
In 1963, the Taganrog’s Gorky Park was awarded the title of “The Best Park of Culture, in 2006, the Gorky Park celebrated its bicentenary anniversary. In 2008 a sculptural composition The Egyptian Pyramid dedicated to Anton Chekhovs Kashtanka short story was unveiled at the entrance to Gorky Park from Maliy Sadoviy Pereulok, Taganrog Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, Taganrog,2003 История города Таганрога, П. П. Филевский, Москва,1898
St. Nicholas Church, Taganrog
The Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker Church is a Russian Orthodox Church in the city of Taganrog in Rostov Oblast, Russia. The Saint Nicholas Church is the oldest Russian Orthodox church in Taganrog and it was built in 1778 at the request of rear-admiral Fedot Klokachev who commanded the Azov Flotilla, and was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, who is considered as the patron saint of all sailors. In 1855, during the Siege of Taganrog, the building of the church was shelled by the British, the cannonballs that were stuck in its walls were discovered during one of the renovations and were purposely left for display. In 1941 the church was damaged during occupation of Taganrog, after the end of war it wasnt used. It was reconstructed in the early 1990s, on 20 June 1999 the Russian Orthodox Church canonized Blessed Pavel. The saint starets relics were transferred from his Kelya on Ulitsa Turgenevskaya in Taganrog into the St. Nicholas church, today many people come from all corners of Russia to the Saint Pavel of Taganrogs shrine with his holy relics that are kept at the Saint Nicholas Church.
Many people saw and remember a unique aureole in the sky over the Saint Nicholas Church in Taganrog on the day of Blessed Pavels canonization, the chapel at the old cemetery is never empty, the lamps in front of holy icons in his keliya never die down. The fog bell was cast in 1778 from the trophy Turkish cannons seized by the Russian Imperial Army during Russo-Turkish War, which literary means This bell was cast in the Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker Church in Taganrog from the trophy Turkish artillery. weight. pounds. Year 1778, month of August, on the date of, the bell was cast before the foundation of Sevastopol for the Saint Nicholas church in Taganrog, which was the Russian Navys military base at that time. Until 1803 the St. Nicholas church was subordinated to the Navy ministry, during the Crimean War the fog bell was seized by the French and was placed in the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris. Many years later, a bell with a Russian inscription was found, the bell was solemnly returned to monastery at Chersonesos on September 13,1913 and was placed on a temporary wooden belfry near the St.
Vladimir Cathedral. The French President Raymond Poincaré in his letter to consul Louis Ge wrote that he returned the bell to Russia as a sign of alliance, in their turn, the Russian government awarded the French consul the Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree. The monastery was closed in 1925 by the new authorities, only one bell escaped this sad fate because the Department of the Security of Navigation of the Black and Azov Seas proposed to place it on the coast as a signal fog bell. In this quality the bell served until the 1960s, Энциклопедия, Таганрог, издательство АНТОН,2008 Official web site
The term monument is often applied to buildings or structures that are considered examples of important architectural and/or cultural heritage. Monuments have been created for thousands of years, and they are often the most durable, in more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states. The term monumentality relates to the status and physical presence of a monument. Monuments are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location, planned cities such as Washington D. C. New Delhi and Brasília are often built around monuments, for example, the Washington Monuments location was conceived by LEnfant to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem Ozymandias, the purpose of monuments is often to impress or awe. Structures created for purposes that have been made notable by their age.
This can happen because of age and size, as in the case of the Great Wall of China. Monuments are designed to convey historical or political information. They can be used to reinforce the primacy of political power. The social meanings of monuments are rarely fixed and certain and are contested by different social groups. This contention of meaning is a theme of modern post processual archaeological discourse. Until recently, it was customary for archaeologists to study large monuments, New ideas about what constitutes the archaeological record have revealed that certain legislative and theoretical approaches to the subject are too focused on earlier definitions of monuments. An example has been the United Kingdoms Scheduled Ancient Monument laws, recently and more monuments are being preserved digitally through organisations as CyArk. Cenotaphs and other memorials to commemorate the dead, usually war casualties, e. g. India Gate and Vimy Ridge Memorial, or disaster casualties, such as the Titanic Memorial, Belfast.
Church monuments to commemorate the dead, located above or near their grave, often featuring an effigy, often topped with a statue, e. g. Berlin Victory Column, Nelsons Column in London, and Trajans Column in Rome. Gravestones, small monuments to the deceased, placed at their gravesites, e. g. the tombs and vaults of veterans in Les Invalides and tombs to honor the dead, e. g. the Great Pyramid of Giza and Taj Mahal
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The Monument to Faina Ranevskaya and sculpted by David Begalov is located in front of Faina Ranevskayas birth house in Taganrog. Faina Ranevskaya is recognized as one of the greatest comic actors of the 20th century and she was born on August 27,1896 in the city of Taganrog in the Nikolaevskaya street,12. August 29,1986, a memorial dedicated to Ranevskaya was placed on her birth house in the city of Taganrog. Taganrog Local Government is planning to open a dedicated to Ranevskaya in the near future. A monument to Faina Ranevskaya in front of the house was unveiled on May 16,2008 within the framework of the First International Ranevskaya Drama Festival The Great Province
The Chekhov Gymnasium in Taganrog on Ulitsa Oktyabrskaya 9 is the oldest gymnasium in the South of Russia. Playwright and short-story writer Anton Chekhov spent 11 years in the school, visitors can see Antons desk and his classroom, the assembly hall and even the punishment cell which he sometimes visited. The Boys Gymnasium was founded in 1809 and this building was completed in 1843 by the plans of the Italian architect Francesco Boffo, students of the Boys Gymnasium benefited from various grants, most of them being introduced by the Greek-Russian merchant and benefactor Ioannis Varvakis. In mid-1870s a school church was made in the building. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the following Civil War, during the Occupation of Taganrog in 1941-1943 used by the Germans as Sicherheitsdienst headquarters. In 1954, the Boys Gymnasium was named after Anton Chekhov within the framework of events dedicated to the writers 50th death anniversary memorial year, in 1975 opened as The Literary Museum named after Anton Chekhov, more commonly known under the short name Chekhov Gymnasium.
Anton Chekhov attended a school for Greek boys in Taganrog, rather reserved and undemonstrative, he nevertheless gained a reputation for satirical comments, for pranks, and for making up humorous nicknames for his teachers. He enjoyed playing in amateur theatricals and often attended performances at the Taganrog Theatre and he received an annual grant of 300 rubles which had been introduced by the Taganrog City Council after the failed assassination attempt on the tsar Alexander II of Russia. After the business of Anton Chekhovs father failed, the family left for Moscow in 1875-1876. Anton was left in Taganrog to care for himself and finish school, the future world-famous playwright survived selling off household goods and tutoring younger school students at the Boys Gymnasium. In 1879, Chekhov passed his exams and joined his family in Moscow. The maths rating on Chekhovs school-leaving certificate was signed by Edmund Dzerzhinsky, Dzerzhinsky gave lessons of mathematics in two of Taganrogs gymnasiums - the Girls Gymnasium of Empr.
Maria in 1868-1873 and in the Boys Gymnasium from 1873 until late seventies, another contemporary instructor was Fyodor Pokrovski, who taught Chekhov theology and gave him the famous nickname Antosha Chekhonte. After the famous Pushkin House museum in Saint Petersburg, this is the second-largest literary museum in Russia both in terms of space and unique funds. Taganrog Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, Taganrog,2003 История города Таганрога, П. П. Филевский, Москва,1898 По старой Греческой, Н. Гаврюшкин, Таганрог,2003 The Girls Gymnasium in Taganrog
Alexander I Statue in Taganrog
The monument to Alexander I of Russia was erected on the initiative of the people of Taganrog in memory of the emperors stay and death in the city. The place to set the monument was chosen by the widow of Alexander I Elizabeth Alexeievna – opposite the Greek monastery. Most of the money to subsidize the construction of the monument was donated by the members of the Imperial house of Romanovs, the statue was sculpted by the eminent sculptor, rector of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts Ivan Martos. The architectural part of the monument was designed by the famous architect Avraam Melnikov, the bronze figure of the emperor at full height was draped with a simple gown, and a generals uniform was visible under it. The tsar held the sword hilt with his hand. One foot of Alexander I trampled a coiling snake symbolizing the victory over Napoleon, the face of the sculpture was a copy of the emperors portrait, and the winged angels at his feet pointed out his angelic character. The granite pedestal consisted of three parts,5 steps led to it, the entire monument weighed about 1600 kg.
On October 23,1831, celebrations took place on the occasion of unveiling the monument and they included divine services, consecration of the monument, firing a salute, ringing bells at all the churches and evening illumination. In 1837 cast-iron lumps with heavy chains were added to palisade the monument, in 1888 a square was planted around and fenced with iron forged railings. In 1920 the monument was destroyed, in 1998 in the course of celebrations of the tercentenary of Taganrog the monument was reconstructed according to original plans at the same place. The reconstruction was financed by the Rossiyskiy Kredit Bank, the original model of the monument is kept in the collection of Russian Museum in Saint Petersburg. The Taganrog Encyclopaedia, 2nd edition,2003 Materials of the Taganrog State Archive and Taganrog Local Government
Alexandrovskiye Trade Rows
Alexandrovskiye Trade Rows in Taganrog is a piece of architecture of the 19th century. Their construction took place in 1840s, the author of the project – architect M. Campinioni, the concave facades constituted the solid high gallery arcades with austere Doric columns. Deep in the apertures between the columns there were shops, each had a front door and two windows, a door led to a spacious yard. In the high plinth there were entries into deep cellars, the continuous line of stairs of the gallery, as well as the massive entablature crowning the edifice, emphasized the integrity of the entire ensemble. The structure looked like an antique temple rather than a shopping center, the rightmost stall near the Soborniy Pereulok was rented by Anton Chekhov’s father in 1874–1876. His uncle Ivan Loboda had a shop there, since some of the stalls were empty, the trade activities were concentrated in the right part of the rows, the rest was sold for lodging. In 1911 the integrity of the gallery was damaged by the construction of the two-storey building housing a leather goods shop.
In 1921 just over the former Pavel Chekhov’s stall, the group was installed, it symbolized the union of workers. In the course of work in 1966, it was removed from the edifice. In 1935 for the 75th birth anniversary of Anton Chekhov the territory was transformed into a public square, during the WWII the structure was damaged by a bomb, many apertures were bricked. The intact quarters are still in use, in 1960, for the 100th birth anniversary, the Chekhov Monument in Taganrog was inaugurated right in the Red Square facing the Chekhov Street and the historical downtown Taganrog. The restoration work of the part of the former Alexandrovskiye Trade Rows was completed in 2007
Taganrog Museum of Art
The most important part of the museum collection was formed in the Soviet Union time, and features two departments - Russian art before the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Soviet art. The whole collection of art was looted from the museum during the Occupation of Taganrog in 1941-1943, since 1975, the museum of art is located at the former mansion of merchant Anton Handrin on Alexandrovskaya street 56. The oil paintings of Ivan Khrutskoy and Ivan Aivazovsky demonstrate the style of painting of that time. Works by Valentin Serov, Philip Malyavin, Abraham Arkhipov, Konstantin Korovin, Leonard Turzhansky, since 1976 many sepulchral monuments that represented special value as works of art were transferred from abandoned Taganrog Old Cemetery into the museums inner yard, saving them from destruction. —512 с — ISBN 5-7509-0662-0
Alferaki Palace is a museum in Taganrog, originally the home of the wealthy merchant Nikolay Alferaki. It was built in 1848 by the architect Andrei Stackenschneider on Frunze Street, the building is decorated with a portal featuring four Corinthian columns and stucco moulding in the baroque style. A suite of rooms was created inside, along with a music hall with a ceiling-painting. The first owners of the palace were Nikos Alferakis, who was born in Taganrog, mikhail Shchepkin stayed in Alferaki Palace in July 1863. In the 1870s, after the Alferaki family went bankrupt, the palace was sold to the Greek merchant Negroponte and its garden was sold to the merchant community. It re-opened as the Commercial Assembly, Anton Chekhov visited concerts given at the commercial club in 1876, and he mentioned the palace in his stories Ionych, Mask and My life. From February to April 1918, the became the headquarters of the Soviet Workers council of Taganrog. Later during occupation in 1918 it housed the German war hospital, after the establishment of Soviet power in Taganrog, the building accommodated various institutions.
After 1927 it housed the Museum of Regional Studies, during the Occupation of Taganrog, the whole collection of Russian art, as well as 339 other art objects were looted by German occupation authorities. Alferaki Palace was renovated in 1991–1996 and is now open to public as the Museum of Regional Studies, the spacious hall with amazing acoustics is used by the Municipality for official ceremonies, especially the Mayor of Taganrogs annual ceremony to honor the best school graduates. Achilles Alferaki Sergei Alphéraky History of Taganrog List of people in Taganrog Taganrog Arts & Culture Council, Municipal website Taganrog Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, Taganrog,2003
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943