The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie's fourth novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. As with his previous books, Rushdie used magical realism and relied on contemporary events and people to create his characters; the title refers to the satanic verses, a group of Quranic verses that refer to three pagan Meccan goddesses: Allāt, Manāt. The part of the story that deals with the "satanic verses" was based on accounts from the historians al-Waqidi and al-Tabari. In the United Kingdom, The Satanic Verses received positive reviews, was a 1988 Booker Prize finalist and won the 1988 Whitbread Award for novel of the year. However, major controversy ensued; the outrage among Muslims resulted in a fatwā calling for Rushdie's death issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Supreme Leader of Iran, on 14 February 1989. The result was several failed assassination attempts on Rushdie, placed under police protection by the UK government, attacks on several connected individuals such as translator Hitoshi Igarashi.
The book was banned in India as hate speech directed towards a specific religious group. The Satanic Verses consists of a frame narrative, using elements of magical realism, interlaced with a series of sub-plots that are narrated as dream visions experienced by one of the protagonists; the frame narrative, like many other stories by Rushdie, involves Indian expatriates in contemporary England. The two protagonists, Gibreel Farishta and Saladin Chamcha, are both actors of Indian Muslim background. Farishta is a Bollywood superstar. Chamcha is an emigrant who has broken with his Indian identity and works as a voiceover artist in England. At the beginning of the novel, both are trapped in a hijacked plane flying from India to Britain; the plane explodes over the English Channel. In a miraculous transformation, Farishta takes on the personality of the archangel Gabriel and Chamcha that of a devil. Chamcha passes through an ordeal of police abuse as a suspected illegal immigrant. Farishta's transformation can be read on a realistic level as the symptom of the protagonist's developing schizophrenia.
Both characters struggle to piece their lives back together. Farishta seeks and finds his lost love, the English mountaineer Allie Cone, but their relationship is overshadowed by his mental illness. Chamcha, having miraculously regained his human shape, wants to take revenge on Farishta for having forsaken him after their common fall from the hijacked plane, he does so by fostering Farishta's pathological jealousy and thus destroying his relationship with Allie. In another moment of crisis, Farishta realises what Chamcha has done, but forgives him and saves his life. Both return to India. Farishta throws Allie off a high rise in another outbreak of jealousy and commits suicide. Chamcha, who has found not only forgiveness from Farishta but reconciliation with his estranged father and his own Indian identity, decides to remain in India. Embedded in this story is a series of half-magic dream vision narratives, ascribed to the mind of Farishta, they are linked together by many thematic details as well as by the common motifs of divine revelation, religious faith and fanaticism, doubt.
One of these sequences contains most of the elements that have been criticised as offensive to Muslims. It is a transformed re-narration of the life of Muhammad in Mecca. At its centre is the episode of the so-called satanic verses, in which the prophet first proclaims a revelation in favour of the old polytheistic deities, but renounces this as an error induced by the Devil. There are two opponents of the "Messenger": a demonic heathen priestess, Hind bint Utbah, an irreverent skeptic and satirical poet, Baal; when the prophet returns to the city in triumph, Baal goes into hiding in an underground brothel, where the prostitutes assume the identities of the prophet's wives. One of the prophet's companions claims that he, doubting the authenticity of the "Messenger," has subtly altered portions of the Quran as they were dictated to him; the second sequence tells the story of Ayesha, an Indian peasant girl who claims to be receiving revelations from the Archangel Gibreel. She entices all her village community to embark on a foot pilgrimage to Mecca, claiming that they will be able to walk across the Arabian Sea.
The pilgrimage ends in a catastrophic climax as the believers all walk into the water and disappear, amid disturbingly conflicting testimonies from observers about whether they just drowned or were in fact miraculously able to cross the sea. A third dream sequence presents the figure of a fanatic expatriate religious leader, the "Imam", in a late-20th-century setting; this figure is a transparent allusion to the life of Ruhollah Khomeini in his Parisian exile, but it is linked through various recurrent narrative motifs to the figure of the "Messenger". Overall, the book received favourable reviews from literary critics. In a 2003 volume of criticism of Rushdie's career, the influential critic Harold Bloom named The Satanic Verses "Rushdie's largest aesthetic achievement". Timothy Brennan called the work "the most ambitious novel yet published to deal with the immigrant experience in Britain" that captures the immigrants' dream-like disorientation and their process of "union-by-hybridization".
The book is seen as "fundamentally a study in alienation."Muhammd Mashuq ibn Ally wrote that "The Satanic Verses is about identity, alienatio
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Supreme Leader of Iran
The Supreme Leader of Iran referred to as Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, but called the Supreme Leadership Authority, is the head of state as well as the ultimate political and religious authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The armed forces, state television, other key government organizations are subject to the Supreme Leader; the current longtime officeholder, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on economy, foreign policy, national planning, everything else in Iran. Khamenei makes the final decisions on the amount of transparency in elections, has dismissed and reinstated presidential cabinet appointees; the Supreme Leader directly chooses the ministers of Defense and Foreign Affairs, as well as certain other ministers, such as the Science Minister. Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly report to the Supreme Leader.
The office was established by the Constitution of Iran in 1979, pursuant to the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist. According to the Constitution, the powers of government in the Islamic Republic of Iran are vested in the legislature, the judiciary, the executive powers, functioning under the supervision of the Supreme Leader; the style "Supreme Leader" is used as a sign of respect – although the Constitution designates them as "Leader". The Supreme Leader ranks above the President of Iran and appoints the heads of the military, the government, the judiciary; the constitution required the Supreme Leader to be a Marja'-e taqlid, the highest-ranking cleric in the religious laws of Usuli Twelver Shia Islam. In 1989 however, the constitution was amended and asked for Islamic "scholarship", thus the Supreme Leader could be a lower-ranking cleric. In its history, Iran only had two Supreme Leaders: Ruhollah Khomeini, who held the position from 1979 until his death in 1989, Ali Khamenei, who has held the position since Khomeini's death.
In theory, the Supreme Leader is overseen by the Assembly of Experts. However, all candidates for membership at the Assembly of Experts are appointed by the Guardian Council, whose members in turn, are appointed by the Supreme Leader. Furthermore, all directly-elected members of the Assembly of Experts still require the Supreme Leader's approval after the Guardian Council's vetting process. Thereby, the Assembly has never questioned the Supreme Leader. There have been cases where incumbent Ali Khamenei publicly criticized members of the Assembly, resulting in their arrest and subsequent removal. There have been cases where the Guardian Council repealed its ban on particular people after being directed to do so by Khamenei; the Supreme Leader is considered "inviolable", with Iranians being punished for questioning or criticising him. The Supreme Leader of Iran is elected by the Assembly of Experts, the only government body in charge of overseeing and dismissing Supreme Leaders of Iran; the Supreme Leader is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the provisional head of the three branches of the state.
He oversees and can dismiss the following offices: Inaugurates the President and may together with a two third majority of the Parliament impeach him. The Chief Justice for a term of 8 years, the members of the Expediency Discernment Council for a term of 5 years; the members of Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. 6 of the 12 Members of the Guardian Council from among the members of the Assembly of Experts, the other 6 are chosen by the Parliament out of Islamic jurist candidates nominated by the Chief Justice of Iran, in turn appointed by the Supreme Leader. Ministers of defense, foreign affairs, science. Two personal representatives to the Supreme National Security Council. Can delegate representatives to all branches of government. Ali Khamenei has around 2000 representatives; the head of the National Radio and Television Institution IRIB for a term of 8 years the head of the Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs the Imams of the Friday Prayer of each Province Capital for a lifetime Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran the Commander of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran the Commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army the Commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy the Commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force the Commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Defense Force Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps the Commander of the IRGC the Commander of the IRGC Ground Forces the Commander of the IRGC Navy the Commander of the IRGC Aerospace Force the Commander of the IRGC Quds Force the Commander of the Basij Organization the Commander of the Law Enforcement Force the Heads of the Counter Intelligence Units the Heads of the Intelligence Units approves elected members of the Assembly of Experts.
The Leader can declare war and peace. In March 1979, shortly after Ruhollah Khomeini’s return from exile and the overthrow of Ira
Duckworth Overlook Gerald Duckworth and Company, founded in 1898 by Gerald Duckworth, is an independent British publisher. It was important in the development of English literature in the first half of the twentieth century, when it published such writers as Virginia Woolf, W. H. Davies, Anthony Powell, John Galsworthy and D. H. Lawrence, it continues to be successful within the publishing industry. For many years the company operated from a headquarters at Camden, North London, in a building called'The Old Piano Factory'; this was a piano factory and its charm - as well as the keen eye of the firm's long-standing chairman Colin Haycraft, together with his wife Anna - attracted some of the best and most notable'characters' of the writing community of the day. The main stock-in-trade was the publication of academic books for universities; the company kept its eye on market trends and opportunities, publishing a variety of books by some of the most popular authors of the twentieth century. It widened its range when it entered the world of publishing computing books at the start of the microcomputer revolution including Music and Sound Effects on the Commodore 64 by William Turner and Alf Vella.
In 2003 the company was put into receivership. Its assets were bought by Peter Mayer, a former chief executive of Penguin Books, who owned The Overlook Press of New York City; the May 2007 edition of Publishing Trends reported that Duckworth's trade books were published under the Duckworth/Overlook imprint. In 2012 Duckworth in London and Overlook in New York continue to work together to produce and promote their publications. In 2006 Duckworth published An Incomplete History of the Art of the Funerary Violin by Rohan Kriwaczek, subsequently reported to be a hoax, the funerary violin having never existed. Kriwaczek had all along designed the work as a pastiche and Duckworth profited handsomely from the media coverage. Duckworth publishes a wide range of fiction and non-fiction, from authors such as Charles McCarry, Robert Littell and Brian Clegg, spanning history, popular science and memoir, literary fiction, children's titles; the company now operates from an office in London. Duckworth has a number of imprints: Duckworth General publishes literary and commercial fiction and non-fiction, including history and memoir.
As of 2007, authors include John Bayley, Beryl Bainbridge, Robert Littell, Joan Bakewell, Valerie Grosvenor Myer, Mary Warnock, William Vollmann and Helmut Newton. The company claims recent successes with Clive Woodall’s One for Sorrow and J. J. Connolly's Layer Cake, which reached numbers one and two on the independent publisher bestseller list, as well as Layer Cake's 2011 sequel Viva La Madness. Duckworth Academic publishes scholarly monographs, specialising in history and related areas, including Archaeology, Ancient History and Ancient Philosophy, it has an extensive backlist of titles published under the Duckworth and Bristol Classical Press imprints, these include school and student texts in Latin, Russian, French and Spanish language and literature. Bloomsbury acquired the imprint in 2010. Duckworth has republished a number of editions of Charles Dickens' novels, first issued by the Nonesuch Press, featuring illustrations chosen by Dickens himself; these are collectible editions, are popular with Dickens enthusiasts.
In 2010, Duckworth's academic list was acquired by Bloomsbury Publishing. The 13-digit ISBN prefix for Duckworth is 978-07156. Archives of the company from 1936 are held by the University of London, include editorial correspondence with authors. Company homepage BBC account of the rescue of the firm after 2003 bankruptcy
The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford, it was funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. Ahead of the foundation selling its Ford Motor Company holdings, in 1949 Henry Ford II created the Ford Motor Company Fund, a separate corporate foundation which to this day serves as the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company and is not associated with the foundation. For years it was the largest, one of the most influential foundations in the world, with global reach and special interests in economic empowerment, human rights, the creative arts, Third World development; the foundation makes grants through ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2014, it approved US$507.9 million in grants.
After its establishment in 1936, Ford Foundation shifted its focus from Michigan philanthropic support to four areas of action. In the 1950 Report of the Study of the Ford Foundation on Policy and Program, the trustees set forth five "areas of action," according to Richard Magat: economic improvements, education and democracy, human behaviour, world peace. Since the middle of the 20th century, many of the Ford Foundation's programs have focused on increased under-represented or "minority" group representation in education and policy-making. For over eight decades their mission decisively advocates and supports the reduction of poverty and injustice among other values including the maintenance of democratic values, promoting engagement with other nations, sustaining human progress and achievement at home and abroad; the Ford Foundation is one of the primary foundations offering grants that support and maintain diversity in higher education with fellowships for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral scholarship to increase diverse representation among Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos/Latinas and other under-represented Asian and Latino sub-groups throughout the U.
S. academic labor market. The outcomes of scholarship by its grantees from the late 20th century through the 21st century have contributed to substantial data and scholarship including national surveys such as the Nelson Diversity Surveys in STEM; the foundation was established January 15, 1936, in Michigan by Edsel Ford and two other executives "to receive and administer funds for scientific and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare." During its early years, the foundation operated in Michigan under the leadership of Ford family members and their associates and supported the Henry Ford Hospital and the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, among other organizations. After the deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford in 1947, the presidency of the foundation fell to Edsel's eldest son, Henry Ford II, it became clear that the foundation would become the largest philanthropic organisation in the world. The board of trustees commissioned the Gaither Study Committee to chart the foundation's future.
The committee, headed by California attorney H. Rowan Gaither, recommended that the foundation become an international philanthropic organisation dedicated to the advancement of human welfare and "urged the foundation to focus on solving humankind's most pressing problems, whatever they might be, rather than work in any particular field...." The board embraced the recommendations in 1949. The board of directors decided to diversify the foundation's portfolio and divested itself of its substantial Ford Motor Company stock between 1955 and 1974; this divestiture allowed Ford Motor to become a public company. Henry Ford II resigned from his trustee's role in a surprise move in December 1976. In his resignation letter, he cited his dissatisfaction with the foundation holding on to their old programs, large staff and what he saw as anti-capitalist undertones in the foundation's work. In February 2019, Henry Ford III was elected to the Foundation's Board of Trustees, becoming the first Ford family member to serve on the board since his grandfather resigned in 1976.
In 2012, stating that it is not a research library, the foundation transferred its archives from New York City to the Rockefeller Archive Center in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Based on recommendations made by the Gaither Study Committee and embraced by the foundation's board of trustees in 1949, the foundation expanded its grant making to include support for higher education, the arts, economic development, civil rights, the environment, among other areas. In 1951, the foundation made its first grant to support the development of the public broadcasting system known as National Educational Television, which went on the air in 1952; these grants continued, in 1969 the foundation gave US$1 million to the Children's Television Workshop to help create and launch Sesame Street. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting replaced NET with the Public Broadcasting Service on October 5, 1970; the foundation underwrote the Fund for the Republic in the 1950s. The foundation's first international field office opened in 1952 in India.
Throughout the 1950s, the foundation provided arts and humanities fellowships that supported the work of figures like Josef Albers, James Baldwin, Saul Bellow, Herbert Blau, E. E. Cummings, Flannery O'Connor, Jacob Lawrence, Maurice Valency, Robert Lowell, Margaret Mead. In 1961, Kofi Annan received an educati
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K