Höhere Technische Lehranstalt
A Höhere Technische Lehranstalt is an engineering-focused secondary school in Austria. As an umbrella term it is used for either Höhere Technische Lehranstalt, Höhere Technische Bundeslehranstalt, or Höhere Technische Bundeslehr- und Versuchsanstalt; these institutions are an important part of Austrian vocational education. HTLs specialise in disciplines such as civil engineering, electrical engineering, information technology, industrial engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry. There are 75 HTLs in Austria. HTLs existed in Switzerland until 1995 when these institutions were converted into Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences. Höhere Technische Lehranstalten offer four different types of courses: Fachschule courses last four years; the first year at a HTL is also the last year of compulsory education, which ends in Austria with grade 9 so students are at least 14 years old when they enter HTL. After four years, students have to complete a Technikerarbeit, a final examination project and pass the final examinations to graduate from HTL.
Students can attend the examinations for the Berufsreifeprüfung, but these examinations are voluntary. The Berufsreifeprüfung formally enables students to attend university; the so-called Höhere Abteilung offers the most common type of courses at Austrian HTLs. The courses last five years and start with grade 9; this type of education has a number of similarities to Japanese colleges of technology. After five years, students may complete the school via a Diplomarbeit, a final examination project that requires several hundred hours of work – similar to a Technikerarbeit but at higher level. After that, a student has to pass one written test in mathematics, an exam in a main technical subject and one in a language and the final oral examinations to graduate; the examinations are called Reife- und Diplomprüfung since the Austrian Reifeprüfung is an integral part of it and students are formally enabled to attend university. After three years of work experience in engineering graduates can apply for the Austrian professional title Ingenieur engineer.
According to Council Directive 92/51/EEC of 18 June 1992 on a second general system for the recognition of professional education and training, Annex D this certificate was equivalent to university education of at least 1 year but less than 3 years, similar to e.g. a Foundation degree. Directive 92/51/EEC is no more in force - it was repealed by Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications; the so-called Abendschule offers a type of course, similar to the Höhere Abteilung and intended for people who want to study while they work. These courses are organized in 8 semesters and are completed with a Reife- und Diplomprüfung just like the Höhere Abteilung; the fourth type of courses at HTLs are special post-secondary courses for students who have completed an apprenticeship, are master craftsmen or graduated from Gymnasium with Matura. These types of courses are offered at the Höhere Abteilungen and end with the same qualifications as the five-year courses.
The largest HTL in Austria with 3.500 students is the HTBLuVA Mödling, the largest school in Europe. The oldest Austrian vocational school is the HTBLuVA Wien 5 Spengergasse in Vienna, established in 1758 by Maria Theresia; the HTBLVA TGM in Vienna has the highest school building in Austria. The HTBLVA TGM has the largest base area of any HTL in Austria. Education in Austria List of universities in Austria www.htl.at Internet platform for diploma projects and final examination projects at Austrian HTLs www.bildungssystem.at - Information about the Austrian educational system www.bmukk.gv.at - The Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, the Arts and Culture
Warsteiner beer is brewed in the Arnsberg Forest Nature Park outside of Warstein, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Warsteiner has been owned by the Cramer family since 1753. Warsteiner is Germany's largest owned brewery. Warsteiner ranks fifth among Germany's best selling breweries; the history of the brewing family begins in 1753, when farmer Antonius Cramer had to pay a tax of 1 thaler, 19 guilders on beer he brewed and sold himself. His son Johannes Vitus followed in his footsteps and brought the selling of home-brewed beer into his house, in the heart of Warstein, his company benefited from its central location. However, in 1802 a devastating fire left Warstein in ruins and ashes - the business of the Cramers fell victim to the flames. At the same time, they rebuilt their house as a guest accommodation and became through the establishment of the St. Pancras Church the centre of the town; the headquarters of the Warsteiner Brewery, the Domschänke, still stands today in the historic core of Warstein.
Breweries in the Rhine valley were bombed during World War II, the Warstein brewery sustained some damage. The newly remodelled brewery can package 5,000 bottles per hour. To appeal to German young adults, Warsteiner began a beer-mix drink campaign that includes a Premium Cola, which contains caffeine, as well as Premium Lemon and Premium Orange drinks. Furthermore, Warsteiner has created a long-neck beer bottle and a "limited club edition" clear-glass bottle to target club-goers. All beers are brewed in strict accordance with the Germany Purity Law of 1516. Premium Verum, a pilsener style beer, is Warsteiner's most popular beer, is exported to over 60 countries; the ingredients are two-row malted summer barley and all German hops. The alcohol content is 4.8%. Premium Dunkel is Warsteiner's second most popular beer. Dunkel is a traditional style, dark beer with an alcohol content of 4.8%. Warsteiner's only non-alcoholic beer, brewed like the Premium Verum and having the alcohol extracted; the beer contains 80 calories per 12 oz. bottle.
Royal Bavarian is a golden hefeweizen style beer. It is brewed with natural yeast and Bavarian ingredients, has an alcohol content of 5.5%. Warsteiner has been exporting its beers internationally since the 1980s. Furthermore, Warsteiner founded and acquired shares in other international breweries like Isenbeck brewery in Argentina and breweries in Africa. Warsteiner in the United States is friendly to homebrewers in that its bottles are pry-offs, the labels come off with ease after a short soak, rendering the bottles re-usable. All North American Warsteiner products are brewed, bottled and canned at the brewery in Warstein, Germany. Warsteiner makes a seasonal beer entitled "Oktoberfest" for the Bavarian celebrations each year. Warsteiner Owner Albert Cramer has been a staunch advocate of competitive ballooning and Warsteiner is the sponsor of the German Hot Air Balloon National Team. Cramer and Warsteiner received the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Air Sports Federation Award in 2001 and continue to be involved in Air Sports sponsorships and activities.
Warsteiner participated in the popular Newton Beerfest in October 2006, in which the company showcased its lemon-flavored Hefeweizen beer, as well as other popular beers. In the past, the company has sponsored Austrian racing driver Harald Ertl; the Warsteiner slogan, found on each bottle reads, "Eine Königin unter den Bieren" which translates into English as "A Queen amongst Beers", referring to the queen's crown on each beer bottle. Warsteiner served on all flights. List of brewing companies in Germany Warsteiner International Warsteiner USA
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship; the name returned in 2017. While Formula One has been regarded as the pinnacle of open-wheeled auto racing, the high-performance nature of the cars and the expense involved in the series has always meant a need for a path to reach this peak. For much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller and less powerful than Grand Prix racers; this category was called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves. By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines. In 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced.
Formula A permitted the old 4.5 L aspirated cars, but as the 3.0 L supercharged cars were more than a match for these, the old 1.5 L voiturette formula replaced 3.0 L supercharged cars in an attempt to equalise performance. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix; the rules limited engines to two-litre aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and cheaper than those used in Formula One; this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954, but a new Formula Two was introduced for 1957, for 1.5 L cars.
This became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and'Bobtail' sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success. Ferrari developed their'Sharknose' Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, while still racing front-engined Grand Prix cars; the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the rear-engined era in Formula One; the 1.5 L formula was short-lived, with Formula Junior replacing first Formula Three and Formula Two until 1963—but the 1961 1.5 L Formula One was a continuation of this Formula Two. Formula Junior was introduced in 1959, an attempt to be all things to all people, it was soon realised that there was a need to split it into two new formulae. Formula Two was the domain of Formula One stars on their days off. Engines were by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM.
For 1967, the FIA increased the maximum engine capacity to 1600cc. With the "return to power" of Formula One the gap between Formula One and Formula Two was felt to be too wide, the introduction of new 1600cc production-based engine regulations for Formula Two restored the category to its intended role as a feeder series for Formula One; the FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. Ickx, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner; the most popular 1600cc engine was the Cosworth FVA, the sixteen-valve head on a four-cylinder Cortina block, the "proof of concept" for the legendary DFV. The 1967 FVA gave 220 bhp at 9000 rpm. Other units appeared, including a four-cylinder BMW and a V6 Dino Ferrari. Many Formula One drivers continued to drive the smaller and lighter cars on non-championship weekends, some Grand Prix grids would be a mix of Formula One and Formula Two cars. Jacky Ickx made his Grand Prix debut there in a Formula Two car, qualifying with the fifth fastest time overall.
Forced to start behind the slower Formula One cars, Ickx forced his way back into a points position, only to be forced to retire with broken suspension. Jim Clark, regarded as one of the greatest race drivers of all time, was killed in a Formula Two race early in 1968, at the Hockenheimring; the "invasion" of Formula One drivers in Formula Two ranks was permitted because of the unique grad
Formula Super Vee
Formula Super Vee was an open-wheel racing series that took place in Europe and the United States from 1970 to 1990. The formula was created as an extension of Formula Vee, a racing class, introduced in 1959. Formula Super Vee in Europe was similar to F3 or Formula Renault today, a stepping stone to F1. In the United States, Formula Super Vee referred to as Super Vee, was a natural progression to Indy Car and Can-Am. On both sides of the Atlantic the series was a platform for the promotion of VW products, similar to how Formula Renault promotes Renault products today, it was seen as a simple step up from Formula Vee, using the same type 3 air-cooled VW engines, but in 1600cc. However it soon transformed to using the different and more powerful fuel injected water-cooled engines from the VW Golf/Rabbit. To assist the launch of the new formula Volkswagen of America's, Jo Hopen, commissioned Gene Beach, an established constructor of Formula Vee cars, to design and build the first Super Vee and put this car on display at the Daytona 24 hour race.
Beach was one of the first three constructors of Formula Vees, along with Formcar. It is therefore appropriate that a Super Vee designed and built by Ray Caldwell’s Autodynamics concern soon joined the Beach Super Vee; this second Super Vee was put on display at the New York Auto Show. Other manufacturers soon followed suit, with Formula Vee constructors such as Zink Cars joined by more mainstream firms such as Lola. John Zeitler built his first cars around the same time as Beach and Caldwell; as a matter of fact, John Zeitler won the first Super Vee race at Lime Rock Park in 1970. This race was run with the Formula Ford class; the series allowed 1600cc air-cooled engines of either type 3 or type 4, however at a late stage VW had a change of heart and decided that the type 4 engines would be a better option. The type 4 engine is without doubt a better engine. However, this motor was never produced in a 1600cc version so VW decided to produce a "special" 1600cc version through their industrial engines division, with smaller pistons and barrels, which reduced the capacity to 1600cc.
As with any formula, Formula Super Vee progressed through a number of changes during its life. For example, the cars ran without wings and used drum brakes at the rear; the regulations allowed the use of 8-inch rear wheels, rear disc brakes and 34 mm exhaust valves and rear wings. Since slick tyres had yet to be introduced into racing, the cars ran with treaded racing tyres, such as the Firestone "No-DOT", but moved onto slicks; the original regulations specified cars ran with fixed ratio VW boxes. In Europe a company called Metso began building Hewland-like boxes which provided the ability to change ratios to suit each circuit and exploited the wording of the regulations, which had banned Hewland boxes rather than explicitly specifying the fixed ratio VW box. Once the cars started to use Metso boxes the regulations were changed and Hewland Gearboxes were allowed; this change, combined with start money being offered by Hewland to drivers using its products put Metso out of business, although the company did build boxes for other formula cars such as Formula Fords.
Much engine regulations were opened up, allowing fuel injected water-cooled engines from the Volkswagen Golf. The water-cooled engines replaced the air-cooled, which were rendered uncompetitive, many air-cooled cars were converted to accept the water-cooled engine; some constructors, such as Lola, offered "conversion kits" which allowed the fitment of the Golf/Rabbit engine to earlier air-cooled chassis. The SCCA in the USA did allow 1700cc air-cooled engines towards the end of the air-cooled period, to remain competitive while the water-cooled cars joined the grid; the most developed version of Super Vee was to be found in the USA, since they continued with a Super Vee series years after the formula had died away elsewhere. Indeed, by late 70s Super Vee in the USA had become the feeder formula for Indy cars, referred to as the "Mini-Indy" series; this series was run in conjunction with the much older VW-Bosch "Gold Cup" for Super V. This series lasted until 1990 and, unlike the oval track USAC Mini Indy Series, was a road racing series.
Each series crowned its own champion each year. In the late 70s the Ron Tauranac designed the Ralt RT1 and RT5, based on his Formula 3 designs, had a virtual monopoly in the USA series. Engine: Type 3 1600cc. Dry sump not allowed. Cooling: air, with external oil coolers and oil filters. Carburetion: free, however most used Weber 48 IDA or Solex 40P11 dual downdraft; some use of Weber IDF and DCNF.. Transmission: stock VW from the 1969 Square back/fastback series. However, gear ratios were open and immediately Webster and Hewland gear sets were adopted for the VW transaxle. Ignition: coil and distributor. Clutch: VW stock, with Hydraulic linkage. Brakes: Girling hydraulic with VW discs front, VW Drums in the rear. Wheels: 6" X 13" rear. Magnesium allowed. Tires: 5:00/8:30 X 13 front, Treaded 5:50/9/20 X 13 rear, Treaded Steering: Rack and Pinion Suspension: free and rear Shocks: free and rear Sway bars: free and rear Rear uprights: free Curb Weight: Dry, without driver, 825 lbs minimum. Wheelbase: free (mo
The Nürburgring is a 150,000 person capacity motorsports complex located in the town of Nürburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It features a Grand Prix race track built in 1984, a much longer Nordschleife "North loop" track, built in the 1920s around the village and medieval castle of Nürburg in the Eifel mountains; the north loop is 20.8 km long and has more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points. Jackie Stewart nicknamed the old track "The Green Hell"; the track featured four configurations: the 28.265 km -long Gesamtstrecke, which in turn consisted of the 22.810 km Nordschleife, the 7.747 km Südschleife. There was a 2.281 km warm-up loop called Zielschleife or Betonschleife, around the pit area. Between 1982 and 1983 the start/finish area was demolished to create a new GP-Strecke, this is used for all major and international racing events. However, the shortened Nordschleife is still in use for racing and public access. In the early 1920s, ADAC Eifelrennen races were held on public roads in the Eifel mountains.
This was soon recognised as dangerous. The construction of a dedicated race track was proposed, following the examples of Italy's Monza and Targa Florio courses, Berlin's AVUS, yet with a different character; the layout of the circuit in the mountains was similar to the Targa Florio event, one of the most important motor races at that time. The original Nürburgring was to be a showcase for racing talent. Construction of the track, designed by the Eichler Architekturbüro from Ravensburg, began in September 1925; the track was completed in spring of 1927, the ADAC Eifelrennen races were continued there. The first races to take place on 18 June 1927 showed sidecars; the first motorcycle race was won by Toni Ulmen on an English 350 cc Velocette. The cars followed a day and Rudolf Caracciola was the winner of the over 5000 cc class in a Mercedes-Benz Compressor. In addition, the track was opened to the public in the evenings and on weekends, as a one-way toll road; the whole track consisted of 174 bends, averaged 8 to 9 metres in width.
The fastest time around the full Gesamtstrecke was by Louis Chiron, at an average speed of 112.31 km/h in his Bugatti. In 1929 the full Nürburgring was used for the last time in major racing events, as future Grands Prix would be held only on the Nordschleife. Motorcycles and minor races used the shorter and safer Südschleife. Memorable pre-war races at the circuit featured the talents of early Ringmeister such as Rudolf Caracciola, Tazio Nuvolari and Bernd Rosemeyer. After World War II, racing resumed in 1947 and in 1951, the Nordschleife of the Nürburgring again became the main venue for the German Grand Prix as part of the Formula One World Championship. A new group of Ringmeister arose to dominate the race – Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Jim Clark, John Surtees, Jackie Stewart and Jacky Ickx. On 5 August 1961, during practice for the 1961 German Grand Prix, Phil Hill became the first person to complete a lap of the Nordschleife in under 9 minutes, with a lap of 8 minutes 55.2 seconds in the Ferrari 156 "Sharknose" Formula One car.
Over half a century even the highest performing road cars still have difficulty breaking 8 minutes without a professional race driver or one familiar with the track. Several rounds of the German motorcycle Grand Prix were held on the 7.7 km Südschleife, but the Hockenheimring and the Solitudering were the main sites for Grand Prix motorcycle racing. In 1953, the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring race was introduced, an Endurance race and Sports car racing event that counted towards the World Sportscar Championship for decades; the 24 Hours Nürburgring for touring car racing was added in 1970. By the late 1960s, the Nordschleife and many other tracks were becoming dangerous for the latest generation of F1 cars. In 1967, a chicane was added before the start/finish straight, called Hohenrain, in order to reduce speeds at the pit lane entry; this made the track 25 m longer. This change, was not enough to keep Stewart from nicknaming it "The Green Hell" following his victory in the 1968 German Grand Prix amid a driving rainstorm and thick fog.
In 1970, after the fatal crash of Piers Courage at Zandvoort, the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix to boycott the Nürburgring unless major changes were made, as they did at Spa the year before. The changes were not possible on short notice, the German GP was moved to the Hockenheimring, modified. In accordance with the demands of the F1 drivers, the Nordschleife was reconstructed by taking out some bumps, smoothing out some sudden jumps, installing Armco safety barriers; the track was made straighter, following the race line. The German GP could be hosted at the Nürburgring again, was for another six years from 1971 to 1976. In 1973 the entrance into the dangerous and bumpy Kallenhard corner was made slower by adding another left-hand corner after the fast Metzgesfeld sweeping corner. Safety was improved again on, e.g. by removing the jumps on the long main straight and widening it, taking away the bushes right next to the track at the main straight, which had made that section of the Nürburgring dangerously narrow.
A second series of three more F1 races was held until 1976. Howe
Klagenfurt am Wörthersee is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia in Austria. With a population of 100,772, it is the sixth-largest city in the country; the city is the bishop's seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gurk-Klagenfurt and home to the University of Klagenfurt. The city of Klagenfurt is in southern Austria, midway across the nation, near the international border, it is in the middle as far from Innsbruck, to the west, as from Vienna, to the northeast. Klagenfurt covers an area of 120.03 square kilometres. It is on the Glan River; the city is surrounded by several forest-covered hills and mountains with heights of up to 1,000 m, for example, Ulrichsberg. To the south is the Karawanken mountain range, which separates Carinthia from Slovenia and Italy. Klagenfurt is a statutory city of Carinthia, the administrative seat of the district of Klagenfurt-Land, but it doesn't belong to it. In fact, their licence plates are different. Klagenfurt is divided itself into 16 districts: It is further divided into 25 Katastralgemeinden.
They are: Klagenfurt, Ehrenthal, Großbuch, Großponfeld, Gurlitsch I, Hallegg, Hörtendorf, Lendorf, Nagra, Neudorf, St. Martin bei Klagenfurt, St. Peter am Karlsberg, St. Peter bei Ebenthal, Sankt Peter am Bichl, St. Ruprecht bei Klagenfurt, Tentschach, Waidmannsdorf and Welzenegg. Klagenfurt has a typical continental climate, with a fair amount of fog throughout the autumn and winter; the rather cold winters are, broken by occasional warmer periods due to foehn wind from the Karawanken mountains to the south. The average temperature from 1961 and 1990 is 7.1 °C, while the average temperature in 2005 was 9.3 °C. Carinthia's eminent linguists Primus Lessiak and Eberhard Kranzmayer assumed that the city's name, which translates as "ford of lament" or "ford of complaints", had something to do with the superstitious thought that fateful fairies or demons tend to live around treacherous waters or swamps. In Old Slovene, cviljovec is a place haunted by such cvilya, thus they assumed that Klagenfurt's name was a translation made by the German settlers of the original Slovene name of the neighbouring wetland.
However, the earliest Slovene mention of Klagenfurt in the form of "v Zelouzi" dating from 1615 is 400 years more recent and thus could be a translation from German. The latest interpretation, on the other hand, is that the Old Slovene cviljovec itself goes back to an Italic l'aquiliu meaning a place at or in the water, which would make the wailing-hag theory obsolete. Scholars had at various times attempted to explain the city's peculiar name: In the 14th century, the abbot and historiographer John of Viktring translated Klagenfurt's name in his Liber certarum historiarum as Queremoniae Vadus, i.e. "ford of complaint", Hieronymus Megiser, Master of the university college of the Carinthian Estates in Klagenfurt and editor of the earliest printed history of the duchy in 1612, believed to have found the origin of the name in a "ford across the River Glan", however, is impossible for linguistic reasons. The common people sought an explanation: A baker's apprentice was accused of theft and executed, but when a few days afterwards the alleged theft turned out to be a mistake and the lad was proved to be innocent, the citizens' "lament went forth and forth".
This story was reported by Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, who became Pope Pius II. In 2007, the city changed its official name to "Klagenfurt am Wörthersee". However, since there are no other settlements by the name of Klagenfurt anywhere, the previous shorter name remains unambiguous. Legend has it that Klagenfurt was founded after a couple of brave men had slain the abominable "Lindwurm", a winged dragon in the moors adjoining the lake, the staple diet of, said to have been virgins, but which did not spurn the fat bull on a chain that the men had mounted on a strong tower; the feat is commemorated by a grandiose 9-ton Renaissance monument in the city centre. The place was founded by the Spanheim Duke Herman as a stronghold sited across the commercial routes in the area, its first mention dates from the late 12th century in a document in which Duke Ulric II. Exempted St. Paul's Abbey from the toll charge "in foro Chlagenvurth"; that settlement occupied an area, subject to frequent flooding, so in 1246 Duke Herman's son, Duke Bernhard von Spanheim, moved it to a safer position and is thus considered to be the actual founder of the market place, which in 1252 received a city charter.
In the following centuries, Klagenfurt suffered fires, invasions of locusts, attacks from Islamic Ottomans, was ravaged by the Peasants' Wars. In 1514, a fire completely destroyed the city, in 1518 Emperor Maximilian I, unable to rebuild it, despite the loud protests of the burgers, ceded Klagenfurt to the Estates, the nobility of the Duchy. Never before had such a thing happened; the new owners, brought about an economic renaissance and the political and cultural ascendancy of Klagenfurt. A canal was dug to connect the city to the lake as a supply route for timber to rebuild the city and to feed the city's new moats.
Formula Vee or Formula Volkswagen is a popular open wheel, single-seater junior motor racing formula, with low costs in comparison to Formula Ford or Formula BMW. On the international stage, Niki Lauda, Emerson Fittipaldi and Keke Rosberg, all Formula 1 champions, raced Formula Vees in Europe or America at the beginning of their careers. In Australia, V8 Supercar drivers Larry Perkins, Colin Bond, John Blanchard, John Bowe, Jason Bargwanna and Paul Stokell were racers in Formula Vee. Formula First, raced in the USA and New Zealand, employs the same chassis, but with upgraded motor and steering; the class is based on a pre-1963 Volkswagen Beetle, utilizing a collection of the stock parts to form a competitive race car around a purpose-built tube frame and racing tires. The VW engine, front suspension and wheels are stock or modified stock parts; the chassis is a tube frame design and the body is fiberglass or carbon fiber. The intention of this class is for the average person to maintain the car.
Over the years, the rules have evolved to improve performance, lower cost, or to allow replacement of discontinued parts. In 2003, Grassroots Motorsports presented Formula Vee with the Editors' Choice Award. A top-running Formula Vee will corner at about 1.6 g. It weighs a minimum of 1,025 pounds with driver or 500kg with driver as raced in the Australian 1600cc specification. In 2008, a brand new ready-to-race car would cost about US $15,000; the car could be bought as a kit for the Volkswagen parts. It costs US $700 per race to maintain; each year, Formula Vee is one of the classes at the SCCA Runoffs, which awards a national championship. While it is a class in the Sports Car Club of America, many other organizations have adopted the Formula Vee as a class. Variants of the Formula Vee rules exist in the Canada, UK, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. Notable is Formula First, raced in the USA and New Zealand, which employs the same chassis, but with model Beetle parts, a larger 1600cc motor and other upgraded components such as disc brakes rack and pinion steering..
Michael Varacins has the most titles with seven. † Denotes President Cup Winner Formula Volkswagen South Africa Championship Super Vee http://www.nefv.org northeast formula vee /USA https://www.facebook.com/groups/nefv.org Challenge Cup Series Formula First USA formulaveeracing.org formulavee.org formulavee.us ApexSpeed.com Formula Vee Australian Formula Vee Website Australian Formula Vee Specifications New Zealand Formula First Formula Vee 750 Motor Club Formula 1200 – Canada Formula Vee at Curlie Formula Vee South Africa Historic Formula Vee in Australia Historische Formel Vau Europa