Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
2007 Stanley Cup Finals
The 2007 Stanley Cup Finals was the championship series of the National Hockey League's 2006–07 season, the culmination of the 2007 Stanley Cup playoffs. It was contested between the Western Conference champion Anaheim Ducks and the Eastern Conference champion Ottawa Senators, it was the second appearance in the Final for Anaheim since 2003 when they lost to the New Jersey Devils. It was the first appearance for the Senators since entering the NHL as an expansion team in 1992. Anaheim defeated Ottawa in five games and were awarded their first Stanley Cup becoming the eleventh post-1967 expansion team to win the NHL championship trophy, the first Stanley Cup championship for a team from California; this was the most recent year that both teams that went to the finals had never won the Stanley Cup before until the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. Prior to the season, the Ducks had been the pick of many in the media to make it to the Final, they did not disappoint; the second-seeded Anaheim Ducks defeated both the Minnesota Wild and Vancouver Canucks in five games before defeating their rivals the Detroit Red Wings in six games in the Western Conference Final.
The Ducks had the most penalties out of any team during the post-season and had one suspension going into the final, but had a top penalty-kill percentage. They were led by two Norris Trophy candidates captain Scott Niedermayer and Chris Pronger, the scoring touches of Andy McDonald, Teemu Selanne, Ryan Getzlaf, the goaltending of Jean-Sebastien Giguere; the Ducks were looking to shut down Ottawa's offense with the checking line of Rob Niedermayer, Samuel Pahlsson and Travis Moen, overall team defense. The fourth-seeded Ottawa Senators defeated the Pittsburgh Penguins, upset both the New Jersey Devils and Buffalo Sabres, all in five games apiece, en route to their first Eastern Conference championship. Ottawa was led by the top line of captain Daniel Alfredsson, Dany Heatley, Jason Spezza, who combined for 23 goals in the first three rounds, the goaltending of Ray Emery. Other Senators who played pivotal roles were forwards Mike Fisher and Dean McAmmond and defensemen Chris Phillips and Anton Volchenkov.
The Senators were looking to work past Anaheim's defense with their speed and higher-scoring offence, although both teams played a similar style of responsible team defence. Anaheim had home ice advantage for the series, as they finished the regular season with 110 points to Ottawa's 105; the attention leading into the finals was Ottawa being "Canada's Team" despite Anaheim having five more Canadian skaters than the Senators. Many fans were saying that the Stanley Cup needed to be brought back to Canada after a 14-year drought. Only four players remained on the Ducks roster from 2003, including the Conn Smythe Trophy winner, Jean-Sebastien Giguere; the 2003 club's general manager, Bryan Murray, was now the Ottawa head coach. Two Ottawa-area players were in the finals; the Senators and Ducks had never met in the playoffs before, had not played each other since January 19, 2006, when the Ducks won 4–3 in a shootout in Ottawa. This was the first time since the 1925 Victoria Cougars that a team from the west coast of North America won the Stanley Cup, the first time an NHL team from the west coast had done so.
The Ducks are the fourth west coast team to win the Cup, the first from California. Senators captain Daniel Alfredsson, from Sweden, was the first European-born-and-raised captain to lead his team to the final. Only Canadians or an American had captained teams in the final; the Ducks had more Canadian players than the Senators. The 2007 final marked the third straight in which a Canadian franchise lost against a franchise based in the southern United States; the series marked the first time that two teams from the early-'90s expansion era faced each other in the final. It was the first final since 1999; as well, this was the third season in a row that the Cup was won by a team winning its first Cup after Tampa Bay in 2004 and Carolina in 2006. It was the 1st final since the 2002 Stanley Cup Finals, when Detroit defeated Carolina in 5 games, that didn't need a 7th game after New Jersey in 2003, Tampa Bay in 2004, Carolina in 2006 all won in 7 games The third game, in Ottawa on June 2, was attended by 91-year-old Russell Williams as a guest of the Senators.
He had attended the last Finals game in Ottawa versus the Boston Bruins in the old Ottawa Auditorium. His presence was a good-luck charm. Much like the Red Mile in Calgary during the Flames' 2004 cup run and the Blue Mile in Edmonton during the Oilers' 2006 Cup run, Ottawa Senators fans took to the streets to celebrate their team's success; the idea to have a Sens Mile began as a grassroots campaign on Facebook by Ottawa residents before game four of the Ottawa-Buffalo Eastern Conference Finals series. Their idea was to use Elgin Street as a gathering place for Sens fans to celebrate. Since Scotiabank Place is located in suburban Ottawa, spontaneous celebration did not occur during the Se
2009–10 NHL season
The 2009–10 NHL season was the 93rd season of operation of the National Hockey League. It ran from October 1, 2009, including four games in Europe on October 2 and 3—until April 11, 2010, with the 2010 Stanley Cup playoffs running to June 9, 2010. A mid-season break from February 15 to February 28 occurred to allow participation of NHL players in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver; because of the Winter Olympics break, there was no NHL All-Star Game for 2010. The Stanley Cup Final saw the Chicago Blackhawks defeat the Philadelphia Flyers in six games; the salary cap was only increased a small amount for 2009–10 season. It was set at $56.8 million, $100,000 higher than in the 2008–09 season. The salary floor was $40.8 million. The Entry Draft was held June 26 -- 2009 at the Bell Centre in Montreal, Quebec; the New York Islanders chose John Tavares with the first overall pick. Other notable picks were Victor Hedman, Evander Kane and Oliver Ekman-Larsson. Several teams debuted new third uniforms this season, while Philadelphia and Edmonton made their third uniform their primary home jersey, Chicago made the jersey they wore for the previous season's Winter Classic their new alternate.
The New Jersey Devils announced plans to play one game wearing their 1982–1992 uniforms, albeit transferred onto the league's current RBK Edge jersey template. In addition, NHL officials had new uniforms. Prior to the season, a contract dispute between Versus and satellite television supplier DirecTV blacked out Versus for 14 million satellite subscribers. Versus was restored to DirecTV in March 2010. While negotiations were secret, it was reported by the media that the dispute was over the'slotting' of Versus with other channels. Versus was restored to DirecTV in the same tier of channels as the previous season. Versus President Jamie Davis confirmed that the dispute was necessary to get "the same level of distribution we had prior to be taken off the air"; the Phoenix Coyotes' holding company, Dewey Ranch Hockey LLC, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In a statement, Moyes announced that he had agreed in principle to sell the team to PSE Sports and Entertainment, headed by Research in Motion co-CEO Jim Balsillie, for $212.5 million.
As part of the deal, Balsillie intended to move the Coyotes to Ontario. Although initial reports said that Balsillie was considering Kitchener as well, Hamilton has an NHL-sized arena in place, Copps Coliseum, Balsillie was in talks with city officials to secure a lease for the arena. Hamilton had bid for an NHL team in the 1990s, losing out to Ottawa. Balsillie had made unsuccessful approaches to purchase the Pittsburgh Penguins and Nashville Predators, with the intent of relocating either team to Hamilton; the NHL opposed the matter went to Phoenix bankruptcy court. Two other potential bidders for the team emerged, Jerry Reinsdorf, owner of the Chicago White Sox and Ice Edge Holdings. Bankruptcy hearings were held from May until September. Reinsdorf and Ice Edge did not bid for the team, the NHL put in the only rival bid for the team at court. In September, a Phoenix bankruptcy court rejected offers from the NHL and Jim Balsillie, ending Balsillie's plan to move the Coyotes to Hamilton; the NHL's offer was rejected because it left out creditors Jerry Wayne Gretzky.
On Balsillie's offer, Judge Redfield T. Baum refused to sanction the use of bankruptcy to force relocation of a franchise on a league. Gretzky, head coach of the team for the previous four seasons, stayed away from training camp and was replaced; the Coyotes played their first home game to a sell-out. In the month, the NHL and Moyes came to a tentative agreement to transfer ownership of the Coyotes to the NHL. In December, the NHL announced that Ice Edge Holdings, a partnership of Canadians and Phoenix-area businessmen, had signed a letter of intent with the NHL to purchase the Coyotes. Ice Edge, which plans to keep the team in Phoenix, plans to play five Coyotes home games in Saskatoon, each season as part of a five-year plan to return the Coyotes to profitability. Ice Edge would still have to negotiate a lease agreement with the City of Glendale, have its ownership approved by the NHL Board of Governors. On March 6, the NHL launched a lawsuit for $61 million against former Coyotes owner Jerry Moyes to recover $10 million in bankruptcy court costs, $20 million in losses for 2009–10 and $11.6 million owed to creditors.
Three weeks the Coyotes clinched their first playoff berth since 2002. On April 13, Arizona City Council approved a lease and sale agreement with Jerry Reinsdorf to take over the Coyotes and their lease of the Jobing.com Arena. The Council rejected the Ice Edge group; the agreement will create a special tax district surrounding the arena. Businesses in that district will pay $47 million annually to support the team; the agreement gives Reinsdorf the option to move the team after five years if revenues are not up to expectations. Former Coyotes CEO Jeff Shumway criticized the deal, saying that the team would not have gone bankrupt if the same deal had been available two years earlier. Reinsdorf's bid, which will pay the NHL $65 million for the team, has to be approved by the league board of governors; the 2009–10 pre-season for most teams started on September 14, 2009. Since 2006, Kraft Foods has sponsored a sweepstakes called Kraft Hockeyville, in which various small cities across Canada compete aga
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
Marc Savard is a Canadian former professional ice hockey centre who played in the National Hockey League for the New York Rangers, Calgary Flames, Atlanta Thrashers and Boston Bruins. Savard's career ended late in the 2010–11 season due to post-concussion syndrome, he did not formally announce his retirement until the conclusion of his contract with Boston after the 2016–17 season. Savard played major junior hockey in the Ontario Hockey League with the Oshawa Generals, beginning in 1993–94. After his second season with the Generals, in which he scored a league-leading 139 points, he was selected 91st overall in the 1995 NHL Entry Draft by the New York Rangers, he continued to play in the OHL for two more seasons and earned his second Eddie Powers Memorial Trophy as the OHL's leading scorer with 130 points in 1996–97. Savard added 27 points in 15 playoff games, guiding the Generals to the 1997 J. Ross Robertson Cup and an appearance in the 1997 Memorial Cup. In 1997–98, Savard was assigned by the Rangers to their American Hockey League affiliate, the Hartford Wolfpack.
He scored 74 points with Hartford while being called up to play in 28 games for the Rangers in his rookie professional campaign. The following season, he scored 45 points in 70 games. On June 26, 1999, shortly after the completion of Savard’s first full season with the Rangers, he was traded to the Calgary Flames, along with the Rangers' first-round choice in 1999, in exchange for the playing rights to Jan Hlaváč, Calgary's first-round pick and third-round pick in the 1999 Draft. Savard continued to improve with the Flames and in 2000–01, he finished second in team scoring to Jarome Iginla with 65 points. Shortly after beginning his fourth season with the Flames, Savard was acquired by the Atlanta Thrashers from Calgary in exchange for Ruslan Zainullin on November 15, 2002. Playing with superstar wingers Dany Heatley and Ilya Kovalchuk, Savard became a point-per-game player and recorded 52 points in 45 games during an injury shortened 2003–04 season. Due to the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Savard played in the Swiss leagues with HC Thurgau of Nationalliga B and with SC Bern of Nationalliga A.
When NHL play resumed the following season, he emerged as a top talent in the NHL with a career-high 97 points, good for ninth overall in the league. At the end of his breakthrough season, Savard became an unrestricted free agent and signed with the Boston Bruins to a four-year, $20 million contract on July 1, 2006, he picked up where he left off in Atlanta and led the Bruins in scoring in his first season with the team, tallying 96 points. His 74 assists were good for third in the league for the second consecutive season, behind Joe Thornton and Sidney Crosby. In his second season with the Bruins, Savard was named to his first NHL All-Star Game in 2008, replacing an injured Dany Heatley, he scored the game-winning goal with 21 seconds remaining in the third period. Although Savard's offensive production was cut down to 78 points because of injury in the 2007–08 season, he made his Stanley Cup playoffs debut after 11 seasons in the NHL; as the Bruins faced the Montreal Canadiens in the opening round, Savard scored his first NHL playoff goal in the first overtime of Game 3.
He scored six points in the series. Savard was named as a reserve to his second All-Star Game in Montreal the following season, in 2008–09, helped lead the Bruins to a first-place finish in the Eastern Conference. Savard led the Bruins in scoring with 88 points in 82 games before adding 13 points in 11 playoff games. Playing the Canadiens in the first round for the second consecutive year and the Bruins swept the series in four games, he advanced to the second round for the first time in his career, where the Bruins were eliminated in seven games by the Carolina Hurricanes. Seven games into the 2009–10 season, Savard sustained a broken foot while inadvertently blocking a shot. After he was taken to Massachusetts General Hospital, tests revealed he had been playing with an injured foot since taking a previous shot in the foot during training camp. Savard was placed on the long-term injured reserve on October 21, 2009. Shortly after returning to the line-up, the Bruins signed Savard to a seven-year extension on December 1, worth $28.05 million.
The contract is spread out with $14 million the first two years and $14 million for the remaining five. On January 7, 2010, only 28 seconds into his first shift on the ice, Marc Savard suffered a right knee injury after colliding with Jonathan Toews from the Chicago Blackhawks. After getting an MRI, he was placed on injured reserve with a minor MCL tear in his right knee. No surgery was required. On March 7, 2010, Savard suffered a Grade 2 concussion in the third period of the Bruins' game against the Pittsburgh Penguins after getting a shoulder to the head from Matt Cooke; the on-ice officials did not penalize Cooke for the hit, on March 10, Colin Campbell declared that the NHL would not suspend or fine Cooke. The hit and its aftermath were part of the key evidence that caused NHL to institute a new rule that more penalized blindside hits. Savard was not taken to a hospital following the incident but stayed behind at a Pittsburgh hotel for the night before returning to Boston the following day.
Savard recovered enough to be cleared to play for the 2010 playoff series against the Philadelphia Flyers after their victory against the Buffalo Sabres. He scored the winning goal in overtime in the Bruins' win in Game 1 of the series. Savard was diagnosed with post-con
Bryan Murray (ice hockey)
Bryan Clarence Murray was a Canadian professional ice hockey executive and coach. He served as general manager of the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League from 2007 to 2016, he had been general manager of the NHL's Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, Florida Panthers, Detroit Red Wings. He was the head coach for the Washington Capitals, Detroit Red Wings, Florida Panthers, Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, Ottawa Senators, for a total of 17 full or partial seasons, he compiled over 600 NHL victories in regular season games. In his 13 full NHL seasons as head coach, he took his teams to the playoffs 12 times. In other leagues, he was head coach of the American Hockey League's Hershey Bears and the Western Hockey League's Regina Pats. Murray played hockey in his hometown of Shawville growing up, joining the Shawville Pontiacs intermediate club at age 14, he joined the Rockland Nationals of the Central Junior Hockey League. He attended Macdonald College, a suburban campus of McGill University, located in Ste.
Anne de Bellevue, Quebec. He worked as a gym teacher, he went into business buying a local motel. Murray began his coaching career as coach with the Rockland Nationals in 1976 when the team went all the way and won the Centennial Cup of the Canadian Junior Hockey League, he earned a good reputation as a coach and was offered a position with the Pembroke Lumber Kings, with the Regina Pats of the Western Hockey League. He left his business interests in the hands of family members, moved west, he took Regina to the Memorial Cup in 1980. Murray became the head coach of the American Hockey League's Hershey Bears in 1980–81, served in that role until he was promoted to head coach of the Washington Capitals, Hershey Bears' parent NHL team, partway through the next season in 1981–82. In seven full seasons with the Capitals, Murray brought the team to the playoffs each year, these playoff appearances were the first in franchise history. In his second year, the Capitals won their first playoff series. However, his teams did not advance beyond the second round.
He won the Jack Adams Award as coach of the year in 1984. Murray was fired partway through the 1989–90 season, with the team struggling, was replaced by his brother Terry Murray. In 1990, Murray became coach and general manager of the Detroit Red Wings; the team had good results in his three seasons, making the playoffs each year, but not getting beyond the second round. Murray remained as general manager in 1993–94 season, after the team named Scotty Bowman as head coach. Murray departed the Red Wings following the season. Murray was next appointed general manager of the expansion Florida Panthers in 1994. In 1996, the young Panthers made it to the Stanley Cup Finals, Murray was selected as NHL Executive of the Year, he coached the Panthers for part of the 1997–98 season. He next joined the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim as head coach for the 2001–02 season. From 2002 to 2004 Murray was general manager of the Mighty Ducks, again saw his team make a mark in the playoffs, reaching the Stanley Cup Finals.
After a disappointing 2003–04 season with the Mighty Ducks, he surprised many by deciding to resign from the general manager post, became the head coach of the Ottawa Senators. On February 20, 2007, he became the fifth NHL coach to achieve 600 victories, in a shootout win against the Edmonton Oilers. Despite this impressive number of victories, Murray never won a Stanley Cup. In his most recent trip to the Finals as head coach in 2007, the Senators team that he coached lost in five games to his former club, the Anaheim Ducks; that was the only season in Murray's 17 years as an NHL head coach that his team advanced beyond the second playoff round. With the firing of John Muckler on June 18, 2007, Murray was promoted to general manager of the Senators, while assistant coach John Paddock took over the club's head coaching duties. However, on February 27, 2008, following a 15–2 start, which had put the Senators in first place in the Eastern Conference, Murray fired Paddock after the team struggled through a disastrous January and February.
Murray stepped in as interim head coach for the remainder of the 2007–08 season, finishing with a 7–9–2 record, with the team finishing in seventh place in the Eastern Conference. The Senators were swept in the first round of the playoffs by the Pittsburgh Penguins. Craig Hartsburg was hired as the new coach of the team in June 2008. After the Senators struggled for most of the 2008–09 season, Murray fired Hartsburg after a 7–4 loss against the Capitals. In 48 games as head coach of the Senators, Hartsburg posted a 17–24–7 record. Cory Clouston, head coach of the AHL's Binghamton Senators, the team's top farm club, was hired as interim head coach, Clouston was appointed as head coach on a two-year contract following the end of that season. Murray signed a three-year contract extension as general manager on April 8, 2011, he fired Clouston and two assistant coaches on April 9, 2011, following the Senators' last game of the season. The team had been beset by injuries to key players such as captain Daniel Alfredsson and star forward Jason Spezza, leading to a mid-season collapse.
Murray made a flurry of trades in 2011, after the Senators had fallen out of contention, promoted many younger players from the team's Binghamton farm club. In 2015, he was inducted into the Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame. Murray, one of ten children born to Clarence and Rhoda Murray, was born and raised in the small Ottawa Valley town of Shawville, near Ottawa, he had two daughters with his wife Geri and Brittany. His younger brother, Terry Murray, was head
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League. Since the 2010–11 season, every team in the league has an affiliation agreement with one NHL team; when NHL teams do not have an AHL affiliate, players are assigned to AHL teams affiliated with other NHL teams. Twenty-seven AHL teams are located in the United States and the remaining four are in Canada; the league offices are located in Springfield and its current president is David Andrews. In general, a player must be at least 18 years of age to play in the AHL or not be beholden to a junior ice hockey team; the league limits the number of experienced professional players on a team's active roster during any given game. The AHL allows for practice squad contracts; the annual playoff champion is awarded the Calder Cup, named for Frank Calder, the first President of the NHL. The reigning champions are the Toronto Marlies.
The AHL traces its origins directly to two predecessor professional leagues: the Canadian-American Hockey League, founded in 1926, the first International Hockey League, established in 1929. Although the Can-Am League never operated with more than six teams, the departure of the Boston Bruin Cubs after the 1935–36 season reduced it down to just four member clubs – the Springfield Indians, Philadelphia Ramblers, Providence Reds, New Haven Eagles – for the first time in its history. At the same time, the then-rival IHL lost half of its eight members after the 1935–36 season leaving it with just four member teams: the Buffalo Bisons, Syracuse Stars, Pittsburgh Hornets, Cleveland Falcons. With both leagues down to the bare minimum in membership, the governors of each recognized the need for action to assure their member clubs' long-term survival, their solution was to play an interlocking schedule. While the Can-Am League was based in the Northeast and the IHL in the Great Lakes, their footprints were close enough for this to be a viable option.
The two older leagues' eight surviving clubs began joint play in November 1936 as a new two-division "circuit of mutual convenience" known as the International-American Hockey League. The four Can-Am teams became the I-AHL East Division, with the IHL quartet playing as the West Division; the IHL contributed its former championship trophy, the F. G. "Teddy" Oke Trophy, which would go to the regular-season winners of the merged league's West Division until 1952. The Oke Trophy is now awarded to the regular-season winners of the AHL's Northeast Division. A little more than a month into that first season, the balance and symmetry of the new combined circuit suffered a setback when its membership unexpectedly fell to seven teams; the West's Buffalo Bisons were forced to cease operations on December 6, 1936, after playing just 11 games, because of what proved to be insurmountable financial problems and lack of access to a suitable arena. The makeshift new I-AHL played out the rest of its first season with just seven teams.
At the end of the 1936–37 season, a modified three-round playoff format was devised and a new championship trophy, the Calder Cup, was established. The Syracuse Stars defeated the Philadelphia Ramblers in the final, three-games-to-one, to win the first-ever Calder Cup championship; the Calder Cup continues on today as the AHL's playoff championship trophy. After two seasons of interlocking play, the governors of the two leagues' seven active teams met in New York City on June 28, 1938, agreed that it was time to formally consolidate. Maurice Podoloff of New Haven, the former head of the Can-Am League, was elected the I-AHL's first president; the former IHL president, John Chick of Windsor, became vice-president in charge of officials. The new I-AHL added an eighth franchise at the 1938 meeting to fill the void in its membership left by the loss of Buffalo two years earlier with the admission of the two-time defending Eastern Amateur Hockey League champion Hershey Bears; the Bears remain the only one of these eight original I-AHL/AHL franchises to have been represented in the league without interruption since the 1938–39 season.
The newly merged circuit increased its regular-season schedule for each team by six games from 48 to 54. After the 1939–40 season the I-AHL renamed itself the American Hockey League, it enjoyed both consistent success on the ice and relative financial stability over its first three decades of operation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the cost of doing business in professional ice hockey began to rise with NHL expansion and relocation and the 1972 formation of the World Hockey Association, which forced the relocation and subsequent folding of the Cleveland Barons, Baltimore Clippers, Quebec Aces; the number of major-league teams competing for players rose from six to thirty in just seven years. Player salaries at all levels shot up with the increased demand and competition for their services; this did not seem to affect the AHL at first, as it expanded to 12 teams by 1970. However, to help compensate for the rise in player salaries, many NHL clubs cut back on the number of p