In ice hockey, the goaltender or goalie or goalkeeper is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease. Goaltenders tend to stay beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles and hybrid; because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty.
The goaltender is known as the goalie, goalkeeper, net minder, tender by those involved in the hockey community. In the early days of the sport, the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender; the art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches called the goalie coach who specialize in working with goaltenders. The variation goalie is used for items associated with the position, such as goalie stick and goalie pads. Goaltending is a specialized position in ice hockey. At minor levels and recreational games, goaltenders do switch with others players that have been taught goaltending. A typical ice hockey team may have three goaltenders on its roster. Most teams have a starting goaltender who plays the majority of the regular season games and all of the playoffs, with the backup goaltender only stepping in if the starter is pulled or injured, or in cases where the schedule is too heavy for one goaltender to play every game; the NHL requires. The list provides goaltender options for visiting teams.
These goaltenders are to be called to a game if a team does not have two goaltenders to start the game. An "emergency" goaltender may be called if both roster goaltenders are injured in the same game; some teams have used a goaltender tandem where two goaltenders split the regular season playing duties, though one of them is considered the number one goaltender who gets the start in the playoffs. An example is the 1982-83 New York Islanders with Roland Melanson. Another instance is Grant Fuhr. In an unusual case the 1996-97 Philadelphia Flyers' Ron Hextall and Garth Snow alternated in the playoffs; the goaltender has training that other players do not. He wears special goaltending equipment, different from that worn by other players and is subject to specific regulations. Goaltenders may use any part of their bodies to block shots; the goaltender may hold the puck with his hands to cause a stoppage of play. If a player from the other team hits the goaltender without making an attempt to get out of his way, the offending player may be penalized.
In some leagues, if a goaltender's stick breaks, he can continue playing with a broken stick until the play is stopped, unlike other players who must drop any broken sticks immediately. Additionally, if a goaltender acts in such a way that would cause a normal player to be given a penalty, such as slashing or tripping another player, the goaltender cannot be sent to the penalty box. Instead, one of the goaltender's teammates, on the ice at the time of the infraction is sent to the penalty box in his place. However, the goaltender does receive the penalty minutes on the scoresheet. If the goaltender receives a Game Misconduct or Match penalty, he is removed from the ice and a replacement goaltender is played; the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game, unlike the other positions where players are on ice for shifts and make line changes. However, goaltenders are pulled if they have allowed several goals in a short period of time, whether they were at fault for the surrendered goals or not, a substituted goaltender does not return for the rest of the game.
In 1995, Patrick Roy was famously kept in net by the head coach as "humiliation" despite allowing nine goals
Swedish Olympic Committee
The Swedish Olympic Committee is the Swedish National Olympic Committee. The Swedish Olympic Committee organize the Swedish participation in the Olympics, choose the participants and run the "Elitprogrammet"; the committee has 35 Olympic national federations members and 12 by the IOC national federations members. The SOC was recognized by International Olympic Committee in the same year; the Swedish Olympic Committee has had the following presidents Sweden at the Olympics Official website
Ice Hockey World Championships
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation. First held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, it is the sport's highest profile annual international tournament; the IIHF was created in 1908 while the European Championships, the precursor to the World Championships, were first held in 1910. The tournament held at the 1920 Summer Olympics is recognized as the first Ice Hockey World Championship. Between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was considered the World Championship for that year; the first World Championship, held as an individual event was in 1930 in which twelve nations participated. In 1931, ten teams played a series of round-robin format qualifying rounds to determine which nations participated in the medal round. Medals were awarded based on the final standings of the teams in the medal round. In 1951, thirteen nations were split into two groups; the top seven teams played for the World Championship.
The other six played for ranking purposes. This basic format would be used until 1992. During a congress in 1990, the IIHF introduced a playoff system; as the IIHF grew, more teams began to participate at the World Championships, so more pools were introduced. The modern format for the World Championship features 16 teams in the championship group, 12 teams in Division I and 12 teams in Division II. If there are more than 40 teams, the rest compete in Division III; the teams in the championship play a preliminary round the top eight teams play in the playoff medal round and the winning team is crowned World Champion. Over the years, the tournament has gone through several rule changes. In 1969 body-checking in all three zones in a rink was allowed and goaltender masks became mandatory in the early 1970s and in 1992 the IIHF began using the shootout; the current IIHF rules differ from the rules used in the NHL. From the 1920 Olympics until the 1976 World Championships, only athletes designated as "amateur" were allowed to compete in the tournament.
Because of this, players from the National Hockey League and its senior minor-league teams were not allowed to compete, while the Soviet Union was allowed to use permanent full-time players who were positioned as regular workers of an aircraft industry or tractor industry employer that sponsored what would be presented as an after-hours amateur social sports society team for their workers. In 1970, after an agreement to allow just a small number of its professionals to participate was rescinded by the IIHF, Canada withdrew from the tournament. Starting in 1977, professional athletes were allowed to compete in the tournament and Canada re-entered; the IIHF requires that players are citizens of the country they represent and allow players to switch national teams provided that they play in their new nation for a certain period of time. Canada was the tournament's first dominant team, winning the tournament 12 times between 1930 and 1952; the United States, Sweden, Great Britain and Switzerland were competitive during this period.
The Soviet Union first soon became rivals with Canada. From 1963 until the nation's breakup in 1991, the Soviet Union was the dominant team, winning 20 championships. During that period, only three other nations won medals: Canada and Sweden. Russia first participated in 1992 and the Czech Republic and Slovakia began competing in 1993. In the 2000s, the competition became more open as the "Big Six" teams – Canada, the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States – as well as Slovakia and Switzerland have become more evenly matched; as this tournament takes place during the same period as the stages of the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs, many of that league's top players are not available to participate for their national teams or have only become available after their NHL teams have been eliminated, after playing 90+ games. North American teams, the United States, have been criticized for not taking this tournament seriously. For example, USA Hockey sent teams made up of younger NHL players alongside college players, not using top level stars when they are available.
The 2015 World Championship, held in Prague and Ostrava, Czech Republic, was the most successful to date in terms of overall attendance. The International Ice Hockey Federation, the sport's governing body, was created on 15 May 1908 under the name Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace. In 1908, organized ice hockey was still new. In 1887, four clubs from Montreal formed the Amateur Hockey Association of Canada and developed a structured schedule. Lord Stanley donated the Stanley Cup and the trustees decided to award it to either the best team in the AHAC, or to any pre-approved team that won it in a challenge; the Eastern Canada Amateur Hockey Association was formed in 1905, which mixed paid and amateur players in its rosters. The ECAHA folded and as a result of the dissolution, the National Hockey Association formed; the Ice Hockey European Championships, first held in Les Avants, Switzerland in January 1910, were the precursor to the World Championships. It was the first official tournament meant for national teams, the participating nations were Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland.
In North America, professional hockey was continuing to grow, the National Hockey League, the largest professional hockey league in the world, was formed in 1917. T
The Canada Cup was an invitational international ice hockey tournament held on five occasions between 1976 and 1991. The tournament was created to meet demand for a true world championship that allowed the best players from participating nations to compete regardless of their status as professional or amateur, it was sanctioned by the International Ice Hockey Federation, Hockey Canada and the National Hockey League. Canada won the tournament four times, it was succeeded by the World Cup of Hockey in 1996. Due to National Hockey League players' ineligibility in the Winter Olympics and the annual World Championships, both amateur competitions, Canada was not able to send its best players to top international tournaments. While the top players in Europe qualified as amateurs, all the best Canadian players competed in the professional NHL or World Hockey Association. Following the 1972 and 1974 Summit Series, in which Canadian players from the NHL and WHA competed against the top players from the Soviet Union, there was interest in a world hockey championship where each country could send its best players.
In a combined effort from Doug Fisher of Hockey Canada and Alan Eagleson of the NHL Players' Association, plans for such a tournament soon began. After successful negotiations with hockey officials from the Soviet Union in September 1974, Eagleson began arranging the Canada Cup tournament, which debuted in 1976. Eagleson would plead guilty to embezzling hundreds of thousands of dollars of Canada Cup proceeds. Taking place in the NHL off-season, it was the first international hockey tournament in which the best players and amateur alike, from the best ice hockey nations in the world could compete against one another. Six teams competed in each edition. In addition to Canada and the Soviet Union, Finland and the United States were regular competitors; the tournaments, held every three or four years, took place in North American venues. Of the five Canada Cup tournaments, four were won by Canada, while the Soviet Union won once, in 1981. Canada won the inaugural Canada Cup in 1976, defeating recent 1976 World Championship gold medalists Czechoslovakia in the best-of-three final.
The clinching game was won by a 5–4 score with Darryl Sittler scoring the game-winner in overtime. Five years the Soviets won their first and only Canada Cup with an 8-1 win over Canada in the one-game final; the Canadians re-captured the championship in the third edition of the tournament in 1984. After Canadian Mike Bossy scored an overtime game-winner to defeat the Soviets in the semi-finals, Canada won their second Canada Cup in a victory over Sweden in the final; the 1987 Canada Cup was noteworthy as Wayne Gretzky and Mario Lemieux considered two of the greatest hockey players of all-time, joined together as linemates on Team Canada to capture the country's third championship. All three games in the final between Canada and the Soviets ended in 6-5 scores, with two games going to overtime. Lemieux scored the championship-winning goal on a 2-on-1 pass from Gretzky in the final minutes of the deciding game at Copps Coliseum in Hamilton, Ontario. Gretzky won the Most valuable Player Award in the tournament.
The final Canada Cup was held in 1991 with Canada defeating the United States in the tournament's first all-North American final, for their third straight championship and fourth overall. Five years the Canada Cup was replaced by the World Cup of Hockey in 1996; the Canada Cup trophy is made of solid nickel. It was refined at the Inco nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario in 1976, commissioned by D. Scott McCann, President of Teledyne Canada. Donna Scott designed the cup, her inspiration was Pink Floyd's Dark Side Of the Moon album cover, it is on display at the residence of the Governor General in Ottawa. The 1981 win by the Soviet Union caused controversy when Canadian officials found the trophy in the Soviets' luggage and announced that the trophy would not go home with the winning team. Feeling this was unsportsmanlike, Canadian fans led by George Smith of Winnipeg, Manitoba raised money to produce a duplicate trophy to give to the Soviet team. $32,000 was raised. Three weeks the trophy was presented to the Soviet Union's ambassador Vladimir Mechulayev in Winnipeg.
Most of the companies that made the trophy did the work for free and all of the money raised went to minor hockey in Winnipeg and Winkler, Manitoba. National Hockey League International Ice Hockey Federation Ice Hockey World Championships World Professional Hockey Championships 1972 Summit Series 1974 Summit Series World Cup of Hockey Ice hockey at the Olympic Games Super Series'76-77 Super Series Subway Super Series 2007 Super Series NHL Challenge Rendez-vous'87 Victoria Cup List of KHL vs NHL games List of international ice hockey competitions featuring NHL players List of international games played by NHL teams Anderson, H. J, The Canada Cup of Hockey Fact and Stat Book, Trafford, ISBN 1-4120-5512-1 Willes, Ed, Gretzky to Lemieux: The Story of the 1987 Canada Cup, Emblem ed, ISBN 9780771088490 Canada Versus the Soviet Union: The Heyday of the Battle for World Hockey Supremacy
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Glove (ice hockey)
There are three styles of gloves worn by ice hockey players. Skaters wear similar gloves on each hand, while goaltenders wear gloves of different types on each hand. Skaters gloves help prevent the hands getting bruised and battered and stops them from getting burned from the ice; the top padding and shell thumb is designed to help protect the player from flying Hockey pucks and opponents' Ice hockey sticks. In today's hockey game, gloves will fall into two types of categories, the first being the traditional four-roll style; these types of gloves have more room on the inside, giving it a looser feel on the hand than the natural fit gloves. Hockey players who choose the four-roll style have less resistance in their fingers and hands, so wearing the gloves feels less noticeable; the other category of gloves are the tighter natural or anatomical fit glove. These have a much tighter fit than the four-roll gloves, are designed to become an extension of the players' hand; the tapered gloves are tight on the hand, but ergonomically designed for better wrist mobility and range of motion.
Hockey gloves range in sizes, are available in three categories: Youth size hockey gloves run 8", 9"and 10". Goaltenders wear a different type of glove on each hand. While these gloves do offer the goaltender a measure of protection, their design is to aid the goaltender in performance of his duties. On the hand with which he carries his stick called the "stick hand," the goaltender wears a blocker with a large pad across the back of the forearm extending just beyond the wrist. National Hockey League rules mandate that the blocking glove may be no wider than eight inches and no longer than fifteen; the goaltender uses this blocker to deflect shots. On the other hand called the "glove hand", the goaltender wears a catching glove called a trapper, similar to a baseball glove. In addition to using it to catch shots, goaltenders can distribute caught pucks by tossing them from the catching glove. National Hockey League rules limit the perimeter of the catching glove to forty-five inches and the widest part of the glove may not exceed eighteen inches.
Most goaltender's glove hands are their non-dominant hand like in baseball, but exceptions do exist