Valdemar Poulsen was a Danish engineer who made significant contributions to early radio technology. He developed a magnetic wire recorder called the telegraphone in 1898 and the first continuous wave radio transmitter, the Poulsen arc transmitter, in 1903, used in some of the first broadcasting stations until the early 1920s. Poulsen was born on 23 November 1869 in Copenhagen, he was the son of the Supreme Court judge Jonas Nicolai Johannes Rebekka Magdalene. The magnetic recording was demonstrated in principle as early as 1898 by Poulsen in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording, its successor, magnetic tape recording, involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves past a recording head. An electrical signal, analogous to the sound, to be recorded, is fed to the recording head, inducing a pattern of magnetization similar to the signal. A playback head can pick up the changes in the magnetic field from the tape and convert them into an electrical signal. Poulsen obtained a Telegraphone Patent in 1898, with his assistant, Peder O. Pedersen developed other magnetic recorders that recorded on steel wire, tape, or disks.
None of these devices had electronic amplification, but the recorded signal was strong enough to be heard through a headset or transmitted on telephone wires. At the 1900 World's Fair in Paris, Poulsen had the chance to record the voice of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria, believed to be the oldest surviving magnetic audio recording today. Poulsen developed an arc converter in 1908, referred to as the "Poulsen Arc Transmitter", used in radio before the advent of vacuum tube technology; the system was able to communicate between Newcastle with a 100-foot mast. He died on 23 July 1942. A stamp was issued in honour of Poulsen in 1969; the Valdemar Poulsen Gold Medal was awarded each year for outstanding research in the field of radio techniques and related fields by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences. The award was presented on November 23, the anniversary of his birth, Poulsen himself received the inaugural award in 1939; the award was discontinued in 1993. On 23 November 2018 he was honoured with a Google Doodle for his 149th birthday.
"1898 – 1998 Poulsen's patent". 100 years of magnetic recording. Ten-second video of the 1900 recording of the Austro-Hungarian emperor Franz Joseph on YouTube. Katz, Eugenii, "Valdemar Poulsen" at the Wayback Machine. Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Poulsen, Valdemar, "US PAT No. 661,619 Method of Recordings and Reproducing Sounds or Signals". Magnetic Tape Recorder. 1900 World Exposition recording of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria at the Wayback Machine by means of Poulsen's telegraphone
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Federal Telegraph Company
The Federal Telegraph Company was a United States manufacturing and communications company that played a pivotal role in the 20th century in the development of radio communications. Founded in Palo Alto, California in 1909 by Cyril Frank Elwell, the company would merge in August 1927 with the Mackay Companies. In 1911-13, Lee De Forest and two assistants worked at FTC on the first vacuum tube amplifier and oscillator, which De Forest called the "Oscillaton" after his earlier Audion; the company remained a separate entity within the Mackay Companies and when International Telephone and Telegraph purchased the Mackay Companies in 1928 Federal remained a component of the Mackay structure as a manufacturing entity. In 1940, Sosthenes Behn moved Federal Telegraph under ITT directly so that its manufacturing capabilities could help ITT replace those in Europe, shut down because of the war and the Fall of France. In 1954, FTR changed its name from Federal Telegraph and Radio Corporation - an IT&T associate to Federal Telegraph and Radio Company - division of IT&T, its research division became the Federal Telecommunications Laboratories, both continuing as subsidiaries of ITT after World War II through at least the 1950s.
Cyril Frank Elwell - Pioneer of American and European Wireless Communications, Talking Pictures and founder of C. F. Elwell Limited 1922-1925 by Ian L. Sanders. Published by Castle Ridge Press, 2013
Ingeniøren is a Danish weekly newspaper specialising in engineering topics. The paper has covered science and technology issues as well as political topics and debate related to engineering since 1892, maintains an online archive of these; the online version began 2 December 1994, as the first Danish internet media. Corresponding publications are Ny Teknik in Sweden, Teknisk Ukeblad in Norway and Technisch Weekblad in the Netherlands. Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Western Springs, Illinois
Western Springs is a village located in Cook County, United States and is a suburb of Chicago. As of the 2010 census, the village had a total population of 12,975, it is twinned with United Kingdom. In November, 2007, BusinessWeek.com listed Western Springs second in a list of the 50 best places to raise children. The rankings were based on five factors, including school test scores, cost of living and cultural activities, number of schools and risk of crime. Western Springs ranked behind Ohio. Western Springs, an affluent suburb located along the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad between Chicago and Aurora, encompasses the area between Willow Springs Road, Ogden Avenue, Interstate 294, West Plainfield Road. Named for local mineral springs on the southwest side of town, Western Springs consisted of flat prairie land with a swamp on its western border. Around the turn of the 18th century, nomadic Potawatomi Native Americans settled in the Western Springs area, it is unclear whether they built a village, but evidence of temporary campsites has been found near Flagg Creek in Forest Hills.
The natives were gone by the end of 1835, but Potawatomi artifacts may still be found buried in the Springdale neighborhood. The last Cook County campground of the Potawatomi was within what is now the Timber Trails subdivision; the first known settler in the area near Western Springs was Elijah Wentworth. By 1834, after the Black Hawk War, farmer Joseph Vial had moved from New York and built a cabin along what is now Plainfield Road, an ex-Native American trail in the south of Western Springs; this cabin served as a stagecoach station, general store, post office for the entire area. The CB&Q Railroad built a line through Western Springs in 1863, filling in much of the west-side swamp in the process. In 1870 the Western Springs Land Association, consisting of promoter Thomas Clarkson Hill, William Page, two sons of Phillip F. W. Peck, bought the three tracts that make up the area for $105,000. A large number of early residents were Quakers, deeds prohibited the sale of alcohol. In 1872 Hill moved to the area from Chicago, the community began organizing to attract more commuters.
Residents built a post office. Over time, with increased commuter settlement, Western Springs came to look less Quaker. In 1885 the Grand Avenue School replaced the wooden schoolhouse, the office of village marshal was created as a combination policeman and groundskeeper. In 1886 the Friend's Church was built on the corner of Woodland; that same year Western Springs incorporated as a village by a public vote of 34 to 25. The voting townspeople elected a prominent Quaker developer, T. C. Hill, as the town's first president. After the spring dried up in 1890, the village hired engineers Edgar and Benezette Williams to build the village waterworks system, including the famous water tower. Constructed using Naperville stone, the tower stood 112 feet high. Replaced in 1962, it became a museum in 1970 and entered the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Western Springs added many improvements over the years, including a fire department, electric plant, telephones, a park district, a library; the village expanded south of 47th Street, annexing the subdivisions of Forest Hills and Ridgewood.
On March 21, 2005, the Village of Western Springs annexed the former Timber Trails golf course, now being developed into a new community of single-family homes and townhomes. The property added 105.9 acres to the village. Until the village has not permitted the sale of alcoholic beverages. A number of establishments sell alcohol, including Paul Virant's Vie, Solstice Restaurant and Hillgrove Tap both of which reside on the corner of Wolf Road and Hillgrove Avenue. Western Springs is located at 41°48'20" North, 87°54'4" West. Western Springs is located 15 miles west of the Chicago Loop, encompasses the area between Willow Springs Road, Ogden Avenue, Interstate 294 and Plainfield Road. According to the 2010 census, Western Springs has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 12,493 people, 4,318 households, 3,614 families residing in the village. The population density was 4,756.7 people per square mile. There were 4,444 housing units at an average density of 1,692.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 98.32% White, 0.18% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The top five ancestries reported in Western Springs as of the 2000 census were Irish, Polish and English. There were 4,318 households out of which 42.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.1% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.3% were non-families. 15.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.23. In the village, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 3.9% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $98,876, and
Danish Americans are Americans who have ancestral roots originated or from Denmark. There are 1,500,000 Americans of Danish origin or descent; the first Dane known to have arrived in North America was The Reverend Rasmus Jensen, a priest of the Church of Denmark. Little is known about the life of Jensen, not the parish where he served as pastor, although his diary during the expedition provides some information, it is known that he was the chaplain aboard an expedition to the New World commissioned by King Christian IV of Denmark in 1619. The expedition was made up of two small Danish ships Enhiørningen and Lamprenen, with 64 sailors who were Danes, Norwegians and Germans. Captained by the navigator and explorer, Jens Munk, the ships were searching for the Northwest Passage. After sailing into Frobisher Bay and Ungava Bay, Munk passed through Hudson Strait and reached Digges Island on August 20, they set out across the Bay towards the southwest. By early September, they had not yet found a passage.
The party arrived in Hudson Bay on September 7, landed at the mouth of Churchill River, settling at what is now Churchill, Manitoba. The two ships were prepared for winter as best as they could, it was a disastrous winter. Cold and scurvy destroyed most of the men. Jensen had died on 20 February 1620. Only Munk and two sailors survived leaving no settlement in the New World; the frigate Enhiørningen had been broken down by ice during the winter. However, the smaller Lamprenen could be salvaged; the return trip lasted two months. The surviving crew members aboard the Lamprenen reached Bergen, Norway on 20 September 1620; the earliest documented Danish immigrants to the new world, Jan Jansen and his wife Engeltje, along with their children, arrived in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in 1636. More than a century after Christian IV's expedition came explorer Vitus Jonassen Bering. In 1728, he documented the narrow body of water that separated North America and Asia, named the Bering Sea in his honor.
Bering was the first European to arrive in Alaska in 1741. In 1666, the Danish West India Company took control of the island of St. Thomas in the Caribbean and the islands of St. John in 1717 and St. Croix in 1733; the Danes brought African slaves to those islands, where the slaves were put to work in the snuff and sugar industries. These early settlers began to establish trade with New England. In 1917, they sold the islands to the United States, they were renamed "U. S. Virgin Islands." In the early seventeenth century, individual Danish immigrants became established in North America. Scandinavians—Danes and Norwegians in particular—made up a large portion of the settlers in the Dutch colony of New Netherland, now New York. After 1750, Danish families in the Protestant Moravian Brethren denomination immigrated to Pennsylvania, where they settled in the Bethlehem area alongside German Moravians; until 1850, most Danes who emigrated to North America were unmarried men. During this period, some Danes achieved recognition.
Among them were Hans Christian Febiger, one of George Washington's most trusted officers during the American Revolution, Charles Zanco who died at the Alamo in March 1836 in the struggle for Texan independence, Peter Lassen, a blacksmith from Copenhagen who led a group of adventurers from Missouri to California in 1839. The trail established by Lassen was followed by the "forty-niners" during the California Gold Rush. Lassen is considered one of the most important early settlers of California. From 1820 and 1850, about 60 Danes settled in the United States every year. Between 1820 and 1990 there was a population of 375,000 Danes; the first significant wave of Danish immigrants consisted of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints members who settled in United States in 1850. They settled in the newly acquired state of Utah, under Mexican control until 1848. There were 17,000 such immigrants, many of these settled in small farming communities in the Sanpete and Sevier counties. Today, these counties have the second and fifth largest percentages of Danish Americans in the United States.
Between 1864 and 1920, 50,000 Danes emigrated from Schleswig, where the use of Danish language was banned in schools following the Danish defeat in the Second Schleswig War and Prussia seizing control. They were called North Slesvigers, most of these Danes are recorded in the census statistics as immigrants from Germany rather than Denmark. Most Danes who immigrated to the United States after 1865 did so for economic reasons. By 1865, there had been a large increase in the Danish population in Europe because of the improvement in the medicine and food industries, it caused a high rate of poverty and resulted in a significant and rapid increase in Danish migration to other countries. Another reason for migration was the sale of lands. Many Danes became farmers in the United States. During the 1870s half of all Danish immigrants to the United States settled in family groups. By the 1890s, family immigration made up only of 25 percent of the total, it has been suggested that many of these immigrants returned to Denmark.
According to the United States Census of 2000, the states with the largest populations of Danish Americans are as follows: California - 207,030 Utah - 144,713 Minnesota - 88,924 Wisconsin - 72,160 Washington - 72,098The states with the smallest popula