Celebrity is the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or animals, but is applied to the persons or groups of people themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention. Celebrity status is associated with wealth, while fame provides opportunities to earn revenue. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are associated with celebrity status, while political leaders become celebrities. People may become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome lauded actors and notorious gladiators, Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime. In the early 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder, he was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years.
In a pattern repeated, what started out as an explosion of popularity turned into long-lasting fame: pilgrimages to Canterbury Cathedral where he was killed became fashionable and the fascination with his life and death have inspired plays and films. The cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation; the establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: for example and Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity; the movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th century and with it the now familiar concept of the recognizable faces of its superstars. Yet, celebrity was not always tied to actors in films when cinema was starting out as a medium; as Paul McDonald states in The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities, "in the first decade of the twentieth century, American film production companies withheld the names of film performers, despite requests from audiences, fearing that public recognition would drive performers to demand higher salaries."
Public fascination went well beyond the on-screen exploits of movie stars and their private lives became headline news: for example, in Hollywood the marriages of Elizabeth Taylor and in Bollywood the affairs of Raj Kapoor in the 1950s. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star and the pop group, epitomised by Elvis Presley and the Beatles, respectively. John Lennon's controversial 1966 quote: "We're more popular than Jesus now," which he insisted was not a boast, that he was not in any way comparing himself with Christ, gives an insight into both the adulation and notoriety that fame can bring. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not actors. However, most of these are only famous within the regions reached by their particular broadcaster, only a few such as Oprah Winfrey, Jerry Springer, or David Frost could be said to have broken through into wider stardom. In the'60s and early'70s, the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing.
In most cases, the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, but the celebrity would be available for a book tour and appearances on talk shows. Cultures and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television and music celebrities. A person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another; some nationwide celebrities might command some attention outside their own nation. S. whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States. Regions within a country, or cultural communities can have their own celebrity systems in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities. In politics, certain politicians are recognizable to many people the head of state and the Prime Minister.
Yet only heads of state who play a major role in international politics have a good chance of becoming famous outside their country's borders, since they are featured in mass media. The President of the United States, for instance, is famous by name and face to millions of people around the world. Since World War II the U. S. Presidential elections are followed all across the globe, making the elected candidate world-famous as a result. In contrast, both the Pope and The Dalai Lama are far more famous under their official title than under their actual names; when politicians leave active politics their recognizability tends to diminish among general audiences, as
A chef is a trained professional cook, proficient in all aspects of food preparation focusing on a particular cuisine. The word "chef" is derived from the director or head of a kitchen. Chefs can receive formal training from an institution, as well as by apprenticing with an experienced chef. There are different terms that use the word chef in their titles, deal with specific areas of food preparation, such as the sous-chef, who acts as the second-in-command in a kitchen, or the chef de partie, who handles a specific area of production, or “Television chef”, such as Alison Holst; the kitchen brigade system is a hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, many of which use the word "chef" in their titles. Underneath the chefs are the kitchen assistants. A chef's standard uniform includes a hat, double-breasted jacket and sturdy shoes; the word "chef" is derived from the term chef de cuisine, the director or head of a kitchen.. In English, the title "chef" in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century.
The culinary arts, among other aspects of the French language introduced French loan-words into the English language. Various titles, detailed below, are given to those working in a professional kitchen and each can be considered a title for a type of chef. Many of the titles are based on the brigade de cuisine documented by Auguste Escoffier, while others have a more general meaning depending on the individual kitchen. Other names include executive chef, chef manager, head chef, master chef; this person is in charge of all activities related to the kitchen, which includes menu creation, management of kitchen staff and purchasing of inventory, controlling raw material costs and plating design. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term. Head chef is used to designate someone with the same duties as an executive chef, but there is someone in charge of a head chef making the larger executive decisions such as direction of menu, final authority in staff management decisions, so on; this is the case for executive chefs with multiple restaurants.
Involved in checking the sensory evaluation of dishes after preparation and they are well aware of each sensory property of those specific dishes. In the UK, the title executive chef applies to hotels with multi outlets in the same hotel. Other establishments in the UK tend to use the title head chef; the Sous-Chef de Cuisine is the second-in-command and direct assistant of the Chef de Cuisine. Sous chef works under executive head chef; this person may be responsible for scheduling the kitchen staff, or substituting when the head chef is off-duty. He or she will fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie when needed; this person is accountable for the kitchen's inventory, cleanliness and the continuing training of its entire staff. A sous-chef's duties can include carrying out the head chef's directives, conducting line checks, overseeing the timely rotation of all food products. Smaller operations may not have a sous-chef; the sous chef is responsible when the Executive Chef is absent. A chef de partie known as a "station chef" or "line cook", is in charge of a particular area of production.
In large kitchens, each chef de partie might have several assistants. In most kitchens, the chef de partie is the only worker in that department. Line cooks are divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with "first cook" "second cook", so on as needed. A commis is a basic chef in larger kitchens who works under a chef de partie to learn the station's or range's responsibilities and operation; this may be a chef who has completed formal culinary training or is still undergoing training. Station-chef titles which are part of the brigade system include: Kitchen assistants are of two types, kitchen-hands and stewards/ kitchen porters. Kitchen-hands assist with basic food preparation tasks under the chef's direction, they carry out unskilled tasks such as peeling potatoes and washing salad. Stewards/ kitchen porters are involved in the scullery, washing up and general cleaning duties. In a smaller kitchen, these duties may be incorporated. A communard is in charge of preparing the meal for the staff during a shift.
This meal is referred to as the staff or family meal. The escuelerie, or the more modern plongeur or dishwasher, is the keeper of dishes, having charge of dishes and keeping the kitchen clean. A common humorous title for this role in some modern kitchens is "chef de plonge" or "head dishwasher". Culinary education is available from many institutions offering diploma and bachelor's degree programs in culinary arts. Depending on the level of education, this can take one to four years. An internship is part of the curriculum. Regardless of the education received, most professional kitchens follow the apprenticeship system, most new cooks will start at a lower-level 2nd or 1st cook position and work their way up; the training period for a chef is four years as an apprentice. A newly qualified chef is advanced or more a torquecommis-chef, consisting of first-year commis, second-year commis, so on; the rate of pay is in accordance with the chefs. Like all o
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o
A celebrity chef is a kitchen chef who has become a celebrity. Today, chefs become celebrities by presenting cookery advice and demonstrations through the mediums of television and radio, or in printed publications. While television is the primary way for a chef to become a celebrity, some have achieved this through success in the kitchen, cook book publications, achieving such awards as Michelin stars, while others are home cooks that won competitions. Celebrity chefs can massively influence cuisines across countries, with foreign cuisines being introduced in their natural forms for the first time due to the work of the chef to inform their viewers. Sales of certain foodstuffs can be enhanced, such as when Delia Smith caused the sale of white eggs across the UK to increase by 10% in what has since been termed the "Delia effect". Endorsements are to be expected from a celebrity chef, such as Ken Hom's range of bestselling woks in Europe, but can lead to criticism over which endorsements are chosen such as when Marco Pierre White teamed up with Bernard Matthews Farms, or when Darren Simpson advised and endorsed fast food restaurant KFC.
In South Korea, a celebrity chef is referred to as a Cheftainer. The earliest chef to be credited with being a celebrity was the 16th-century Italian, Bartolomeo Scappi, he was the personal chef to Pope Pius V, is credited with writing one of the first modern recipe books, Opera. The 19th-century French chef Marie-Antoine Carême has since been referred to as a celebrity of his era, due to the complexity of his recipes; the first chef to achieve widespread fame and celebrity status was Alexis Soyer. Born in France, Soyer became the most celebrated cook in early Victorian England. In 1837, he became chef de cuisine at the Reform Club in London, where he designed the kitchens with Charles Barry, his exceptional cooking skills were combined with an excellent eye to marketing and self-publicity to ensure that he molded the public's perception of him. His image was successfully used as a trademark to market a range of bottled sauces produced by Crosse & Blackwell. Soyer invented many popular new recipes and foods - he produced and marketed a popular drink made of a variety of fruits mixed with aerated water, which he called'Soyer’s Nectar Soda Water'.
His special dish at the Club, Soyer's Lamb Cutlets Reform, is still on the Club menu today. At the Reform Club, he instituted many innovations including cooking with gas, refrigerators cooled by cold water, ovens with adjustable temperatures, his kitchens were so famous. When Queen Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838, he prepared a breakfast for 2,000 people at the Club, he was well known for his philanthropy. During the Great Irish Famine in April 1847, he implemented a network of soup kitchens to feed the poor, his "famine soup" was served to thousands of the poor for free. Soyer wrote a number of bestselling books about cooking, one of them selling over a quarter of a million copies, his 1854 book A Shilling Cookery for the People was a recipe book for ordinary people who could not afford elaborate kitchen utensils or large amounts of exotic ingredients. Other works included The Gastronomic Regenerator, The modern Housewife or ménagère and Soyer's Culinary Campaign; the earliest television celebrity chef in the UK was Fanny Cradock.
She appeared from the 1950s through the 1970s. She became popular following the publication of her first cookbook in 1949, The Practical Cook, after gaining a cult following with cookery demonstrations in theatres around the country, her television career came to an end when she appeared as a judge on reality television show The Big Time in 1976. She appeared to pretend to retch as contestant Gwen Troake described her menu for former Prime Minister Edward Heath. Presenter Esther Rantzen described the incident as like "Cruella de Vil meets Bambi". Described as America's first celebrity chef, Julia Child first appeared on American television in 1963 on the Boston-based WGBH-TV, she soon starred in her own show The French Chef, followed by other shows. At the time of her death she was credited by the media as having "demystified the art of cuisine for the home cook and inspired many of today's celebrity chefs"; such was her impact on American cuisine, her kitchen has been preserved on display at the Smithsonian Museum of American History.
In recent years, gaining a Michelin star has increased a chef's profile sufficiently for them to be featured on television and become a household name. Marco Pierre White became the youngest chef in the world to achieve three Michelin stars, which went on to make him a household name and have one of his cookbooks, White Heat, described in 2005 as "possibly the most influential recipe book of the last 20 years" by food critic Jay Rayner. More typical of Michelin starred restaurants in recent years, the success of Gordon Ramsay led to the commissioning of five part television series Boiling Point by the UK's Channel 4 which followed the chef as he opened his first solo restaurant, Restaurant Gordon Ramsay. While Joël Robuchon, Alain Ducasse and Gordon Ramsay all run restaurant empires which each hold more than ten Michelin stars, Ramsay is arguably the more famous chef due to his number of television shows broadcast internationally both in the UK, the United States and around the world. Dedicated food related television channels have become a medium for chefs to become household names, for example in the United States, the Food Network features shows from celebrity chefs such as Paula Deen and Bobby Flay.
While in the UK, the Good Food Channel has shows with chefs such as Jamie Oliver. Certain chefs, such as Ni
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC