Africa Confidential is a fortnightly newsletter covering politics and economics in Africa. It is owned by the British company Asempa Limited. Founded by a group of six individuals under the banner of Miramoor Publications, Africa Confidential was printed on blue airmail paper and was thus nicknamed "The Blue Sheet", it is available by subscription only. Africa Confidential focuses on issues that affect the continent, analyses political complexities and reports on areas and topics that receive little coverage in the mainstream press. With its investigations into corruption and political intrigue, the journal punches above its weight and was famously the subject of a record six-year libel case that ended in June 2001, its Zimbabwe, Kenya and Sudan coverage makes the news in the mainstream press. Patrick Smith has edited Africa Confidential since 1991. Former editors include Stephen Ellis. In 2007, Africa Confidential launched. Electronic Journals Library AtoZ electronic journals focused on Africa Catalogue Africa Confidential http://ejournals.ebsco.com/Journal2.asp?
JournalID=103013 Wiley Interscience Africa-Asia Confidential
Chinwoke Mbadinuju was Governor of Anambra State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2003, elected on the People's Democratic Party platform. His period in office was noted for internal PDP disputes resulting in a failure of effective government. After leaving office, he was embroiled in court cases over alleged involvement in a political murder. Chinwoke Mbadinuju was born on 14 June 1945, he obtained a BA in Political Science, a doctorate in Government. He gained a Law degree from one of the best English Universities, He was an editor of Times International. Before entering politics he was an Associate Professor of Politics and African Studies at the State University of New York, he was Personal Assistant to Governor of the old Enugu State, Dr. Jim Chris Nwobodo, between 1979 and 1980, he served as the Personal Assistant to President Shehu Shagari between 1980 and 1983. He is married to Nnebuogo Mbadinuju, they have five children: Ada Mbadinuju, Chetachi Mbadinuju, Nwachukwu Mbadinuju, Uche Mbadinuju and Chima Mbadinuju.
After the return to democracy in 1998, Chinwoke Mbadinuju became the People's Democratic Party candidate for Anambra State governorship in competition with professor A. B. C Nwosu, who had served four military governors as Commissioner for Health, after a dispute that had to be resolved by the PDP Electoral Appeal Panel, he was elected Governor of Anambra State in April 1999 and he was the least performed Governor since the creation of the state in 1991. Mbadinuju had been sponsored by an Anambra kingmaker. After a falling out between Mbadinuju and his "godfather", the power struggle between the two men crippled the machinery of government in the state. By September 2002, unpaid teachers had been on strike for a year and civil servants and court workers had been on strike for months; the president of the Onitsha branch of the Nigerian Bar Association, Barnabas Igwe, said state leaders had pocketed the money meant to pay the striking workers. On 1 September 2002, Igwe and his pregnant wife Amaka were brutally and publicly assassinated by Nigerian militia men.
While in office, Chinwoke Mbaninuju passed a law that created the Anambra Vigilante Services, which enshrined the Bakassi Boys, a popular if feared vigilante group credited with reducing crime in the state. Mbadinuju said that crime in the state had reached such an appalling level that something had to be done. In a November 2009 interview, Mbadinuju defended his decision on the basis of the results it achieved in reducing crime, he fell out with Chris Uba, another power broker or godfather in the state. Mbadinuju claimed that he was excluded from the governorship contest in 2003 despite winning the PDP primaries because Uba and President Olusegun Obasanjo opposed his candidacy. In his place, Dr. Chris Ngige ran for the PDP, but he was beaten by the candidate of the All Progressives Grand Alliance. After the election was nullified and re-run, Chris Ngige gained the post. In December 2005, the police arraigned Chinwoke Mbadinuju on charges that he had conspired to murder Barnabas Igwe of the Nigerian Bar Association and his wife, Amaka, in September 2002.
Mbadinuju was accused of masterminding the killing although he was in Houston, Texas at the time of the assassination. Igwe had been a vocal critic of Mbadinuju, calling for his resignation due to the failure to pay government workers for several months. In January 2006 Mbadinuju was retained in prison custody over the suit. In June 2008, the case was reopened when an Abuja High Court said Chinwoke Mbadinuju was again wanted over alleged forgery and conspiracy in the murder of Barnabas Igwe, his wife; the police claimed the accused had forged a police document exonerating Mbadinuju of the Igwes' killing
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Independent National Electoral Commission
The Independent National Electoral Commission, set up in 1998, is the electoral body, set up to oversee elections in Nigeria. The origin of the INEC goes back to the period before Independence when the Electoral Commission of Nigeria was established to conduct 1959 elections; the Federal Electoral Commission, established in 1960 conducted the immediate post-independence federal and regional elections of 1964 and 1965. The electoral body was dissolved after the military coup of 1966. In 1978, the Federal Electoral Commission was constituted by the regime of General Olusegun Obasanjo, organizing the elections of 1979 which ushered in the Nigerian Second Republic under the leadership of Alhaji Shehu Shagari, it conducted the general elections of 1983. In December 1995, the military government of General Sani Abacha established the National Electoral Commission of Nigeria which conducted another set of elections; these elected institutions were not inaugurated before the sudden death of General Abacha on June 1998 aborted the process.
In 1998 General Abdulsalam Abubakar's Administration dissolved NECON and established the Independent National Electoral Commission. INEC organized the transitional elections that ushered in the Nigerian Fourth Republic on May 29, 1999. In January 2015, the "#BringBackOurGirls group has raised the alarm over plans by the Independent National Electoral Commission to exclude Chibok and some communities under the control of the Boko Haram from getting the permanent voter cards for the February elections." The chairmen of the first Nigerian Federal Electoral Commission was Chief Eyo Esua in the First Republic. When General Olusegun Obasanjo prepared for a return to civilian power in the Second Republic, he established a new Federal Electoral Commission headed by Chief Michael Ani to supervise the 1979 elections. Ani was succeeded by Justice Victor Ovie Whisky. During the Ibrahim Babangida and Sani Abacha regimes, which attempted returns to democracy, the National Electoral Commission of Nigeria was headed by Professor Eme Awa, Professor Humphrey Nwosu, Professor Okon Uya and Chief Sumner Dagogo-Jack.
General Abdulsalami Abubakar established the current INEC, with Justice Ephraim Akpata as chairman. Akpata had to deal with 26 political associations, giving only nine provisional registration as political parties for the 1998/1999 elections whittled down to three parties. Despite efforts to ensure free and fair elections, the process drew serious criticism from international observers. After Akpata died in January 2000, the government of President Olusegun Obasanjo appointed Abel Guobadia Nigeria's Chief Electoral Officer, a position, confirmed by the Nigerian Senate in May 2000. Guobadia was responsible for the 2003 elections, which were marred by widespread violence and other irregularities. In June 2005, Guobadia was succeeded by Professor Maurice Iwu. Soon after being appointed, Iwu announced that foreign monitors would not be allowed during elections, but only foreign election observers; this decision was condemned by politicians and civil society groups who called for his immediate removal from office.
The conduct of the 2007 elections was again criticized as falling below acceptable democratic standards. On 8 June, 2010, Professor Attahiru Muhammadu Jega was nominated by President Goodluck Jonathan as the new INEC Chairman, subject to Senate confirmation, as a replacement for Iwu, who had vacated the post on 28 April 2010. Jega's nomination as INEC chairman followed approval by a meeting of the National Council of State called by President Jonathan and attended by former heads of state Yakubu Gowon, Muhammadu Buhari, Ibrahim Babangida, Abdulsalami Abubakar, Ernest Shonekan, Olusegun Obasanjo and Shehu Shagari; the Senate President David Mark, Speaker of the House of Representatives Oladimeji Bankole, most of the state Governors attended the meeting. Unanimous approval by the council of the nominee for this critical appointment avoided controversy about whether or not the President should appoint the chairman of the INEC. Reactions to the announcement from a broad spectrum of political leaders and organisations were positive, although some voiced concern that it could be too late to implement real reforms before the 2011 elections.
During the campaigning for the 2015 Nigerian general election, Attahiru Jega "faced fierce criticism from both the opposition and the ruling party." Attahiru Jega's five-year term came to an end on June 30, 2015, though he was qualified for re-appointment, the chances of such became remote given the allegations of bias against him by campaign officials of President Goodluck. The INEC has encountered several controversies in the run-up to elections in the country, most notably the April 2007 general elections, including criticism about its preparedness from Sada Abubakar, Sultan of Sokoto and a dispute over its "disqualification" of Vice president Atiku Abubakar's candidacy; the Supreme Court ruled that the INEC can not disqualify candidates, so Abubakar's name was added to ballots at the last minute. On the subject of election irregularities, INEC spokesman Philip Umeadi said on April 19 that "We are not sitting on any crisis in Nigeria.". The mission of INEC is to serve as an independent and effective EMB committed to the conduct of free and credible elections for sustainable democracy in Nigeria.
The vision of INEC is to be one of the best Election Management Bodies in the world that meets the aspirations of the Nigerian people. INEC was accused of widespread electoral irregularities in the 2019 presidential elections including cases of ballot paper unavailability, unavailability of smart card readers and large cancellation of valid votes; the main opposition has planned to co
London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901; the LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn; the area is known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 11,000 students and 3,300 staff, just under half of whom come from outside the UK, it had an income of £ 354.3 million in 2017/18. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst LSE's student body and the school has the second highest percentage of international students of all world universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies and social sciences.
LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is sometimes considered a part of the "Golden Triangle" of universities in south-east England. For the subject area of social science, LSE places second in the world in the QS Rankings, tenth in THE Rankings, eighth in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. LSE is ranked among the top fifteen universities nationally by all three UK tables, while internationally LSE is ranked in the top 50 by two of the three major global rankings. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, psychology, literature and politics. Alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state or government, 20 members of the current British House of Commons and 18 Nobel laureates; as of 2017, 26% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 16% of all laureates.
LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires; the London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the estate of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable"; the five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw; the proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university.
The University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding over the following years, the school moved to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace to Clare Market and Houghton Street; the foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's Edwin Cannan, Professor of Economics, Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall, the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole.. The dispute concerned the question of the economist's role, whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service.
However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE's Friedrich Hayek; the LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as Keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the Austrian School, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the School decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse; the School's arms, including its mo
Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan is a Nigerian politician who served as the President of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015. Prior to that he served as Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 and as Governor of Bayelsa State from 2005 to 2007, he lost the 2015 presidential election to Muhammadu Buhari, becoming the first sitting Nigerian president to concede electoral defeat. Jonathan was born in, he holds a B. Sc. degree in Zoology, an M. Sc. degree in Hydrobiology and Fisheries biology and a PhD degree in Zoology from the University of Port Harcourt. Before he entered politics in 1998, he worked as an education inspector and environmental-protection officer. Jonathan and his wife, Dame Patience Jonathan have two children, he is a Christian from the Ijaw ethnic group. In 2007, Jonathan declared his assets worth a total of ₦295,304,420. On 29 May 1999, Jonathan was sworn in as Deputy Governor of Bayelsa alongside Diepreye Alamieyeseigha who came in as the governor of the state on the platform of PDP. Jonathan served as Deputy Governor until December 2005.
On 9 December 2005, Deputy Governor at the time, was sworn in as Governor of Bayelsa State upon the impeachment of the current Governor Diepreye Alamieyeseigha by the Bayelsa State Assembly after being charged with money laundering in the United Kingdom. In September 2006, reports released by Wikileaks claimed that Jonathan's wife was indicted for money-laundering by Nigeria’s anti-crime agency, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission; the report proved to be false. The head of the EFCC stated that "Mrs Patience Jonathan was not in any way involved in any case of money laundering investigated by the EFCC"; as Vice-President, Jonathan took a low profile. While recognising the constitutional limits of the Vice-President's office, he participated in cabinet meetings and, by statute, was a member of the National Security Council, the National Defence Council, the Federal Executive Council, was the Chairman of National Economic Council. Vice-President Jonathan was instrumental in negotiating an agreement with many of the major militant groups in the Niger Delta, to lay down their weapons and stop fighting as part of a government amnesty.
On 9 February 2010, a motion from the Nigerian Senate invested Goodluck Jonathan as acting President of the Federation because President Yar'Adua was on a trip to Saudi Arabia in November 2009 for medical treatment. On 10 February 2010, during his first day as acting president, Jonathan announced a minor cabinet reshuffle. Prince Adetokunbo Kayode, the Labour Minister, was named Minister of Justice, to replace Mr Mike Aondoakaa. Aondoakaa was named as the Minister of Special Duties, his counterpart Ibrahim Kazaure was named Minister of Labour. Acting President Jonathan promised to continue implementing the Seven-point agenda policy framework of President Umaru Musa Yar’adua. In accordance with the order of succession in the Nigerian constitution following President Umaru Yar'Adua's death on 5 May 2010, Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as the Acting President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 6 May 2010, becoming Nigeria's 14th Head of State, he cited anti-corruption and electoral reforms as focuses of his administration.
He stated that he came to office under "very sad and unusual circumstances". On 18 May 2010, the National Assembly approved Jonathan's nomination of former Kaduna State governor, Namadi Sambo, for the position of Vice-President. On 15 September 2010, Jonathan announced on Facebook that he had decided to run for public office on his own for the first time, in the race for the presidency of Nigeria in 2011. In the contest for the Peoples Democratic Party nomination, Goodluck Jonathan was up against the former vice-president Atiku Abubakar and Mrs. Sarah Jubril. On 13 January 2011 the primary election results was announced in Abuja. Jonathan was declared winner with a victory in two-thirds of the states of the Federation counted. For the general election in 2011, Jonathan and Vice-President Sambo attended political events and travelled the country to campaign for the nation's highest office. Jonathan won the general election against General Muhammadu Buhari and his running mate Pastor Tunde Bakare with 59% of the votes.
On 18 April 2011, Jonathan was declared the winner of the election. On 2 August 2010, Jonathan launched his'Roadmap for Power Sector Reform‘, its primary goal was to achieve stable electricity supply in Nigeria. The Nigerian Power Sector has been plagued by blackouts. Economists estimate that power outages have cost Nigeria, Africa's biggest economy, billions of dollars in imported diesel for generators and lost output. In a study conducted by the World Bank, a lack of access to financing and electricity were cited as Nigeria's main obstacles to development, surpassing corruption. President Jonathan has overseen the privatisation of Nigeria's power sector with the end goal being the establishment of an efficient and reliable power supply infrastructure for the Nigerian population; the Power Holding Company of Nigeria, which acted as the nation's electricity provider, has been broken up into 15 firms, with Nigeria handing over control of state electricity assets to 15 private bidding companies.
The Nigerian government contracted for the services of CPCS Transcom Limited, a Canada-based consulting firm specialising in transportation and energy infrastructure projects, to act as the transaction adviser for the handover of state electricity assets. On 11 October 2011, President Jonathan launched the Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria Initiative which he stated would be an innovative business plan competition that harnesses th
2019 Nigerian general election
General elections were held in Nigeria on 23 February 2019 to elect the President, Vice President, House of Representatives and the Senate. The elections had been scheduled for 16 February, but the Election Commission postponed the vote by a week at 03:00 on the original polling day, citing logistical challenges in getting electoral materials to polling stations on time. In some places, the vote was delayed until 24 February due to electoral violence. Polling in some areas was subsequently delayed until 9 March, when voting was carried out alongside gubernatorial and state assembly elections; the elections were the most expensive held in Nigeria, costing ₦69 billion more than the 2015 elections. Incumbent president Muhammadu Buhari won his reelection bid, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes, he has been issued a Certificate of Return, will be sworn in on 12 June 2019. The President of Nigeria is elected using a modified two round system, to be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive a majority of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least 24 of the 36 states.
If no candidate passes this threshold, a second round is held. The 109 members of the Senate were elected from 109 single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post voting; the 360 members of the House of Representatives were elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies۔ The People's Democratic Party held its presidential primaries on 5 October 2018, at the Adokiye Amiesimaka Stadium, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Thirteen aspirants contested with Atiku Abubakar emerging the winner. Incumbent President Muhammadu Buhari was selected as the sole candidate of the All Progressives Congress party primaries held on 29 September 2018. Other candidates included: Chike Ukaegbu, founder of Startup52, is the presidential candidate of AAP. Donald Duke, a former governor of Cross River State, is the presidential candidate of the SDP. Fela Durotoye, motivational speaker and presidential candidate of Alliance for New Nigeria. Oby Ezekwesili, former Minister of Education and leader of the Bring Back Our Girls campaign.
She ended her campaign on January 24, 2019 to combine support with other candidates to support a bid against APC and PDP. Tope Fasua and National Chairman of the Abundant Nigeria Renewal Party. Rabiu Kwankwaso, former governor of Kano State. Sule Lamido, a former governor of Jigawa State. Ahmed Makarfi, former chairman of the People's Democratic Party National Caretaker Committee. Obadiah Mailafia, former Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria and candidate of the African Democratic Congress. Kingsley Moghalu, former Deputy Governor of the CBN and Professor of Practice at Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Gbenga Olawepo-Hashim, oil business mogul and presidential candidate for the Peoples Trust. Remi Sonaiya, member of the KOWA Party and former university lecturer. Omoyele Sowore, human rights activist, pro-democracy campaigner and publisher of news website Sahara Reporters. Kabiru Tanimu Turaki, former Minister of Special Duties. A presidential and vice-presidential debate was organised by the Nigerian Elections Debate Group and the Broadcasting Organisations of Nigeria, with invitations extended to five of the 78 presidential candidates.
The Debate Group explained the exclusion of other candidates as a measure to ensure the effectiveness of the debate and not an endorsement of the candidates chosen. The vice presidential debate was held on 14 December 2018, at the Transcorp Hilton Hotels in Abuja. All invited vice presidential candidates were present, with candidates discussing their health, education and foreign affairs policies; the presidential debate occurred on 19 January 2019, took place at the same venue. The two leading presidential contestants were absent, with Atiku Abubakar leaving the venue upon discovering that Muhammadu Buhari was absent. Fela Durotoye, Oby Ezekwesili and Kingsley Moghalu continued the debate, while criticising the absence of the others. Mark Eddo moderated the debate. Following the elections there were claims of widespread fraud by the opposition; the claims included accusations of ballot box vote-trading and impersonation. There were claims that caches of explosives were found by police; the African Union said the elections were "largely peaceful and conducive for the conducting of credible elections."
The electoral commission described the elections as peaceful. The results of the presidential election were announced in the early hours of 27 February 2019. Senate President Bukola Saraki was defeated in Kwara Central by the APC candidate. 64 incumbent Senators will not be returning as members of the Ninth Senate, having been defeated during the elections. While the APC will have a simple majority of votes in the Senate, it will not have a supermajority, meaning it cannot push through major bills on its own. Three Senate seats have yet to be filled. On 2 March 2019, elections were held for governors of 29 of the 36 states of Nigeria. Elections were suspended in Rivers State