Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both for religious reasons. It is in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious conviction. In a wider sense, it is understood to only mean abstinence from sexual activity. Celibacy has existed in one form or another throughout history, in all the major religions of the world, views on it have varied; the Romans viewed it as an aberration and legislated fiscal penalties against it, with the sole exception granted to the Vestal Virgins. The Islamic attitudes toward celibacy have been complex as well; some Hadiths claim that Muhammad denounced celibacy. Classical Hindu culture encouraged asceticism and celibacy in the stages of life, after one has met his societal obligations. Jainism, on the other hand, preached complete celibacy for young monks and considered celibacy to be an essential behavior to attain moksha.
Buddhism has been influenced by Jainism in this respect. There were, significant cultural differences in the various areas where Buddhism spread, which affected the local attitudes toward celibacy, it was not well received in China, for example, where other religions movements such as Daoism were opposed to it. A somewhat similar situation existed in Japan, where the Shinto tradition opposed celibacy. In most native African and American Indian religious traditions, celibacy has been viewed negatively as well, although there were exceptions like periodic celibacy practiced by some Mesoamerican warriors; the English word celibacy derives from the Latin caelibatus, "state of being unmarried", from Latin caelebs, meaning "unmarried". This word derives from two Proto-Indo-European stems, *kaiwelo- "alone" and *libs- "living"; the words abstinence and celibacy are used interchangeably, but are not the same thing. Sexual abstinence known as continence, is abstaining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for some limited period of time, while celibacy may be defined as a voluntary religious vow not to marry or engage in sexual activity.
Asexuality is conflated with celibacy and sexual abstinence, but it is considered distinct from the two, as celibacy and sexual abstinence are behavioral and those who use those terms for themselves are motivated by factors such as an individual's personal or religious beliefs. A. W. Richard Sipe, while focusing on the topic of celibacy in Catholicism, states that "the most assumed definition of celibate is an unmarried or single person, celibacy is perceived as synonymous with sexual abstinence or restraint." Sipe adds that in the uniform milieu of Catholic priests in the United States "there is no clear operational definition of celibacy". Elizabeth Abbott commented on the terminology in her A History of Celibacy: "I drafted a definition that discarded the rigidly pedantic and unhelpful distinctions between celibacy and virginity"; the concept of "new celibacy" was introduced by Gabrielle Brown in her 1980 book The New Celibacy. In a revised version of her book, she claims that "abstinence is a response on the outside to what's going on, celibacy is a response from the inside".
According to her definition, celibacy is much more than not having sex. It is more intentional than abstinence, its goal is personal growth and empowerment; this new perspective on celibacy is echoed by several authors including Elizabeth Abbott, Wendy Keller, Wendy Shalit. The rule of celibacy in the Buddhist religion, whether Theravada, has a long history. Celibacy was advocated as an ideal rule of life for all monks and nuns by Gautama Buddha, except for Japan where it is not followed due to historical and political developments following the Meiji Restoration. In Japan, celibacy was an ideal among Buddhist clerics for hundreds of years, but violations of clerical celibacy were so common for so long that in 1872, state laws made marriage legal for Buddhist clerics. Subsequently, ninety percent of Buddhist monks/clerics married. An example is Higashifushimi Kunihide, a prominent Buddhist priest of Japanese royal ancestry, married and a father whilst serving as a monk for most of his lifetime.
Gautama known as the Buddha, is known for his renunciation of his wife, Princess Yasodharā, son, Rahula. In order to pursue an ascetic life, he needed to renounce aspects of the impermanent world, including his wife and son. On both his wife and son joined the ascetic community and are mentioned in the Buddhist texts to have become enlightened. In another sense, a buddhavacana recorded the zen patriarch Vimalakirti as being an advocate of marital continence instead of monastic renunciation, the sutra became somewhat popular due to its brash humour as well as integrating the role of women in laity as well as spiritual life. In the religious movement of Brahma Kumaris, celibacy is promoted for peace and to defeat power of lust and to prepare for life in forthcoming Heaven on earth for 2,500 years when children will be created by the power of the mind for householders to like holy brother and sister. In this belief system, celibacy is given the utmost importance, it is said that, as per the direction of the Supreme God those lead a pure and celibate life will be able to conquer the surging vices.
The power of celibacy creates an unseen environment of divinity bringing peace, purity and fortune. Those with the powe
Doge of Venice
The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy; the doge was neither the equivalent of a hereditary duke. The title "doge" was the title of the senior-most elected official of Genoa. A doge was referred to variously by the titles "My Lord the Doge", "Most Serene Prince", "His Serenity"; the first historical Venetian doge, led a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 726, but was soon recognised as the dux and hypatos of Venice by imperial authorities. After Ursus, the Byzantine office of magister militum was restored for a time until Ursus' son Deusdedit was elected duke in 742. Byzantine administration in Italy collapsed in 751. In the latter half of the eighth century, Mauritius Galba was elected duke and took the title magister militum, consul et imperialis dux Veneciarum provinciae, master of the soldiers and imperial duke of the province of Venetiae.
Doge Justinian Partecipacius used the title imperialis hypatus et humilis dux Venetiae, imperial consul and humble duke of Venice. These early titles combined Byzantine honorifics and explicit reference to Venetia's subordinate status. Titles like hypatos, protospatharios and protoproedros were granted by the emperor to the recipient for life but were not inherent in the office, but the title doux belonged to the office. Thus, into the eleventh century the Venetian doges held titles typical of Byzantine rulers in outlying regions, such as Sardinia; as late as 1202, the Doge Enrico Dandolo was styled protosebastos, a title granted by Alexios III. As Byzantine power declined in the region in the late ninth century, reference to Venice as a province disappeared in the titulature of the doges; the simple titles dux dux Venetiarum predominate in the tenth century. The plural clans. After defeating Croatia and conquering some Dalmatian territory in 1000, Doge Pietro II Orseolo adopted the title dux Dalmatiae, Duke of Dalmatia, or in its fuller form, Veneticorum atque Dalmaticorum dux, Duke of the Venetians and Dalmatians.
This title was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II in 1002. After a Venetian request, it was confirmed by the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1082. In a chrysobull dated that year, Alexios granted the Venetian doge the imperial title of protosebastos and recognised him as imperial doux over the Dalmatian theme; the expression Dei gratia was adopted by the Venetian chancery only in the course of the eleventh century. An early example, can be found in 827–29, during the joint reign of Justinian and his brother John I: per divinam gratiam Veneticorum provinciae duces, by divine grace dukes of the Venetian provinces. Between 1091 and 1102, the Kingdom of Hungary conquered the Croatian kingdom. In these circumstances, the Venetians appealed to the Byzantine emperor for recognition of their title to Croatia; as early as the reign of Vital Falier by that of Vital Michiel, the title dux Croatiae had been added, giving the full dogal title four parts: dux Venetiae atque Dalmatiae sive Chroaciae et imperialis prothosevastos, Duke of Venice and Croatia and Imperial Protosebastos.
In the fourteenth century, the doges periodically objected to the use of Dalmatia and Croatia in the Hungarian king's titulature, regardless of their own territorial rights or claims. Medieval chronicles mistakenly attributed the acquisition of the Croatian title to Doge Ordelaf Falier. According to the Venetiarum Historia, written around 1350, Doge Domenico Morosini added atque Ystrie dominator to his title after forcing Pula on Istria to submit in 1150. Only one charter, however uses a title similar to this: et totius Ystrie inclito dominatori; the next major change in the dogal title came with the Fourth Crusade, which conquered the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine honorific protosebastos had by this time been dropped and was replaced by a reference to Venice's allotment in the partitioning of the Byzantine Empire; the new full title was Dei gratia gloriosus Venetiarum, Dalmatiae atque Chroatiae dux, ac dominus quartae partis et dimidie totius imperii Romaniae, by the grace of God glorious duke of Venice and Croatia and lord of a fourth part and a half of the whole empire of Romania.
The Greek chronicler George Akropolites uses, lord. Akropolites attributes the title to Enrico Dandolo, although no known document of his survives with this title; the earliest documents using the title attach it to Marino Zeno, leader of the Venetians in Constantinople. The title was only subsequently adopted by Doge Pietro Ziani in 1205. By the Treaty of Zadar of 1358, Venice renounced its claims to Dalmatia and removed Dalmatia and Croatia from the doge's title; the resulting title was Dei gratia dux Veneciarum et cetera, By the grace of God duke of Venetia and the rest. This was the title used in official documents until the end of the republic; when the body of such documents was written in Italian, th
Pietro II Orseolo
Pietro II Orseolo was the Doge of Venice from 991 to 1009. He began the period of eastern expansion of Venice, he secured his influence in the Dalmatian Romanized settlements from the Croats and Narentines, freed Venetia from a 50-year-old taxation to the latter, started Venetia's expansions by conquering the islands of Lastovo and Korčula and acquiring Dubrovnik. In 992 Pietro II Orseolo concluded a treaty with the Byzantine emperor Basil II to transport Byzantine troops in exchange for commercial privileges in Constantinople, his dogaressa was Maria Candiano. Following repeated complaints by the Dalmatian city-states in 997, the Venetian fleet under Orseolo attacked the Neretvian pirates of Neretvia on Ascension Day in 998. Pietro took the title of Dux Dalmatianorum, associating it with his son Giovanni Orseolo. On 9 May 1000 Doge Pietro II decided to pacify the Croatians and the Narentines during the last Croatian-Bulgarian wars, protecting Venetian trade colonies and the interests of Romanized Dalmatians.
Without difficulties, his fleet of 6 ships scorched the entire eastern half of the Adriatic coast, with only the Neretvians offering resistance. After the Neretvians stole goods and captured 40 tradars from Zadar, the Doge dispatched 10 ships that caught the Neretvians near the island of Kača, he brought them triumphantly to Split. There, Neretvian emissaries requested the release of the prisoners. Pietro II agreed. Moreover, the Neretvians would have to renounce the old tax that Venetia had to pay since 948, guarantee safe passage to Venetian ships in the Adriatic. Pietro II released all prisoners except for 6 Narentines; the mainland Narentines were thus pacified. Lastovo however, continued to resist Venetian incursions; the island was infamous for being a pirate haven. In the effort to decisively quell further opposition, Pietro II ordered the evacuation of the island city. Despite continuing opposition, he razed Lastovo to the ground. At the same time that Pietro II subjugated Lastovo, the former Croatian king Svetoslav Suronja fled to Venice after being deposed by his two brothers.
To bolster his weakened position, King Stephen I of Croatia married Pietro II Orseolo's daughter, Joscella Orseolo. Their son Peter Krešimir IV became king in Croatia in 1059. Pietro II Orseolo was married to Maria Candiano, the daughter of Vitale Candiano and niece of Doge Pietro IV Candiano. Ottone Orseolo succeeded his father, Pietro II, as the doge of Venice until 1026, while his grandson Peter reigned as King of Hungary, his younger son Domenico Orseolo's children settled in Ravenna and became the stem of the Orsini family. The date of his victory became that of the Festa della Sensa, the Ascension Festival, the oldest festival in Venice, it was commemorated by the Doge and the bishop of Olivolo going past the Lido and blessing the waters, invoking good fortune for the Venetian navy
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Stephen I of Croatia
Stephen I was King of Croatia from c. 1030 until his death in 1058 and a member of the Trpimirović dynasty. Stephen I was the first Croatian king whose given name was "Stephen", as Držislav added the name Stephen at his coronation, his ban was Stephen Praska. As the son of former King Svetoslav Suronja, who gave him as a hostage to Pietro II Orseolo, he married Hicela Orseolo, who bore him two sons: Peter Krešimir IV, who succeeded him as the King of Croatia, Častimir, the father of the future Croatian King Stephen II. Stephen formally succeeded his uncle Krešimir III in 1030, although it is that he co-ruled with him from 1028; the King continued his predecessors' ambitions of spreading rule over the coastal cities and conducted activities in that course but it was all in vain. He focused on rebuilding Croatia's military strength. Between 1038 and 1041, Stephen managed to conquer Zadar from the Venetians for a short period with the help of the newly crowned Hungarian king Peter Orseolo, his nephew.
In 1035, the Carinthian count Aldabero sought help in Croatia against the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, who he was in a feud with since he succeeded the throne. Aldabero was accused on 18 May 1035 during the Bamberg assembly for conspiring with Croatia; because of this, the Emperor strengthened the southeastern part of his state, where it bordered with Croatia. On the same year, Stephen I sent his cousin Dobronja to Constantinople, so he could meet the Byzantine Emperor. However, since Stephen was in war with the Republic of Venice, a Byzantine ally, Dobronja was imprisoned and there he died; the circumstances changed in 1046. The Croatian king used this to invade and pillage Hungary, he expanded his domain all the way to the river Drina to the east; this provoked an attack by the doge Domenico I Contarini who took Zadar in 1050. In an effort to keep the Roman influence over the Dalmatian cities, the Byzantine emperor appointed Stephen Praska a ban serving under king Stephen I, as an imperial commander.
Although he nominally worked for the Byzantine Empire from Zadar, he helped the king gain other littoral settlements. Stephen I established the diocese of Knin in 1040, which stretched to the north until it met the river Drava; the bishop of Knin had the nominal title as the "Croatian bishop". Trade and commerce flourished under Stephen I. A burgeoning aristocracy emerged in Zadar, Knin and other coastal cities, it is that urban centres in Slavonia grew at this time as people migrated northwards and eastwards in search of new farming land. The two largest towns in Slavonia at this time were Sisak. Stephen I ruled until 1058 when Petar Krešimir IV, took over, his successors referenced his bural place as the "fields of Klis". Most historians assert that he was most buried in the Church of St Stephen on Otok. Married Hicela Orseolo c. 1008 Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia, King of Croatia from 1059 Častimir or Gojslav Trpimirović dynasty History of Croatia List of rulers of Croatia Intervju - ДИНАСТИЈЕ и владари јужнословенских народа.
Special Edition 12, 16 June 1989. Royal Croatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
The Kingdom of Dalmatia was a crown land of the Austrian Empire and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary. It encompassed the entirety of the region of Dalmatia, with its capital at Zadar; the Habsburg Monarchy had annexed the lands of Dalmatia after the Napoleonic War of the First Coalition: when Napoleon Bonaparte launched his Italian Campaign into the Habsburg duchies of Milan and Mantua in 1796, culminating in the Siege of Mantua, he compelled Emperor Francis II to make peace. In 1797 the Treaty of Campo Formio was signed, whereby the Habsburg emperor renounced possession of the Austrian Netherlands and recognized the independence of the Italian Cisalpine Republic. In turn, Napoleon ceded to him the possessions of the Republic of Venice, including the Dalmatian coast and the Bay of Kotor. La Serenissima had sided with Austria in order to defend her Domini di Terraferma and was occupied by French troops on 14 May 1797; the treaty ended the centuries-long history of the Venetian Republic.
The newly acquired Habsburg crown land stretched from the Rab Island and Karlobag in the north down the Adriatic coast to Budva in the south, while the Republic of Ragusa retained its independence until 1808. When in 1804 Francis II created the title of Emperor of Austria for himself, he added that of "King of Dalmatia". However, the possessions were again lost after the Austrian defeat in the Battle of Austerlitz and the 1805 Peace of Pressburg, when they temporarily formed part of the French Illyrian Provinces. Not until the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 was the Kingdom of Dalmatia formed from the regained territories, now including the former Republic of Ragusa and stretching down to Sutomore in the southeast. Around 1850, the Austrians had the Prevlaka fortress erected to control the maritime traffic in the Bay of Kotor. Upon the Revolutions of 1848, Dalmatia was temporarily under the control of Ban Josip Jelačić of Croatia. However, the Italian-speaking elite dominating the Diet of Dalmatia urged autonomy for the kingdom as an Austrian crown land – against the Croatian national revival movement's demand for a Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia.
In the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, a unification with the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was denied. While Croatia-Slavonia was incorporated into the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Dalmatia remained a crown land of the Cislethanian half of the Dual Monarchy; the kingdom was a separate administrative division of Austria-Hungary until 1918, when its territory – except for Zadar and the islands of Lastovo and Palagruza which were annexed by the Kingdom of Italy – became part of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. As a result of the Vidovdan Constitution, the majority of the kingdom was divided into the Split Oblast and Dubrovnik Oblast, with the Bay of Kotor being administratively split off to the Montenegrin Zeta Oblast. Many workers and citizens throughout Dalmatia were revolted by the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797. A strong movement for unification of Dalmatia with Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia has emerged; the Franciscans and many other members of the clergy held gatherings, for example in the village of Gornji Karin, where they demanded unification.
They were joined by the Archbishop Lelije Cipiko of Split, Bishop of Makarska and the Orthodox clergy. In June 1797, they formed a delegation which planned to travel to Vienna and ask the Emperor to approve unification but they were precipitated by the Treaty of Campo Formio, so they decided to contact Croatian Ban instead. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, signed on 18 October 1797 between the French First Republic and the Habsburg Monarchy, Venetian territories were divided between the two states with Habsburg Monarchy gaining Istria and Dalmatia. Austrian army, with about 4,000 soldiers, was led by the Croatian general Mathias Rukavina von Boynograd in the military campaign of claiming newly acquired territories. Rukavina, a supporter of the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia-Slavonia, was named Military Governor of Dalmatia; the people and the clergy were delighted to see the arrival of a Croat-led army composed predominantly of ethnic Croats. However, Dalmatia was treated as a newly-conquered territory so it didn't have an autonomous government but was directly subjected to the Government in Vienna.
In 1798, the Royal Government, headed by the governor, was founded in Zadar. Members of the government and the governor were appointed by the Emperor and were subordinated to the Royal Court Committee for Istria and Albania in Venice, since 1802 to the Viennese Royal Chamber's Section for Dalmatia and Bay of Kotor. Dalmatia was divided into administrative-court districts, headed by the rectors and judge-administrators. Seats of these districts were in Cres, Rab, Zadar, Novigrad, Skradin, Šibenik, Sinj, Split, Omiš, Brač, Korčula, Makarska and Metković. In 1802, the Royal Court rejected the request for the unification of Dalmatia with the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. During its short first administration of Dalmatia, Austrian government didn't much change the existing Venetian system and has only implemented limited reforms in education and the judiciary. In 1803, a gymnasium wa