Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area, segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice; each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game. A game consists of eight or ten ends; the curler can induce a curved path by causing the stone to turn as it slides, the path of the rock may be further influenced by two sweepers with brooms, who accompany it as it slides down the sheet and sweep the ice in front of the stone. "Sweeping a rock" decreases the friction, which makes the stone travel a straighter path and a longer distance. A great deal of strategy and teamwork go into choosing the ideal path and placement of a stone for each situation, the skills of the curlers determine the degree to which the stone will achieve the desired result.
This gives curling its nickname of "chess on ice". Evidence that curling existed in Scotland in the early 16th century includes a curling stone inscribed with the date 1511 uncovered when an old pond was drained at Dunblane, Scotland; the world's oldest curling stone and the world's oldest football are now kept in the same museum in Stirling. The first written reference to a contest using stones on ice coming from the records of Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, in February 1541. Two paintings, "Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap" and "The Hunters in the Snow" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder depict Flemish peasants curling, albeit without brooms; the word curling first appears in print in 1620 in Perth, Scotland, in the preface and the verses of a poem by Henry Adamson. The sport was known as "the roaring game" because of the sound the stones make while traveling over the pebble; the verbal noun curling is formed from the Scots verb curl. Kilsyth Curling Club claims to be the first club in the world, having been formally constituted in 1716.
Kilsyth claims the oldest purpose-built curling pond in the world at Colzium, in the form of a low dam creating a shallow pool some 100 by 250 metres in size. The International Olympic Committee recognises the Royal Caledonian Curling Club as developing the first official rules for the sport. In the early history of curling, the playing stones were flat-bottomed stones from rivers or fields, which lacked a handle and were of inconsistent size and smoothness; some early stones had holes for the thumb, akin to ten-pin bowling balls. Unlike today, the thrower had little control over the'curl' or velocity and relied more on luck than on precision and strategy; the sport was played on frozen rivers although purpose-built ponds were created in many Scottish towns. For example, the Scottish poet David Gray describes whisky-drinking curlers on the Luggie Water at Kirkintilloch. In Darvel, East Ayrshire, the weavers relaxed by playing curling matches using the heavy stone weights from the looms' warp beams, fitted with a detachable handle for the purpose.
Many a wife would keep her husband's brass curling stone handle on the mantelpiece, brightly polished until the next time it was needed. Central Canadian curlers used'irons' rather than stones until the early 1900s. Outdoor curling was popular in Scotland between the 16th and 19th centuries because the climate provided good ice conditions every winter. Scotland is home to the international governing body for curling, the World Curling Federation in Perth, which originated as a committee of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club, the mother club of curling. Today, the sport is most established in Canada, having been taken there by Scottish emigrants; the Royal Montreal Curling Club, the oldest established sports club still active in North America, was established in 1807. The first curling club in the United States was established in 1830, the sport was introduced to Switzerland and Sweden before the end of the 19th century by Scots. Today, curling is played all over Europe and has spread to Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Korea.
The first world championship for curling was limited to men and was known as the Scotch Cup, held in Falkirk and Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1959. The first world title was won by the Canadian team from Regina, skipped by Ernie Richardson. Curling was one of the first sports, popular with women and girls. Curling has been a medal sport in the Winter Olympic Games since the 1998 Winter Olympics, it includes men's, women's and mixed doubles tournaments. In February 2002, the International Olympic Committee retroactively decided that the curling competition from the 1924 Winter Olympics (originally called Semaine des Sports d'Hiver, or Int
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London. Founded as a weekly review of politics and literature on 12 April 1913, it was connected with Sidney and Beatrice Webb and other leading members of the socialist Fabian Society, such as George Bernard Shaw, a founding director, they had supported The New Age, a journal edited by A. R. Orage, but by 1912 that journal moved away editorially from supporting Fabian politics and women's suffrage. Today, the magazine is a print-digital hybrid. According to its present self-description, it has a liberal, political position; the magazine was founded in 1913 by members of the Fabian Society as a weekly review of politics and literature. The longest-serving editor was Kingsley Martin, the current editor is Jason Cowley, who assumed the post in 2008; the magazine has notably recognized and published new writers and critics, as well as encouraged major careers. Its contributors have included John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, Virginia Woolf, Christopher Hitchens, Paul Johnson.
The magazine was affectionately referred to as "The Staggers" because of crises in funding and circulation. The nickname is now used as the title of its politics blog. Circulation has surged again in recent years. In 2016, the certified average circulation was 34,025. Traffic to the magazine's website that year reached a new high with 27 million page views and four million unique users. Associated websites are CityMetric and NewStatesman Tech. In 2018, New Statesman America was launched; the New Statesman was founded in 1913 by Sidney and Beatrice Webb with the support of George Bernard Shaw and other prominent members of the Fabian Society. The Fabians had supported The New Age but that journal by 1912 had moved away from supporting Fabian politics and issues such as women's suffrage; the first editor of the New Statesman was Clifford Sharp, who remained editor until 1928. Desmond MacCarthy joined the paper in 1913 and became literary editor, recruiting Cyril Connolly to the staff in 1928. J. C. Squire edited the magazine.
In November 1914, three months after the beginning of the war, the New Statesmen published a lengthy anti-war supplement by Shaw, "Common Sense About The War", a scathing dissection of its causes, which castigated all nations involved but savaged the British. It created an international sensation; the New York Times reprinted it as America began its lengthy debate on entering what was called "the European War". During Sharp's last two years in the post, from around 1926, he was debilitated by chronic alcoholism and the paper was edited by his deputy Charles Mostyn Lloyd. Although the Webbs and most Fabians were associated with the Labour Party, Sharp was drawn to the Asquith Liberals. Lloyd stood in after Sharp's departure until the appointment of Kingsley Martin as editor in 1930 – a position Martin was to hold for 30 years. In 1931 the New Statesman merged with the Liberal weekly The Nation and Athenaeum and changed its name to the New Statesman and Nation, which it kept until 1964; the chairman of The Nation and Athenaeum's board was the economist John Maynard Keynes, who came to be an important influence on the newly merged paper, which started with a circulation of just under 13,000.
It absorbed The Week-end Review in 1934. The Competition feature, in which readers submitted jokes and parodies and pastiches of the work of famous authors, became one of the most famous parts of the magazine. Most famously, Graham Greene won second prize in a challenge to parody his own work. During the 1930s, Martin's New Statesman moved markedly to the left politically, it became anti-fascist and pacifist, opposing British rearmament. After the 1938 Anschluss, Martin wrote: "Today if Mr. Chamberlain would come forward and tell us that his policy was one not only of isolation but of Little Englandism in which the Empire was to be given up because it could not be defended and in which military defence was to be abandoned because war would end civilization, we for our part would wholeheartedly support him."The magazine provoked further controversy with its coverage of Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union. In 1932, Keynes reviewed Martin's book on the Soviet Union, Low's Russian Sketchbook. Keynes argued that Martin was'a little too full of good will' towards Stalin, that any doubts about Stalin's rule had'been swallowed down if possible'.
Martin still allowed it to be printed. In a 17 September 1932 editorial, the magazine accused the British Conservative press of misrepresenting the Soviet Union's agricultural policy but added that "the serious nature of the food situation is no secret and no invention"; the magazine defended the Soviet collectivization policy, but said the policy had'proceeded far too and lost the cooperation of farmers'. In 1934 it ran an interview with Stalin by H. G. Wells. Although sympathetic to aspects of the Soviet Union, Wells disagreed with Stalin on several issues; the debate resulted in several more articles in the magazine. In 1938 came Martin's refusal to publish George Orwell's celebrated dispatches from Barcelona during the Spanish civil war because they criticised the communists for suppressing the anarchists and the left-wing Workers' Party of Marxist Unification.'It is an unfortunat
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Herald (Glasgow)
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783. The Herald is the longest running national newspaper in the world and is the eighth oldest daily paper in the world; the title was simplified from The Glasgow Herald in 1992. A Sunday edition was launched on 9 September 2018; the newspaper was founded by an Edinburgh-born printer called John Mennons in January 1783 as a weekly publication called the Glasgow Advertiser. Mennons' first edition had a global scoop: news of the treaties of Versailles, reached Mennons via the Lord Provost of Glasgow just as he was putting the paper together. War had ended with the American colonies, he revealed; the Herald, therefore, is as old as the United States give or take an hour or two. The story was, only carried on the back page. Mennons, using the larger of two fonts available to him, put it in the space reserved for late news. In 1802, Mennons sold the newspaper to Benjamin Mathie and Dr James McNayr, former owner of the Glasgow Courier, which. Along with the Mercury, was one of two papers Mennons had come to Glasgow to challenge.
Mennons' son Thomas retained an interest in the company. The new owners changed the name to The Herald and Advertiser and Commercial Chronicle in 1803. In 1805 the name changed again, this time to The Glasgow Herald when Thomas Mennons severed his ties to the paper. From 1836 to 1964, The Glasgow Herald was owned by George Outram & Co. becoming the first daily newspaper in Scotland in 1858. The company took its name from the paper's editor of 19 years, George Outram, an Edinburgh advocate best known in Glasgow for composing light verse. Outram was an early Scottish nationalist, a member of the National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights; the Glasgow Herald, under Outram, argued that the promised privileges of the Treaty of Union had failed to materialise and demanded that, for example, that the heir to the British throne be called "Prince Royal of Scotland". "Any man calling himself a Scotsman should enrol in the National Association," said The Herald. In 1895, the publication moved to a building in Mitchell Street designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, which now houses the architecture centre, The Lighthouse.
In 1980, the publication moved to offices in Albion Street in Glasgow into the former Scottish Daily Express building. It is now based at in a purpose-built building in Glasgow. One of the most traumatic episodes in the history of The Glasgow Herald was the battle for control and ownership of the paper in 1964. Millionaires Hugh Fraser and Roy Thomson, whose newspaper empire included The Glasgow Herald's archrival, The Scotsman, fought for control of the title for 52 days. Sir Hugh Fraser was to win; the paper's editor James Holburn was a "disapproving onlooker". The Labour Party condemned the battle as "big business at its worst"; the newspaper changed its name to The Herald on 3 February 1992, dropping Glasgow from its title, but not its masthead. That same year the title was bought by Caledonia Newspaper Glasgow. In 1996 was purchased by Scottish Television; as of 2013, the newspaper along with its related publications, the Evening Times and Sunday Herald, were owned by the Newsquest media group.
Graeme Smith assumed editorship of The Herald in January 2017, replacing Magnus Llewellin, who had held the post since 2013. Notable past editors include: John Mennons, 1782; the Herald's main political commentator is Iain Macwhirter, who writes twice a week for the paper and, broadly supportive of independence. Columnist and political pundit David Torrance, however, is more sceptical about the need for - and prospect of - a new Scottish state. Other prominent columnists include Alison Rowat, who covers everything from cinema to international statecraft. Foreign editor David Pratt and business editor Ian McConnell, both multi-award-winning journalists, provide analysis of their fields every Friday. Edited by Ken Smith, the column has been spun off in to a popular series of books since the 1980s; the Herald Diary used to be edited by writer Tom Shields. Sean Connery once said: "First thing each morning I turn to The Herald on my computer - first for its witty Diary, which helps keep my Scots sense of humour in tune."
It is printed at Carmyle, just south east of Glasgow. The paper is published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow and as of 2017 it had an audited circulation of 28,900; the Herald's website is protected by a paywall. It is part of the Newsquest Scotland stable of sites; the Herald in every edition declares. However, the newspaper backed a'No' vote in the 2014 referendum on Scottish independence; the accompanying headline stated, "The Herald's view: we back staying within UK, but only if there's more far-reaching further devolution." List of newspapers in Scotland Sunday Herald, former sister paper. Griffiths, Dennis, ed.. The Encyclopedia of the British Press, 1422–1992. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan. Phillips, Alastair. Glasgow's Herald: Two Hundred Years of a Newspaper 1783–1983. Glasgow: Richard Drew Publishing. ISBN 0-86267-008-X. Reid, Harry. Deadline: The Story of the Scottish Press. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press. ISBN 978-0-7152-0836-6. Official website Google news archive of The Glasgow Herald
World Junior Curling Championships
The World Junior Curling Championships are an annual curling bonspiel featuring the world's best curlers who are 21 years old or younger. The competitions for both men and women occur at the same venue; the men's tournament has occurred since 1975 and the women's since 1988. Since curling became an Olympic sport in 1998, the World Junior Curling Championship of the year preceding the Olympic Games have been held at the site of the curling tournament for the upcoming Games. Teams qualify to participate in the World Junior Curling Championships through final rankings at the previous year's championships or through the World Junior B Curling Championships, which includes any teams that did not qualify for the championships via the previous year's rankings; the top three teams of this tournament qualify for the main tournament, the bottom three teams from the main tournament are demoted to the B tournament. This type of tournament existed from 2001 to 2004, where two teams were awarded qualification spots through the B tournament instead of three.
Teams that did not qualify through rankings qualified through regional qualifiers. In the Europe Zone, teams participated in the European Junior Curling Challenge, in which the winner advances to the World Championships. In the Pacific Zone, teams participated in the Pacific-Asia Junior Curling Championships, in which the winner advances to the World Championships. Skips listed below nation. Overall
2008 European Curling Championships
The 2008 Le Gruyère European Curling Championships were held at Swedbank Arena in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden December 6–13, 2008. In a rematch of the men's A-Group final from the 2007 European Curling Championships, David Murdoch led Scotland to a second straight gold medal over Norway's Thomas Ulsrud 7–6 in an extra end. On the women's side, Switzerland's Mirjam Ott defeated home-country favorite Anette Norberg of Sweden 5–4. A total of 51 teams from 29 European countries competed. * Mabergs throws third rocks. The event will be broadcast throughout Europe by Eurosport. Official Website of the 2008 European Curling Championships Online results, teams and statistics European Curling Federation SVT
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce