Ljubljana is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It has been the cultural, economic and administrative centre of independent Slovenia since 1991. During antiquity, a Roman city called. Ljubljana itself was first mentioned in the first half of the 12th century. Situated at the middle of a trade route between the northern Adriatic Sea and the Danube region, it was the historical capital of Carniola, one of the Slovene-inhabited parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, it was under Habsburg rule from the Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. After World War II, Ljubljana became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, it retained this status until Slovenia became independent in 1991 and Ljubljana became the capital of the newly formed state. The origin of name of the city, Ljubljana, is unclear. In the Middle Ages, both the river and the town were known by the German name Laibach; this name was in official use as an endonym until 1918, it remains frequent as a German exonym, both in common speech and official use.
The city is alternatively named Lublana in many English language documents. The city is called Lublana in Silesian, Lubiana in Latin: Labacum and anciently Aemona. For most scholars, the problem has been in how to connect the German names; the origin from the Slavic ljub- "to love, like" was in 2007 supported as the most probable by the linguist Tijmen Pronk, a specialist in comparative Indo-European linguistics and Slovene dialectology, from the University of Leiden. He supported the thesis; the linguist Silvo Torkar, who specialises in Slovene personal and place names, argued at the same place for the thesis that the name Ljubljana derives from Ljubija, the original name of the Ljubljanica River flowing through it, itself derived from the Old Slavic male name Ljubovid, "the one of a lovely appearance". The name Laibach, he claimed, was a hybrid of German and Slovene and derived from the same personal name; the symbol of the city is the Ljubljana Dragon. It is depicted on the top of the tower of Ljubljana Castle in the Ljubljana coat of arms and on the Ljubljanica-crossing Dragon Bridge.
It symbolises power and greatness. There are several explanations on the origin of the Ljubljana Dragon. According to a Slavic myth, the slaying of a dragon releases the waters and ensures the fertility of the earth, it is thought that the myth is tied to the Ljubljana Marshes, the expansive marshy area that periodically threatens Ljubljana with flooding. According to the celebrated Greek legend, the Argonauts on their return home after having taken the Golden Fleece found a large lake surrounded by a marsh between the present-day towns of Vrhnika and Ljubljana, it was there. This monster has evolved into the dragon, it is more believable that the dragon was adopted from Saint George, the patron of the Ljubljana Castle chapel built in the 15th century. In the legend of Saint George, the dragon represents the old ancestral paganism overcome by Christianity. According to another explanation, related to the second, the dragon was at first only a decoration above the city coat of arms. In the Baroque, it became part of the coat of arms, in the 19th and the 20th century, it outstripped the tower and other elements in importance.
Around 2000 BC, the Ljubljana Marshes in the immediate vicinity of Ljubljana were settled by people living in pile dwellings. Prehistoric pile dwellings and the oldest wooden wheel in the world are among the most notable archeological findings from the marshland; these lake-dwelling people lived through hunting and primitive agriculture. To get around the marshes, they used dugout canoes made by cutting out the inside of tree trunks, their archaeological remains, nowadays in the Municipality of Ig, have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site since June 2011, in the common nomination of six Alpine states. The area remained a transit point for numerous tribes and peoples, among them the Illyrians, followed by a mixed nation of the Celts and the Illyrians called the Iapydes, in the 3rd century BC a Celtic tribe, the Taurisci. Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona; this entrenched fort was occupied by the Legio XV Apollinaris.
In 452, it was destroyed by the Huns under Attila's orders, by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards. Emona housed 5,000 -- 6,000 played an important role during numerous battles, its plastered brick houses, painted in different colours, were connected to a drainage system. In the 6th century, the ancestors of the Slovenes moved in. In the 9th century, they fell while experiencing frequent Magyar raids. Not much is known about the area during the settlement of Slavs in the period between the downfall of Emona and the Early Middle Ages; the parchment sheet Nomina defunctorum, most written in the second half of 1161, mentions the nobleman Rudolf of Tarcento, a lawyer of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, who had bestowed a canon with 20 farmsteads beside the castle of Ljubljana to the Patriarchate. According to the historian Peter Štih's deduction, this happened between 1112 and 1125, thus representing the earliest mention of Ljubljana. Owned by a number of possessors, until the first half of the 12th century, the territory south of the Sava where the town of
2008 European Short Course Swimming Championships
The European Short Course Swimming Championships 2008 took place in Rijeka, Croatia from Thursday 11 to Sunday 14 December 2008. * Host nation Legend: WR = World record ER = European record CR = Championships record 2008 in swimming Omega Timing Results Official Site Swim Rankings Results
Swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metre butterfly
The men's 100 metre butterfly event at the 2008 Olympic Games took place on 14–16 August at the Beijing National Aquatics Center in Beijing, China. U. S. Swimmer Michael Phelps set a new Olympic record of 50.58 to defend his title in the event, edging out Serbia's Milorad Čavić by one hundredth of a second. He earned his seventh Olympic gold at a single Games, tying Mark Spitz's 1972 record for the most gold medals. Australia's Andrew Lauterstein earned a bronze in 51.12, finishing in a close race against world record holder Ian Crocker by the slimmest margin. Phelps' triumph occurred after Čavić had remarked that it would be better for the sport if Phelps was defeated. Phelps' margin of triumph was so close that the Serbian team filed a protest, but after officials reviewed the video, the International Swimming Federation announced that Phelps did touch the wall first and his victory would be upheld. Kenya's Jason Dunford finished fifth with a time of 51.47, was followed in the sixth spot by Japan's Takuro Fujii, in an Asian record of 51.50.
Ukraine's Andriy Serdinov, the bronze medalist in Athens four years earlier, Papua New Guinea's Ryan Pini, gold medalist at the 2006 Commonwealth Games, closed out the field. Dunford and Pini made history as the first swimmer for their respective nation to reach an Olympic final. Out of six individual events from his Olympic program, Phelps did not break the current world record in a final, finishing 0.18 of a second behind Crocker's time of 50.40, set in 2005. In the entire event, other records were established, the Olympic record, five continental records, several national records. Due to a combination of the venue, Beijing National Aquatics Center, claimed to be built to increase the speed of the swimmers, the introduced LZR Racer swim suits, proven to give the swimmer a lower time by 1.9 to 2.2%, some analysts were predicting that many fast times and world records would be set in all the swimming events. As with every event that he entered in at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Michael Phelps was the favorite to win the men's 100 metre butterfly.
Since winning the gold medal at the previous Games, in Athens, Phelps had demonstrated his superiority in this event, by becoming world champion at the Melbourne 2007 World Championships, achieving victory at the United States Olympic Trials. Therefore, the 100 metre butterfly was one of the eight Olympic events where Phelps was attempting to win a gold medal. Going into the event, Phelps' compatriot Ian Crocker was seen as the swimmer with the best chance of beating Phelps. Crocker beat Phelps' 100 metre butterfly world record in 2003, had since lowered it twice: once at the 2004 United States Olympic trials, at the 2005 World Championships in Montreal. Before the Olympics and Phelps held the seventeen fastest times in the event. In 2004, Crocker was the favorite in the men's 100 metre butterfly, but lost to Phelps by four hundredths of a second; this victory gave Phelps the right to swim in the final of the 4 × 100 metre medley relay, however he gave up the spot to Crocker, took his turn in the semifinals.
Although holding the world record, Crocker had lost the last four times that he was up against Phelps in the 100 metre butterfly, including the 2008 United States Olympic Trials. Some thought that Crocker was not in the same shape that he was when we broke the world record, including Canadian Broadcasting Company analyst Byron MacDonald who said that "If he's going to beat Phelps in Beijing, Crocker has to get close to his world record time of 50.40. He just hasn't shown it can do it this year". Another threat to Phelps' goal was Serbia's Milorad Čavić. In Athens 2004, Čavić was leading in a semifinal of the 100 metre butterfly, but right after his final turn, his suit opened at the neck and sucked in water, causing Čavić to finish last with a time of 53.12 seconds. At the 2008 European Championships, Čavić won the men's 50 metre butterfly and was the heavy favorite to win at twice that distance, but was suspended for wearing a "Kosovo is Serbia" T-shirt on the medal podium. American swimmer Gary Hall, Jr. told The New York Times that although "Mike has been saying he’s going to win the 100 fly at the Olympics for the last year", he thought that Čavić would be the winner.
Other possible medal contenders included Andriy Serdinov of Ukraine, who had won the Olympic bronze medal in 2004, Venezuelan Albert Subriats, a bronze medalist at the 2007 World Championships and seen as a potential spoiler, if he could match or improve on his 51.82 time, in Beijing. The heats began at 19:57 local time. There were nine preliminary heats. Only three swimmers participated in the first heat, won by Andrejs Duda of Latvia with a time of 55.20 seconds. Heats 2, 3, 4 were won by Shaune Fraser, Rimvydas Šalčius, Jakob Schioett Andkjaer, respectively. Salcius, Jeremy Knowles, Alon Mandel all broke their countries' previous records, while in heat 4, Michal Rubáček of the Czech Republic, Sotirios Pastras of Greece, Ioan Stefan Gherghel of Romania set new national records. South African Lyndon Ferns was the first swimmer to qualify for the semifinals, winning heat 5 with a time of 52.04 seconds, while national records were broken by Mario Todorović, Simão Morgado, Douglas Lennox-Silva.
Sergii Breus and Shi Feng, finished first and second in heat 6, with times of 51.82 and 51.87 seconds that allowed them to reach the semifinals. Five of the eight swimmers in heat 7 advanced as w
2005 European Short Course Swimming Championships
The European Short Course Championships 2005 were held in Trieste, from 8–11 December. * Host nation Official Results Swim Rankings Results Race-analysis by professor Rein Haljand
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Olympic-size swimming pool
An Olympic-size swimming pool conforms to regulated dimensions, large enough for international competition. This type of swimming pool is used in the Olympic Games, where the race course is 50 metres in length referred to as "long course", distinguishing it from "short course" which applies to competitions in pools that are 25 metres in length. If touch panels are used in competition the distance between touch panels should be either 25 or 50 metres to qualify for FINA recognition; this means that Olympic pools are oversized, to accommodate touch panels used in competition. An Olympic-size swimming pool is used as a colloquial unit of volume, to make approximate comparisons to sized objects or volumes, it is not a specific definition. The value has an order of magnitude of 1 megaliter. FINA specifications for an Olympic-size pool are as follows: There must be two spaces 2.5 m wide outside lanes 1 and 8. The length of 50 metres must be between the touch pads at the end of each lane. If starting blocks are used there must be a minimum depth of 1.35 metres from between 1.0 metre from the end of the pool to at least 6.0 metres from the end of the pool.
At all other points, the minimum depth is 1.0 metre. If the pool is used for Olympic Games or World Championships the minimum depth is increased to 2.0 metres. At FINA's 2009 Congress, rules were approved for 10-lane courses for competition, as an alternative to the more traditional 8-lane course; this version of the Olympic-sized swimming pool debuted in the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Beforehand, the Summer Olympics featured the more traditional 8-lane course with a depth of seven feet, now the minimum depth requirement; this new Olympic-sized swimming pool was the host of 25 broken world records. The new Olympic-sized swimming pool was designed to provide advantages to assist the swimmers, the first being the increase in the number of lanes. Increasing the lane count from eight to ten gives the swimmers a "buffer lane", helping to absorb waves generated by the swimmers' movements, allowing for less resistance against the swimmers. Moreover, increasing the depth of the pool further gives swimmers another advantage, as the added depth assists the lane lines in dissipating water churn from the swimmers, creating less hydrodynamic drag for the swimmers.
Sport venue List of Olympic-size swimming pools in the United Kingdom List of Olympic-size swimming pools in Ireland List of Olympic-size swimming pools in the Philippines List of largest swimming pools List of Olympic venues in swimming
Eindhoven is the fifth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country. It had a population of 229,126 in 2018, making it the largest city in the province of North Brabant, although's-Hertogenbosch is its capital. Eindhoven was located at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender. Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugel, Geldrop-Mierlo, Heeze-Leende, Veldhoven, Eersel and Best; the agglomeration has a population of 337,487. The metropolitan area consists of 419,045 inhabitants; the city region has a population of 753,426. The Brabantse Stedenrij combined metropolitan area has about 2 million inhabitants; the name derives from the contraction of the regional words hove. Toponymically, eind occurs as a prefix and postfix in local place- and streetnames. A "hove" comprised a parcel of land. Given that a string of such parcels existed around Woensel, the name Eindhoven may have originated with the meaning "last hoves on the land of Woensel"; the written history of Eindhoven started in 1232, when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Eindhoven a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.
At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside the city walls stood a small castle; the city was granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment was its location on the trade route from Holland to Liège. Around 1388, the city's fortifications were strengthened further, and between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was burned by troops from Guelders; the reconstruction of Eindhoven was finished with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 it fell again, its defense works having been neglected due to poverty. A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished.
Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation, Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution; the industrial revolution of the 19th century provided a major growth impulse. Canals and railroads were constructed. Eindhoven was connected to the major Zuid-Willemsvaart canal through the Eindhovens Kanaal branch in 1843 and was connected by rail to Tilburg,'s-Hertogenbosch and Belgium between 1866 and 1870. Industrial activities centred around tobacco and textiles and boomed with the rise of lighting and electronics giant Philips, founded as a light bulb manufacturing company in Eindhoven in 1891. Industrialisation brought population growth to Eindhoven. On the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, Eindhoven had 2,310 inhabitants. By 1920, the population was 47,946; the explosive growth of industry in the region and the subsequent housing needs of workers called for radical changes in administration, as the City of Eindhoven was still confined to its medieval moat city limits.
In 1920, the five neighbouring municipalities of Woensel, Stratum, Gestel en Blaarthem and Strijp, which bore the brunt of the housing needs and related problems, were incorporated into the new Groot-Eindhoven municipality. The prefix "Groot-" was dropped. After the incorporation of 1920, the five former municipalities became districts of the Municipality of Eindhoven, with Eindhoven-Centrum forming the sixth. Since an additional seventh district has been formed by dividing the largest district, that of Woensel, into Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord; the early 20th century saw additions in technical industry with the advent of car and truck manufacturing company Van Doorne's Automobiel Fabriek and the subsequent shift towards electronics and engineering, with the traditional tobacco and textile industries waning and disappearing in the 1970s. A first air raid in World War II was flown by the RAF on 6 December 1942 targeting the Philips factory downtown. 148 civilians died though the attack was carried out on a Sunday by low-flying Mosquito bombers.
Large-scale air raids, including the bombing by the Luftwaffe on 18 September during Operation Market Garden, destroyed large parts of the city. The reconstruction that followed left little historical remains and the postwar reconstruction period saw drastic renovation plans in highrise style, some of which were implemented. At the time, there was little regard for historical heritage. During the 1960s, a new city hall was built and its neogothic predecessor demolished to make way for a planned arterial road that never materialised; the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s saw large-scale housing developments in the districts of Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord, making Eindhoven the fifth-largest city in the Netherlands. At the start of the 21st century, a whole new housing development called Meerhoven was constructed at the site of the old airport of Welschap, west o