Trinity College, Toronto
Trinity College is a college of the University of Toronto, founded in 1851 by Bishop John Strachan. Trinity was intended by Strachan as a college of strong Anglican alignment, after the University of Toronto severed its ties with the Church of England. In 1904, Trinity joined the university as a member of its collegiate federation. Trinity College consists of a secular undergraduate section and a postgraduate divinity school, part of the Toronto School of Theology. Through its diploma granting authority in the field of Divinity, Trinity maintains official university status. Reflecting its English heritage, the college emulates Oxbridge traditions such as the wearing of gowns at dinner, a chapel choir that includes choral scholars, college scarves and blazers. Bishop John Strachan, an Anglican priest and Archdeacon of York, received a royal charter from King George IV in 1827 to establish King's College in Upper Canada; the colonial college was controlled by the Church of England and members of the elite Family Compact.
In 1849, over strong opposition from Strachan, Reformists took control of the college and secularized it to become the University of Toronto. Incensed by this decision, Strachan began raising funds for the creation of Trinity College, a private institution based on strong Anglican lines. Working with Kivas Tully, Charles Barry Cleveland superintended many of their important architectural works in eastern Canada including the Trinity College campus at the University of Toronto; the building featured Gothic Revival design. The cornerstone was laid on April 30, 1851. Trinity was incorporated as an independent university on August 2, 1851, a charter was granted by Queen Victoria the following year; the Cameron property on Queen Street in western Toronto was purchased for £2,000, the college opened to students at the site on January 15, 1852. Beginning in 1837, representatives of the United Church of England and Ireland in Upper Canada met with the Society for Propagation of the Gospel to solicit support for fellowships to enable the education of local clergy.
With a guarantee of support, in 1841 Bishop Strachan requested his chaplains, the Rev. Henry James Grasett and the Rev. Henry Scadding of St. James' Cathedral, the Rev. Alexander Neil Bethune Rector of Cobourg, to prepare a plan for a systematic course in theology for those to be admitted to Holy Orders. On January 10, 1842 the first lecture was given at the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg. In 1852, teaching was transferred to Toronto in the new Faculty of Divinity at Trinity College. Trinity College absorbed the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg in 1852. Trinity College expanded its teaching beyond arts and divinity, by the end of the 19th century its scope had included medicine, music and dentistry; the college admitted its first female students in 1884, St. Hilda's College was created in 1888 as the women's college of Trinity. With Strachan's death in 1867, efforts could begin to unite Trinity College with the University of Toronto. After taking office in 1900, provost Thomas C. S. Macklem supported joining the college with the University of Toronto.
The matter became hotly contested when Trinity's medical faculty merged with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine in 1903. After what Macklem described as a "long-drawn and bitter" series of debates, the college voted 121 to 73 in favour of federation with the University of Toronto; the university made a concession to allow Trinity to administer its own examination in religious subjects, which required the university to remove the restriction from its governing charter. On October 1, 1904, Trinity became part of the University of Toronto and relinquished to the university its authority to grant degrees in subjects other than theology, it became clear that the relocation of Trinity closer to the university was necessary, the college abandoned plans for a northward expansion at its Queen Street site. The college acquired its present property near Queen's Park at the university grounds in 1913, but construction of the new college buildings, modeled after the original buildings by Kivas Tully, was not completed until 1925 due to World War I.
The former site of the college became Trinity Bellwoods Park. Towards the end of the 20th century, the place of longstanding institutions and traditions within the college community underwent changes initiated by internal and external parties. Episkopon, a society based in the college since 1858, was dissociated from Trinity in 1992. In 2004, the college board of trustees voted narrowly in favour of ending Trinity's long practice of same-sex residency, beginning in 2005 large portions of Trinity's residences became home to both men and women, although still separated by houses or wings. On April 30, 2002, Canada Post issued "University of Trinity College, 1852–2002" as part of the Canadian Universities series; the stamp was based on a design by Steven Slipp, based on photographs by James Steeves and on an illustration by Bonnie Ross. The 48 ¢ stamps were printed by Ashton-Potter Canada Limited. Trinity College is centrally located on Hoskin Avenue within the University of Toronto, directly north of Wycliffe College and to the west of Queen's Park.
The southern wing of main building, with its cornerstone laid by Bishop James Fielding Sweeny, was completed in 1925 by Darling and Pearson, the architectural firm that designed the university's Convocation Hall and Varsity Arena. The predominant Jacobethan architectural style is apparent in the roofline and the stone towers, while Tudor Revival is featured in the Angel's Roost tower. Architects George and Moorhouse oversaw a major expansion of the college in 1941 prior to war-time restrictions on building materials
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Hudson Stuck was a British native who became an Episcopal priest, social reformer, mountain climber in the United States. With Harry P. Karstens, he co-led the first expedition to climb Denali in June 1913, via the South Summit, he published five books about his years in Alaska. Two memoirs were issued in new editions including his account of the ascent of Denali. Stuck was graduated from King's College London, he lived there for the rest of his life. After working as a cowboy and teacher for several years in Texas, he went to University of the South to study theology. After graduation, he was ordained as an Episcopal priest. Moving to Alaska in 1904, he served as Archdeacon of the Yukon, acting as a missionary for the church and a proponent of "muscular Christianity", he died of pneumonia in Alaska. Stuck and the naturalist John Muir are honored with a feast day on April 22 of the liturgical calendar of the US Episcopal Church. Stuck was born in Paddington, England to James and Jane Stuck, he attended King's College London.
Yearning for a bigger life, he immigrated to Texas in 1885, where he worked as a cowboy near Junction City. He taught in one-room schools at Copperas Creek, San Angelo, San Marcos. In 1889 he enrolled to study theology at the University of the South in Tennessee. After completing his studies, Stuck became an Episcopal priest in 1892, he first served a congregation in Texas for two years. He was called to St. Matthew's Cathedral in Dallas in 1894. Two years he became dean, he stressed progressive goals in his sermons and published articles related to his causes. There he founded a night school for millworkers, a home for indigent women, St. Matthew's Children's Home. In 1903 he gained passage in Texas of the first state law against child labor, he preached and wrote against lynching. It was at an all-time high in the South around the turn of the century, the period when state legislatures were passing legislation and constitutions that disfranchised blacks and many poor whites. In 1904 Stuck moved to Alaska to serve with Missionary Bishop Peter Trimble Rowe.
Under the title Archdeacon of the Yukon and the Arctic, with a territory of 250,000 square miles, Stuck traveled between the scattered parishes and missions by dogsled and boat as well as foot and snowshoe. In his first year, Stuck established a church and hospital at Fairbanks, the new boomtown filling up with miners and associated hangers on; some staff came from Klondike. The small hospital treated epidemics of meningitis and typhoid fever, as well as pneumonia common in the North. In 1905, Rev. Charles E. Betticher, Jr joined Stuck in Alaska as a missionary, they founded numerous missions in the Tanana Valley over the next decade: at Nenana, St. Barnabas at Chena Native Village, St. Luke's at Salcha, St. Timothy's at Tanacross. All served the Alaska Natives of the region. Tortella School was the only boarding school to serve native children in the Interior of Alaska, was supported by scholarships and offerings raised by the Episcopal Church. Missionary Anne Cragg Farthing was the primary teacher.
Her brother was bishop of Ontario. Five hundred miles up the Koyukuk River from its confluence with the Yukon, at its junction with its tributary the Alatna River, in 1907 Stuck founded a mission he called Allakaket but others called St. John's in the Woods for the several hundred Indians here. For years Episcopal woman missionaries ran the remote station just above the Arctic Circle, including Deaconess Clara M. Carter and Clara Heintz; the mission served both Iñupiat, who were settled on opposite sides of the river. The latter had come up the Kobuk River from lower areas, thus the missioners had two Native languages to learn. To reach the scattered populations of miners and other frontiersmen, Stuck started the Church Periodical Club. Based in Fairbanks, it collected and distributed periodicals to all the missions and to other settlements where Americans gathered, it did not have only church literature, in some locations, it provided the only reading material around. Stuck traveled each winter more than 1500 -- 2000 miles by dogsled to visit the villages.
In 1908, he acquired the launch called a shallow riverboat. He used it on the Yukon River and tributaries to visit the Athabascans in their summer camps, where they fished and hunted, he reported that in twelve seasons' cruises, ranging from i,800 to 5,200 miles each summer, he traveled a total of up to 30,000 miles along the rivers. Stuck wrote and published five books, memoirs of his times in Alaska, in part to reveal the exploitation of the Alaska Native peoples that he witnessed in his work. Stuck had experience mountain climbing, including having ascended Mount Rainier in Washington state. Stuck recruited a respected guide, to join his expedition. Other members were Walter Harper and Robert G. Tatum, both 21, two student volunteers from the mission school, Johnny Fred, Esaias George, they departed from Nenana on March 17, 1913. They reached the summit of Denali on June 7, 1913. Harper, of mixed Alaska Native and Scots descent, reached the summit first. Fredson 14, acted as their base camp manager, hunting caribou and Dall sheep to keep the
Elmer E. Rasmuson Library
The Elmer E. Rasmuson Library is the largest research library in the U. S. state of Alaska, housing just over one million volumes. Located on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus, it is named in honor of Elmer E. Rasmuson, who served on the University of Alaska Board of Regents from 1950 to 1969 and was the board chair from 1956 to 1968, he was a major supporter of moving it to its present location. The library houses the Polar Regions Collections and Archives special collection; this encompasses historical books and periodicals, historical manuscripts and photographs, an oral history collection, rare books and maps, the Alaska Film Archives. It hosts Project Jukebox, which presents oral history recordings, film clips and documents on a single topic, Alaska's Digital Archives, which makes digital reproductions of historical photos and film clips available online; the Alaska Film Archives is a major collection of historical film and video from and about Alaska and the polar regions. It provides digital clips to patrons and the public.
A special collection of Alaskana books is one of the largest in the world. Since the closing of the Sheldon Jackson College Stratton Library in 2007, the Rasmuson Library and the Alaska State Library in Juneau, are the foremost publicly accessible repositories of historical information related to Alaska; the library is a Federal Depository Library, housing federal government documents for the state of Alaska. Rasmuson Library offers extensive online resources for UAF students, faculty and others affiliated with the university, it is a gateway to more than 300 online resources, with broad coverage in the sciences and social sciences and engineering. Web-based indexes and collections link to full-text articles from more than 60,000 periodical titles. Additional web-based resources include reference tools, electronic books, specialized sources for Arctic and polar information, indexes to special formats such as government documents and dissertations. ScholarWorks@UA, the University of Alaska online institutional repository, makes theses, dissertations and other scholarly works by University of Alaska students and faculty available to the public.
The library was founded in 1922 with fewer than three thousand books, the same year classes began at UAF's predecessor, the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines. After moving from Old Main Building, the library was housed in a small building which doubled as the university's gymnasium and where the Constitution of Alaska was signed in 1956; the library moved to the Bunnell Building upon its completion in 1960 to its present location in the Fine Arts Complex a decade later. Both buildings were designed by Anchorage architects Mayer; the library underwent a major expansion in 1984. Official website Alaska Film Archives Project Jukebox
A loving cup is a shared drinking container traditionally used at weddings and banquets. It has two handles and is made of silver. Loving cups are given as trophies to winners of games or other competitions, they can be found in several European cultures, including the Celtic quaich and the French coupe de mariage. The Russian bratina is a wine bowl used for banquets, it is considered the "Russian version of the loving cup". It is without handles; the Emperor, a loving cup
William Croswell Doane
The Right Reverend William Croswell Doane was the 1st Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Albany in the United States. He was bishop from 1869 until his death in 1913. Doane served about 60 years in a huge span for those times; as bishop, he managed the construction of the Cathedral of All Saints in Albany, the first Episcopal cathedral built for that purpose in the United States. It is now on the National Register of Historic Places. Doane is best known today for his Anglican hymn, "Ancient of Days"; as a student at Burlington College in New Jersey, he was one of three founding members of the "Delta" chapter of the college fraternity of Delta Psi ) known as St. Anthony Hall after the chapter transferred to the nearby University of Pennsylvania. Doane was born in Boston, named for his father's best friend, the Rev. William Croswell; when he was born, his father, the Rev. George Doane, was Rector of the prominent Trinity Church, located on Copley Square. Within a year, his father was elected second Bishop of New Jersey.
The family settled in the see of Burlington, New Jersey, settled by Quakers in colonial times and has the oldest Episcopal church in the state. Doane attended founded in 1846 by his father, he graduated from Burlington College, where he and two friends had co-founded the fourth, or "Delta" chapter of the fraternity Delta Psi. It became known as St. Anthony Hall for a building it used after moving to the University of Pennsylvania in nearby Philadelphia. After college, Doane became an Episcopal priest. Like his father, he became involved in the Oxford Movement, which sought to restore richness of practice to the liturgy. Doane was ordained a deacon on March 1853, by his father at his home parish of St. Mary's. Shortly thereafter, he married the former Sarah Katharine Condit, daughter of Joel W. and Margaret Harrison Condit of Newark, New Jersey, his two children were born in Burlington, Eliza Greene in 1854, Margaret Harrison in 1858. After he was ordained a priest in 1856 in the same church, he was called to St. Barnabas Free Church in Burlington.
He served there until 1860. In 1863, Doane accepted a call to St. John's Church, Connecticut, he served there during the American Civil War, his parishioner Mark Twain pulled a joke on Doane, claiming, "I have... a book at home containing every word" of Doane's sermon that Sunday sent him an unabridged dictionary. Doane was called to Albany, New York in 1867 to serve "the venerable parish of St. Peter's, Albany." The General Convention of 1868, in New York City, founded a new diocese of Albany. Doane was elected the first bishop at the organizational convention of the diocese in St. Peter's Church, his election had "strong opposition," because he was a "young rector," but because "the evangelical element... looked upon Mr. Doane as a high churchman, his ritualistic practices...." Adopted as part of the Oxford Movement influence. He was consecrated as a bishop in the Church of God in his own parish church, St. Peter's, on the Feast of the Purification, February 2, 1869, his consecrators were: Right Reverend Horatio Potter, Bishop of New York The Right Reverend William H. Odenheimer The Right Reverend Henry A. Neely.
William Croswell Doane was the 92nd bishop consecrated in the Episcopal Church. Doane had a large diocese, spent many years in visitation, establishing churches, confirming persons. For many years his biggest project was supervising the building of the Cathedral of All Saints, his major legacy, he got the land donated by the wealthy Erastus Corning. The cathedral was incorporated in 1873, the laying of its cornerstone on a downtown site on June 3, 1884, took place "with impressive ceremony." With construction complete enough for the building to be used, the Cathedral of All Saints was dedicated in 1888. Doane liked Gothic architecture for Episcopal churches for its spiritual quality; until that time, smaller Episcopal churches had served as seats of the bishop. The "cathedral idea"—the concept that a bishop's main church is more than a parish church, is the "Mother church"—had not yet taken hold in the United States, it is sometimes called the "Pioneer Cathedral". Doane and the congregation planned a cathedral complex, to include convent, cloister and school.
He established the girls' school in 1870, the convent and hospital in 1874. Much of the building was paid for in a gift by J. Pierpont Morgan; the church is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In keeping with his plans for the cathedral and Oxford Movement traditions, Doane established an ambitious music program at the cathedral. In the late 19th century, he founded the Cathedral Choir of Men and Boys. Doane was active in speaking out against the women's suffrage movement, which he opposed on the grounds that God had given men dominion over women and that women's'natural' place was in the home caring for their children, he wrote that "an enlarged unqualified suffrage... an aggravated misery threatening danger". So influential were his views that suffragist Ellen Battelle Dietrick's last book, Women in the Early Christian Ministry —in which she offered a refutation of Christian teachings that relegated women to second-class status—was subtitled "A Reply to Bishop Doane, Others".
Doane died at the age of 81 in New York City in 1913, while traveling. His Coadjutor, Richard Henry Nelson, succeeded to the position of bishop of Albany. List of Bishop Succession in the Episcopal Church The Episcopal Church Annual. Morehouse Publ
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos