Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Koninklijke Philips N. V. is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam, one of the largest electronics companies in the world focused in the area of healthcare and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik, with their first products being light bulbs, it was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world and employs around 74,000 people across 100 countries. The company gained its royal honorary title in 1998 and dropped the "Electronics" in its name in 2013. Philips is organized into two main divisions: Philips Consumer Health and Well-being and Philips Professional Healthcare; the lighting division was spun off as a separate company, Signify N. V.. The company started making electric shavers in 1939 under the Philishave brand, post-war they developed the Compact Cassette format and co-developed the Compact Disc format with Sony, as well as numerous other technologies; as of 2012, Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world as measured by applicable revenues.
Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Acquisitions include that of Magnavox, they have had a sports club since 1913 called PSV Eindhoven. The Philips Company was founded by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik Philips. Frederik, a banker based in Zaltbommel, financed the purchase and setup of an empty factory building in Eindhoven, where the company started the production of carbon-filament lamps and other electro-technical products in 1892; this first factory is used as a museum. In 1895, after a difficult first few years and near bankruptcy, the Philipses brought in Anton, Gerard's younger brother by sixteen years. Though he had earned a degree in engineering, Anton started work as a sales representative. With Anton's arrival, the family business began to expand resulting in the founding of Philips Metaalgloeilampfabriek N. V. in Eindhoven in 1908, followed in 1912, by the foundation of Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken N.
V.. After Gerard and Anton Philips changed their family business by founding the Philips corporation, they laid the foundations for the electronics multinational. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes. In 1939, they introduced the Philishave; the "Chapel" is a radio with built-in loudspeaker, designed during the early 1930s. On 11 March 1927, Philips went on the air with shortwave radio station PCJJ, joined in 1929 by sister station PHOHI. PHOHI broadcast in Dutch to the Dutch East Indies while PCJJ broadcast in English and German to the rest of the world; the international program on Sundays commenced in 1928, with host Eddie Startz hosting the Happy Station show, which became the world's longest-running shortwave program. Broadcasts from the Netherlands were interrupted by the German invasion in May 1940; the Germans commandeered the transmitters in Huizen to use for pro-Nazi broadcasts, some originating from Germany, others concerts from Dutch broadcasters under German control.
Philips Radio was absorbed shortly after liberation when its two shortwave stations were nationalised in 1947 and renamed Radio Netherlands Worldwide, the Dutch International Service. Some PCJ programs, such as Happy Station, continued on the new station. Philips was instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine when, in the early 1930s, the management decided that offering a low-power portable generator would assist in expanding sales of its radios into parts of the world where mains electricity was unavailable and the supply of batteries uncertain. Engineers at the company's research lab carried out a systematic comparison of various power sources and determined that the forgotten Stirling engine would be most suitable, citing its quiet operation and ability to run on a variety of heat sources, they were aware that, unlike steam and internal combustion engines no serious development work had been carried out on the Stirling engine for many years and asserted that modern materials and know-how should enable great improvements.
Encouraged by their first experimental engine, which produced 16 W of shaft power from a bore and stroke of 30 mm × 25 mm, various development models were produced in a program which continued throughout World War II. By the late 1940s, the'Type 10' was ready to be handed over to Philips's subsidiary Johan de Witt in Dordrecht to be produced and incorporated into a generator set as planned; the result, rated at 180/200 W electrical output from a bore and stroke of 55 mm × 27 mm, was designated MP1002CA. Production of an initial batch of 250 began in 1951, but it became clear that they could not be made at a competitive price, besides with the advent of transistor radios with their much lower power requirements meant that the original rationale for the set was disappearing. 150 of these sets were produced. In parallel with the generator set, Philips developed experimental Stirling engines for a wide variety of applic
SOAS, University of London
SOAS University of London is a public research university in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1916, SOAS is located in the heart of Bloomsbury in central London. SOAS is the world's leading institution for the study of Asia and the Middle East, it is home to the SOAS School of Law. SOAS offers around 350 undergraduate bachelor's degree combinations, more than 100 one-year master's degrees and PhD programmes in nearly every department. SOAS is ranked 4th globally in Development Studies by the 2018 QS World University Rankings. SOAS has produced several heads of states, government ministers, central bankers, Supreme Court judges, a Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and many other notable leaders around the world; the School of Oriental Studies was founded in 1916 at 2 Finsbury Circus, the premises of the London Institution. The school received its royal charter on 5 June 1916 and admitted its first students on 18 January 1917; the school was formally inaugurated a month on 23 February 1917 by King George V.
Among those in attendance were Earl Curzon of Kedleston Viceroy of India, other cabinet officials. The School of Oriental Studies was founded by the British state as an instrument to strengthen Britain's political and military presence in Asia and Africa, it would do so by providing instruction to colonial administrators, commercial managers and military officers, but to missionaries and teachers, in the language of that part of Asia or Africa to which each was being posted, together with an authoritative introduction to the customs, religion and history of the people whom they were to govern or among whom they would be working. The school's founding mission was to advance British scholarship and commerce in Africa and Asia and to provide London University with a rival to the Oriental schools of Berlin and Paris; the school became integral in training British administrators, colonial officials and spies for overseas postings across the British Empire. Africa was added to the school's name in 1938.
For a period in the mid-1930s, prior to moving to its current location at Thornhaugh Street, the school was located at Vandon House, Vandon Street, London SW1, with the library located at Clarence House. Its move to new premises in Bloomsbury was held up by delays in construction and the half-completed building took a hit during the Blitz in September 1940. With the onset of the Second World War, many University of London colleges were evacuated from London in 1939 and billeted on universities in the rest of the country; the School was, on the Government's advice, transferred to Cambridge. In 1940, when it became apparent that a return to London was possible, the school returned to the city and was housed for some months in eleven rooms at Broadway Court, 8 Broadway, London SW1. In 1942, the War Office joined with the school's Japanese department to help alleviate the shortage in Japanese linguists. State scholarships were offered to select grammar and public school boys to train as military translators and intelligence officers.
Lodged at Dulwich College in south London, the students became affectionately known as the Dulwich boys. Bletchley Park, the headquarters of the Government Code and Cypher School, was concerned about the slow pace of the SOAS, so they started their own Japanese-language courses at Bedford in February 1942; the courses were directed by army cryptographer, Col. John Tiltman, retired Royal Navy officer, Capt. Oswald Tuck. In recognition of SOAS's role during the war, the 1946 Scarborough Commission report recommended a major expansion in provision for the study of Asia and the school benefited from the subsequent largesse; the SOAS School of Law was established in 1947 with Professor Vesey-Fitzgerald as its first head. Growth however was curtailed by following years of economic austerity, upon Sir Cyril Philips assuming the directorship in 1956, the school was in a vulnerable state. Over his 20-year stewardship, Phillips transformed the school, raising funds and broadening the school's remit. A college of the University of London, the School's fields include Law, Social Sciences and Languages with special reference to Asia and Africa.
The SOAS Library, located in the Philips Building, is the UK's national resource for materials relating to Asia and Africa and is the largest of its kind in the world. The school has grown over the past 30 years, from fewer than 1,000 students in the 1970s to more than 6,000 students today, nearly half of them postgraduates. SOAS is partnered with the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales in Paris, considered the French equivalent of SOAS. In 2011, the Privy Council approved changes to the school's charter allowing it to award degrees in its own name, following the trend set by fellow colleges the London School of Economics, University College London and King's College London. All new students registered from September 2013 will qualify for a SOAS, University of London, award. In 2012, a new visual identity for SOAS was launched to be used in print, digital media and around the campus; the SOAS tree symbol, first implemented in 1989, was redrawn and recoloured in gold, with the new symbol incorporating the leaves of ten trees, including the English Oak representing England.
Worcester Shrub Hill railway station
Worcester Shrub Hill railway station is one of two railway stations serving the city of Worcester in Worcestershire, England. It is managed by West Midlands Trains, operating here under the West Midlands Railway brand, it is served by Great Western Railway; the platform 2B waiting room of Worcester Shrub Hill is Grade II* listed and reopened in 2015 after a ten-year refurbishment project. The city's other station, Worcester Foregate Street, is situated in the city centre. A third station Worcestershire Parkway is being built just outside the city to the south-east; the first station at Shrub Hill was opened in 1850 being jointly owned by the Oxford and Wolverhampton and Midland Railways. The present station building was designed by Edward Wilson and built in 1865, it is a Georgian-style building of engineering brick with stone facings. A key feature is the Grade II* waiting room see below. There was a train shed, removed in the 1930s; the cast iron railings on the station staircases remain hidden by boarding.
A survival at the station are the Western Region semaphore signals and the unique large round main aspect banjo signal located half-way along platform 1. The station is served by Cafe Loco, situated opposite the booking office, at the main entrance; the entire station is controlled by Worcester Shrub Hill Signal Box located at the'London' end of platform 1. The Worcester area is controlled by another two signal boxes at Henwick, Tunnel Junction to the north of Shrub Hill. Both platform 1 and 2 can be used in either direction trains for Foregate Street use platform one and trains towards Oxford and Cheltenham Spa use platform 2 but this is not in all cases. Platform 3 is a small bay, used for the former Wessex Trains/Wales & West service towards Cheltenham Spa, as it is a small south facing bay platform its use is limited. Trains leaving Shrub Hill for Foregate Street join a single line that ends near Henwick signal box south of Foregate Street station; this is one of the two single lines through Foregate Street Station.
Near to the station is Worcester Traction Maintenance Depot, operated by West Midlands Trains who stable trains at various locations around Shrub Hill station. Great Western Railway stable some of their Diesel Multiple Units at Worcester TMD. Shrub Hill station is home to West Midlands Great Western Railway train crew depots. To the north of the station behind platform 2 & 3 is a goods yard. Worcester Shrub Hill is served by West Midland Train's route from Worcester to Birmingham, via Kidderminster and Stourbridge Junction; this line runs to Birmingham Snow Hill and Birmingham Moor Street, with many of the services on it continuing through to either Whitlocks End or Dorridge. There are a limited number of trains via Bromsgrove to Birmingham New Street that start or terminate or call here at peak times or in the early morning/late evening. Most through services between Hereford and New Street otherwise take the direct route between Foregate St to Droitwich Spa to avoid the need for a reversal.
Great Western Railway operate about a dozen services a day to and from London Paddington, the majority of which are via the Cotswold Line and Oxford. Other services to and from London operate via Cheltenham Spa, the Gloucester/Swindon line and the Great Western Main Line via Didcot and Reading. GWR run services southwards every two hours to Bristol Temple Meads via Cheltenham and Gloucester, which mostly continue to either Weymouth or Brighton via Westbury. GWR run services via Worcester Foregate Street to Great Malvern and Hereford from Oxford and London. West Midlands Trains's service between Worcester and Gloucester via Ashchurch and Cheltenham to complement the 2-hourly Great Western Railway service was discontinued at the start of the December 2009 railway timetable due to low passenger usage - however West Midlands Trains still operate a single service from Birmingham New Street to Gloucester on Friday nights, departing at 23:46. Being the bigger of the two stations in Worcester, due to its sidings, Worcester Shrub Hill is used as stabling point for goods trains and locomotives, as well as an overnight stop for some Great Western Railway rolling stock.
On Platform 2b is the former ladies' waiting room. It is a cast-iron frame cast at the Vulcan Iron Works at Worcester; this was a subsidiary of the MacKenzie and Holland signal manufacturing company about 200 yards from Worcester Shrub Hill station. The exterior is decorated with classical pilasters and covered with "majolica" ceramic tiles made by Maw and Company of Broseley. Maw was a Worcester company founded in 1850 when they bought the old Chamberlain tile factory. However, in 1852 they moved to Broseley to be nearer their source of clay. In the main they made encaustic tiles rather than the "majolica" ceramic tiles used to decorate the Shrub Hill waiting room. Wojtczak writes that in 1873 there was Ladies’ Waiting Room Attendant called Mrs Dale who earned 10s and that this was the same rate of pay as a Mrs Spencer, the office cleaner, it is Grade II* listed and English Heritage placed it on the "Buildings At Risk Register" in 2003. The official records record that the waiting room was added c1880.
In 2005 the register records "The cast iron frame is in need of structural repair. The front wall is leaning out and shored up. Preliminary investigative work has been carried out, but repair works were delayed due to problem of locating specialist contractors." In April 2005, Network Rail applie
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation is a Japanese multinational electronics and electrical equipment manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is one of the core companies of Mitsubishi. Mitsubishi Electric manufactures electric and architectural equipment, is a major worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels; the corporation was established on 15 January 1921. In the United States, products are manufactured and sold by Mitsubishi Electric United States headquartered in Cypress, California. Mitsubishi Electric GlobalMitsubishi Electric - North America Canada Mitsubishi Electric United States Mitsubishi Electric Asia-PacificAustralia / New Zealand China Hong Kong India Taiwan Vietnam JapanThere are 11 facilities and 2 laboratories, for example, Kobe and Kamakura. Malaysia Singapore Thailand Mitsubishi Electric Saudi Ltd. - Saudi Arabia Mitsubishi Electric EuropeBenelux France Germany Ireland Italy Portugal Russia Spain Sweden / Denmark Finland / Norway United Kingdom Turkey Building Systems Air conditioning Systems Elevators & Escalators High-speed hand dryers Communication Systems Communication Systems Information Security Space Systems Industrial Automation Automation Systems Industrial Automation Machinery Medical Systems Particle Beam Treatment System Power Systems Solar Power Semiconductors & Devices Contact Image Sensors Electronic Devices TFT-LCDs Transportation Automotive Equipment Intelligent Transport Systems Transportation Systems Visual Information Systems High definition Televisions Large-Scale LED Displays Multimedia Projectors Nihon Kentetsu The company makes Active Electronically Scanned Array radar systems for the Mitsubishi F-2 fighter.
Televisions The company's most notable products in the United States come from the large-screen HDTV division. Competitors in this market are Sony, Panasonic, JVC, Daewoo, LG, Apex Digital; the company manufactured direct-view CRT televisions until 2001. The last notable size in this field was a 40" tube size. Mitsubishi manufactured LCD TVs until 2008. Mitsubishi manufactured DLP High Definition TVs until December, 2012; the company is now focusing on professional and home theater DLP projection applications, is no longer manufacturing televisions for the consumer market. Automotive parts Factory automation equipment Robots Elevators and escalatorsThe company held the record for the fastest elevator in the world, in the 70-story Yokohama Landmark Tower, from 1993 until 2005. Air conditioning systems EcoCute heat pump water heaters Dehumidifiers Uninterruptible Power Supply systems Mobile phones, from 1999 to 2008. Created for NTT DoCoMo. Mitsubishi quit the mobile phone business in Apr 2008 after decrease in shipments.
They estimated a temporary loss of 17 billion Yen in income before income taxes. Photovoltaic panels SCOPO; the Corporation claims to have achieved the world's first transmission at 10 Gbit/s between relay equipment boards set at a distance of 500 mm apart. Mitsubishi previously made Video Cassette Recorders known as the Mitsubishi Black Diamond VCR. Saffron Type System, an anti-aliased text-rendering engine, developed by Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories ITER nuclear fusion reactor With you today and tomorrow Advanced and advancing Mitsubishi Electric SOCIO-TECH: enhancing lifestyles through technology Changes for the Better List of elevator manufacturers Official website