The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, is a retired Nigerian Army General, President of Nigeria from 27 August 1985 to 26 August 1993. He served as the chief of army staff from January 1984 to August 1985. Babangida was a key player in most of the military coups in Nigeria. Ibrahim Babangida was born on 17 August 1941, in Minna, Niger State, to his father Muhammad Babangida and mother Aisha Babangida. From 1950 to 1956, Ibrahim Babanginda attended primary school. From 1957 to 1962 Babangida was educated at the Government college, Niger state, Nigeria. Babangida joined the Nigerian Army on 10 December 1962, when he attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna. Babangida received his commission as a 2nd Lieutenant as a regular combatant officer in the Royal Nigerian Army with the personal army number N/438 from the Indian Military Academy on 26 September 1963. Babangida and General Mohammed Magoro were among the first batch of Nigerian graduates from the NMTC who attended the Indian Military Academy from April to September 1963.
Others in subsequent batches from Babangida's NMTC class include Ibrahim Sauda. Babangida furthered his armoury training from January 1966 until April 1966 by enrolling in Course 38 of the Young Officers' Course in the United Kingdom where he received a four-month course in Saladin and gunnery. From August 1972 to June 1973, he took the Advanced Armoured Officers' course at Armored school, he attended the Senior officers' course, Armed Forces Command and Staff College, from January 1977 until July 1977 and the Senior International Defence Management Course, Naval Postgraduate school, U. S. in 1980. He was involved in quelling the Nigerian coup of 1976, when he was to ‘liberate’ a radio station from one of the coup plotters, Col Buka Suka Dimka, to prevent him making further announcements over the air waves. Although he did prevent further broadcasts, Col Dimka managed to escape, he attained the following ranks: Second Lieutenant, Captain, Lieutenant Colonel, Brigadier, Major General, General.
Babangida served as a member of the Supreme Military Council from 1 August 1975 to October 1979. Babangida a lieutenant with the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron in Kaduna, was one of the many officers of northern Nigerian origin who staged what became known as the Nigerian Counter-Coup of 1966 which resulted in the death of Nigeria's first military Head of State, General Aguiyi Ironsi, his replacement with General Yakubu Gowon. Babangida was the Chief of Army Staff and a member of the Supreme Military Council under the administration of Major General Muhammadu Buhari. Babangida would overthrow Buhari's regime on 27 August 1985 in a military coup that relied on mid-level officers that Babangida had strategically positioned over the years. With the oil revenue, Babangida created the Federal Environmental Protection Agency in 1985, he created eleven state governments and several local government councils. He had the Toja Bridge in Kebbi constructed, he created the Jibia Water Treatment Plant and the Challawa Cenga Dam in Kano.
In 1992, constituted the Oil Mineral Producing Area Development Commission. Babangida increased the share of oil royalties and rents to state of origin from 1.5 to 3 percent. In January 1986, Nigeria joined the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation as its 46th member; the OIC was established in 1969. The chief of staff supreme headquarters, Commodore Ebitu Okoh Ukiwe, was removed and replaced from his post as chief of staff supreme headquarters by Babangida, because Ukiwe was opposed to the registration of Nigeria, a secular country, in the OIC. On 23 September 1987, Babangida created two states: Katsina. On 27 August 1991, Babangida created nine more states: Abia, Delta, Kebbi, Kogi and Yobe. Bringing the total number of states in Nigeria to thirty in 1991. Babangida issued a referendum to garner support for austerity measures suggested by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, subsequently launched his "Structural Adjustment Program" in 1986; the policies involved in the SAP were: deregulation of the agricultural sector to include abolition of marketing boards and elimination of price controls privatisation of public enterprises devaluation of the Nigerian naira to improve the competitiveness of the export sector relaxation of restraints on foreign investment put in place by the Gowon and Obasanjo governments during the 1970s.
Between 1986 and 1988, these policies were executed as intended by the IMF, the Nigerian economy did grow as had been hoped, with the export sector performing well. But falling real wages in the public sector and among the urban classes, along with a drastic reduction in expenditure on public services, set off waves of rioting and other manifestations of discontent that made sustained commitment to the SAP difficult to maintain. Babangida subsequently returned to an inflationary economic policy and reversed the deregulatory initiatives he had set in motion during the heyday of the SAP following mounting political pressure, economic growth slowed correspondingly, as capital flight resumed apace under the influence of negative real interest rates. On 22 April 1990, Babangida's government was toppled by a failed coup led by Major Gideon Orkar. Babangida was at the Dodan Barracks, the military headquarters and presidential residence, when they were attacked and occupied by the rebel troops, but ma
Amnesty International is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights. The organization says it has more than seven million supporters around the world; the stated mission of the organization is to campaign for "a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments."Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyer Peter Benenson. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards, it works to mobilize public opinion to generate pressure on governments. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights." The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its "defence of human dignity against torture," and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.
In the field of international human rights organizations, Amnesty has the third longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights, broadest name recognition, is believed by many to set standards for the movement as a whole. Amnesty International was founded in London in July 1961 by English labour lawyer Peter Benenson along with Professor of Law and friend Philip James. According to Benenson's own account, he was travelling on the London Underground on 19 November 1960 when he read that two Portuguese students from Coimbra had been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment in Portugal for "having drunk a toast to liberty". Researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar; the government was authoritarian in nature and anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. In his significant newspaper article "The Forgotten Prisoners", Benenson described his reaction as follows: Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government...
The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done. Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. Baker was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, involved in funding the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament as well as becoming head of Quaker Peace and Social Witness, in his memoirs Benenson described him as "a partner in the launching of the project". In consultation with other writers and lawyers and, in particular, Alec Digges, they wrote via Louis Blom-Cooper to David Astor, editor of The Observer newspaper, who, on 28 May 1961, published Benenson's article "The Forgotten Prisoners"; the article brought the reader's attention to those "imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government" or, put another way, to violations, by governments, of articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The article described these violations occurring, on a global scale, in the context of restrictions to press freedom, to political oppositions, to timely public trial before impartial courts, to asylum.
It marked the launch of "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961", the aim of, to mobilize public opinion and in defence of these individuals, whom Benenson named "Prisoners of Conscience". The "Appeal for Amnesty" was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year, Benenson had a book published, Persecution 1961, which detailed the cases of nine prisoners of conscience investigated and compiled by Benenson and Baker. In July 1961 the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organization, with the first meeting taking place in London. Benenson ensured that all three major political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party. On 30 September 1962, it was named "Amnesty International". Between the "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961" and September 1962 the organization had been known as "Amnesty". What started as a short appeal soon became a permanent international movement working to protect those imprisoned for non-violent expression of their views and to secure worldwide recognition of Articles 18 and 19 of the UDHR.
From the beginning and campaigning were present in Amnesty International's work. A library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called "THREES" groups, was started; each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one from each of the three main ideological regions of the world: communist and developing. By the mid-1960s Amnesty International's global presence was growing and an International Secretariat and International Executive Committee were established to manage Amnesty International's national organizations, called "Sections", which had appeared in several countries; the international movement was starting to agree on its core techniques. For example, the issue of whether or not to adopt prisoners who had advocated violence, like Nelson Mandela, brought unanimous agreement that it could not give the name of "Prisoner of Conscience" to such prisoners. Aside from the work of the library and groups, Amnesty International'
Chinwoke Mbadinuju was Governor of Anambra State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2003, elected on the People's Democratic Party platform. His period in office was noted for internal PDP disputes resulting in a failure of effective government. After leaving office, he was embroiled in court cases over alleged involvement in a political murder. Chinwoke Mbadinuju was born on 14 June 1945, he obtained a BA in Political Science, a doctorate in Government. He gained a Law degree from one of the best English Universities, He was an editor of Times International. Before entering politics he was an Associate Professor of Politics and African Studies at the State University of New York, he was Personal Assistant to Governor of the old Enugu State, Dr. Jim Chris Nwobodo, between 1979 and 1980, he served as the Personal Assistant to President Shehu Shagari between 1980 and 1983. He is married to Nnebuogo Mbadinuju, they have five children: Ada Mbadinuju, Chetachi Mbadinuju, Nwachukwu Mbadinuju, Uche Mbadinuju and Chima Mbadinuju.
After the return to democracy in 1998, Chinwoke Mbadinuju became the People's Democratic Party candidate for Anambra State governorship in competition with professor A. B. C Nwosu, who had served four military governors as Commissioner for Health, after a dispute that had to be resolved by the PDP Electoral Appeal Panel, he was elected Governor of Anambra State in April 1999 and he was the least performed Governor since the creation of the state in 1991. Mbadinuju had been sponsored by an Anambra kingmaker. After a falling out between Mbadinuju and his "godfather", the power struggle between the two men crippled the machinery of government in the state. By September 2002, unpaid teachers had been on strike for a year and civil servants and court workers had been on strike for months; the president of the Onitsha branch of the Nigerian Bar Association, Barnabas Igwe, said state leaders had pocketed the money meant to pay the striking workers. On 1 September 2002, Igwe and his pregnant wife Amaka were brutally and publicly assassinated by Nigerian militia men.
While in office, Chinwoke Mbaninuju passed a law that created the Anambra Vigilante Services, which enshrined the Bakassi Boys, a popular if feared vigilante group credited with reducing crime in the state. Mbadinuju said that crime in the state had reached such an appalling level that something had to be done. In a November 2009 interview, Mbadinuju defended his decision on the basis of the results it achieved in reducing crime, he fell out with Chris Uba, another power broker or godfather in the state. Mbadinuju claimed that he was excluded from the governorship contest in 2003 despite winning the PDP primaries because Uba and President Olusegun Obasanjo opposed his candidacy. In his place, Dr. Chris Ngige ran for the PDP, but he was beaten by the candidate of the All Progressives Grand Alliance. After the election was nullified and re-run, Chris Ngige gained the post. In December 2005, the police arraigned Chinwoke Mbadinuju on charges that he had conspired to murder Barnabas Igwe of the Nigerian Bar Association and his wife, Amaka, in September 2002.
Mbadinuju was accused of masterminding the killing although he was in Houston, Texas at the time of the assassination. Igwe had been a vocal critic of Mbadinuju, calling for his resignation due to the failure to pay government workers for several months. In January 2006 Mbadinuju was retained in prison custody over the suit. In June 2008, the case was reopened when an Abuja High Court said Chinwoke Mbadinuju was again wanted over alleged forgery and conspiracy in the murder of Barnabas Igwe, his wife; the police claimed the accused had forged a police document exonerating Mbadinuju of the Igwes' killing
Abia is a state in the south eastern part of Nigeria. The capital is Umuahia and the major commercial city is Aba, a British colonial government outpost in the region. Abia state was created in 1991 from part of Imo State, it is one of the constituent states of the Niger Delta region. Abia State, which occupies about 6,320 square kilometres, is bounded on the north and northeast by the states of Anambra and Ebonyi. To the west of Abia is Imo State, to the east and southeast are Cross River State and Akwa Ibom State and to the south is Rivers State; the southern part of the State lies within the riverine part of Nigeria, it is a low-lying tropical rainforest with some oil-palm brush, the southern portion gets heavy rainfall of about 2,400 millimetres per year and is intense between the months of April through October. The rest of the State is wooded savanna; the most important rivers in Abia State are the Imo and Aba Rivers which flow into the Atlantic Ocean through Akwa Ibom State. Crude oil and gas production is a prominent activity, as it contributes over 39% of the State's GDP.
However, the indigenous oil companies- through the Marginal Fields Programme - have not found it easy to attract the requisite funding and infrastructural capacity to explore some of the marginal oil fields which are about 50 in the State. The manufacturing sector only accounts for 2% of the GDP; the industrial centre of the state is in Aba, with textile manufacturing, soap, cement and cosmetics. In addition to the above, Abia State Government has just built a 9,000 capacity multipurpose International Conference Centre in Umuahia; this edifice of international standard was built by Governor T. A Orji to enhance tourism as well as boost the state economy through hosting of major International and Local events. Representing 27% of the GDP, agriculture- which employs 70% of the state workforce- is the second economic sector of Abia. With its adequate seasonal rainfall, Abia has much arable land that produces yams, potatoes, cashews, plantains and cassava. Oil palm is the most important cash crop.
There are over 3 installed flow stations in Abia State. There is an associated gas plant, Abia/NNPC gas plant; as of 2012, boundary Commission said it returned 42 oil wells from neighbouring Rivers State to Abia. This would have meant Abia being fourth largest oil producing state in the country. Oil giant, holds most of the licenses for the wells in the State and has concentrated on the estimated 50 wells that are considered high-yield; the State produced 36,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Four oil wells in Izaku go to Obigo flow station. About 30 oil wells from my village go to Umuri and about eight oil wells from Umurie go to Afam", lamented Samuel Okezie Nwogu, Chairman of Abia State Oil Producing Development Area Commission. However, the State has complained of poor funding from its oil revenue federal allocation. Our people are suffering, there are lots of projects we can still execute to alleviate their sufferings. There are four universities in the state: the federal-owned Michael Okpara University of Agriculture at Umudike, the state-owned Abia State University in Uturu, the Gregory University Uturu and Rhema University in Aba, both owned.
There are two tertiary hospitals, the Federal Medical Center in Umuahia and the Abia State University Teaching Hospital in Aba, which serve as referral hospitals in the State. The Abia State Polytechnic is in the city of Aba. There are two major power plants in The Alaoji Power plant and the Geometric Power plant. Abia has been a "haven" for foreign investors; the state's population has grown since its creation. The nearest airport to Abia is an hour drive to Umuahia and Aba. Akwa Ibom Airport can serve would-be visitors; the distance between Uyo and Umuahia is: 73.28 kilometres. The rail transport is another means of travel effective but on revitalisation. Aba is connected to Port Harcourt by rail; the coastal parts of the State are accessible with boats and canoes. Abia State is one of the thirty-six States in seventeen Local government areas that constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abia was carved out of the former Imo State in 1991; the name "Abia" is an abbreviation of four of Abia state's densely populated regions Aba, Bende and Afikpo.
Abia is peopled by the Igbo ethnic group. The Igbo people, who are one of the indigenous peoples of Southeastern part of Nigeria, make up 95% of the population, their traditional language, Igbo is in widespread use. English is widely spoken, serves as the official language in governance and business. Abia's over 2.4 million people are Christians. The State Government is led by a democratically-elected executive Governor who works with members of the state's House of Assembly; the capital city is Umuahia. There are Seventeen local government areas. In 1999, Nigeria became a democracy and Orji Uzor Kalu contested on the platform of the People's Democratic Party and won the Governorship election in Abia State, he was sworn-in on 29 May 1999. In 2003, when it was time for fresh elections, Kalu re-contested on the platform of the PDP and got a second mandate to govern. Theodore Orji defeated Onyema Ugoc
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Chibuike Rotimi Amaechi is a Nigerian politician who served as the fifth Governor of Rivers State from 2007 to 2015. He was re-elected for a second term on 26 April 2011. Amaechi was a member of the People's Democratic Party before defecting to the All Progressives Congress on 27 November 2013, he is now a serving Federal Minister of Transportation. He is the director general of Buhari reelection campaign. Amaechi was born in Ubima, Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State to the family of late Elder Fidelis Amaechi and Mrs Mary Amaechi, his first and last names are Igbo meaning “God is strength or power” and “who knows tomorrow” respectively. He was raised in Diobu, a densely populated neighbourhood in Port Harcourt, had his early education at St Theresa's Primary School from 1970 to 1976, he earned his West African Senior School Certificate in 1982 after attending Government Secondary School Okolobiri. Chibuike received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Studies and Literature from the University of Port Harcourt in 1987, where he was the President of the National Union of Rivers State Students.
He completed the mandatory National Youth Service corps in 1988. He thereafter joined the Services of Pamo Clinics and Hospitals Limited owned by Peter Odili, the former Governor of Rivers State where he worked until 1992, he is married to Judith Amaechi and they have three boys. Amaechi first office in politics was as Secretary of the now defunct National Republican Convention in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. Between 1992 and 1994, he was Special Assistant to the Deputy Governor of Rivers State, Sir Peter Odili, a member of the Board of West Africa Glass Industry as well as Risonpalm Nigeria Limited. Dr. Peter Odili believed in him as a young man with potential in politics, adopted him as a political son and nurturing him in politics, facilitating his election into the Rivers State House of Assembly in 1999; this relationship between him and Odili translated into a harmonious relationship between the Executive and Legislative arms of government in Rivers State, until when Rotimi Amaechi launched a campaign against the State Government, verbally attacked the image of the State Governor, in an effort to succeed Peter Odili as governor in 2007.
He was the Rivers State's Secretary of the Democratic Party of Nigeria caretaker committee after in 1996 during the transition programme of General Sanni Abacha junta. In 1999, he contested and won a seat to become a member of the Rivers State House of Assembly to represent his constituency, he was subsequently elected as the Speaker of the House of Assembly. Amaechi was elected the Chairman of Nigeria's Conference of Speakers of State Assemblies, he was reelected into the State House of Assembly in May 2003 and was re-elected as the Speaker. In 2003 when the National Assembly moved to hijack the legislative functions of the State house of Assembly as enshrined in the constitution, he and his colleagues took the matter to Nigeria's supreme court and the court gave a judgment that the control and supervision of local government is the prerogative of the State House of Assembly, he contested and won the People's Democratic Party primary for Rivers State Governor in 2007. His name was substituted by an action which he challenged in court.
The case got to the Supreme Court. He became governor on October 26, 2007, after the Supreme Court ruled that he was the rightful candidate of the PDP and winner of the April 2007 Governorship election in Rivers State, he was reelected for a second term of four years in April 2011. His administration invested in infrastructure development, construction of roads and bridges, sticking to the vision of connecting all parts of the state by road; the governor was committed to urban renewal and modernization of transportation services. His administration began building a monorail to provide mass transportation within the city of Port Harcourt; some power plant projects were built to improve power supply in the State. Chibuike Amaechi holds the national honour of the Commander of the Order of the Niger, he is a Knight of St. Johns. List of people from Rivers State List of Governors of Rivers State by time in office Profile of Rt. Hon. Chibuike Rotimi Amaechi, Governor of Rivers State. Who's Who: Governor Chibuike Rotimi Amaechi, Africa Confidential "Ruling party leads in Nigerian governorship elections".
People's Daily. April 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-29