United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
Patrick J. Fitzgerald is an American lawyer and partner at the law firm of Skadden, Slate, Meagher & Flom since October 2012. For more than a decade, until June 30, 2012, Fitzgerald was the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. Prior to his appointment, he served as Assistant U. S. Attorney in the Southern District of New York from 1988 to 2001, as Chief of the Organized Crime-Terrorism Unit since December 1995, where he participated in the prosecution of United States v. Usama Bin Laden, et al. United States v. Abdel Rahman, et al. and United States v. Ramzi Yousef Rahman, et al; as special counsel for the U. S. Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel, Fitzgerald was the federal prosecutor in charge of the investigation of the Valerie Plame Affair, which led to the prosecution and conviction in 2007 of Vice President Dick Cheney's chief of staff Scooter Libby for perjury; as a federal prosecutor, he led a number of high-profile investigations, including ones that led to convictions of Illinois Governors Rod Blagojevich and George Ryan, media mogul Conrad Black, several aides to Chicago Mayor Richard Daley in the Hired Truck Program, Chicago detective and torturer Jon Burge.
Fitzgerald was born into a Roman Catholic family of Irish descent in Brooklyn. His father worked as a doorman in Manhattan. Fitzgerald attended Our Lady Help of Christians grammar school, before going on to Regis High School, he received degrees in economics and mathematics from Amherst College, Phi Beta Kappa, before receiving his JD from Harvard Law School in 1985. He played rugby at Amherst and at Harvard he was a member of the Harvard Business School Rugby Club. Fitzgerald married Jennifer Letzkus in June, 2008, it is her second. The couple have two children. After practicing civil law, Fitzgerald became an Assistant United States Attorney in New York City in 1988, he handled drug-trafficking cases and in 1993 assisted in the prosecution of Mafia figure John Gambino, a boss of the Gambino crime family. In 1994, Fitzgerald became the prosecutor in the case against Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman and 11 others charged in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. In 1996, Fitzgerald became the National Security Coordinator for the Office of the U.
S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. There, he served on a team of prosecutors investigating Osama bin Laden, he served as chief counsel in prosecutions related to the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. On September 1, 2001, Fitzgerald was nominated for the position of U. S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois on the recommendation of U. S. Senator Peter Fitzgerald, a Republican from Illinois. On October 24, 2001, the nomination was confirmed by the Senate; the Senator urged the selection. Soon after becoming U. S. Attorney for Northern Illinois, Fitzgerald began an investigation of political appointees of Republican Illinois Governor George Ryan, who were suspected of accepting bribes to give licenses to unqualified truck drivers. Fitzgerald soon expanded this investigation, uncovering a network of political bribery and gift-giving, leading to more than 60 indictments. Ryan was indicted in December 2003. At the conclusion of the trial in April 2006, Ryan was found guilty on all eighteen counts against him.
Ryan's co-defendant, Chicago businessman Larry Warner 67 years old, was convicted of racketeering conspiracy, attempted extortion, money laundering. The two were sentenced on September 6, 2006: Ryan received a sentence of six and one half years, Warner received a sentence of three years and five months. Against criticism that these cases were based on circumstantial evidence, Fitzgerald responded: "People now know that if you're part of a corrupt conduct, where one hand is taking care of the other and contracts are going to people, you don't have to say the word'bribe' out loud, and I think people need to understand we won't be afraid to take strong circumstantial cases into court." On July 18, 2005, his office indicted a number of top aides to Democrat Richard M. Daley, the mayor of Chicago, on charges of mail fraud, alleging numerous instances of corruption in hiring practices at City Hall. In March 2006, former Chicago City Clerk James Laski pleaded guilty to pocketing nearly $50,000 in bribes for steering city business to two trucking companies.
Laski was the highest-ranking Chicago official and Daley administration employee brought down by Fitzgerald's office in conjunction with the Hired Truck Program scandal. Beginning in April 2007, Fitzgerald oversaw Operation Crooked Code, the investigation and prosecution of over two dozen defendants for bribery and related charges in City of Chicago's Departments of Buildings and Zoning. On December 9, 2008, federal agents arrested Governor Blagojevich for conspiring to profit from his authority to appoint President Barack Obama's successor to the U. S. Senate. Fitzgerald said Blagojevich "put a'for sale' sign on the naming of a United States Senator."United States Senator Peter Fitzgerald chose not to run for reelection in 2004, leaving Patrick Fitzgerald without a congressional patron. In the summer of 2005, there were rumors that he would not be reappointed to a second four-year term in retaliation for his investigations into corruption in Illinois and Chicago government, as well as for his investigation of the Plame scandal.
On May 23, 2012, Fitzgerald held a press conference informing the public that he was stepping down from his position and retiring as the US Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois Federal Court effective June 30, 2012. Long-time prosecutor Gary S. Shapiro was named
Boston College Law School
Boston College Law School is one of the six professional graduate schools at Boston College. Located 1.5 miles from the main Boston College campus in Chestnut Hill, Boston College Law School is situated on a 40-acre wooded campus in Newton, Massachusetts. With 800 students and 125 faculty members, the Law School is one of the largest of BC's seven graduate and professional schools. Admission to BC Law is selective. In 2015, Above the Law ranked BC Law as the #16 law school in the country based on a ranking that focuses on job placement at top firms and costs of attendance. Reflecting its Jesuit heritage, BC Law has established programs in human rights, social justice and public interest law, its faculty played a part in arguing for the repeal of the Solomon Amendment, presenting oral arguments before the United States Supreme Court in Rumsfeld v. FAIR. According to BC Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 85.4% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.
Although provisions for a law school were included in the original charter for Boston College, ratified by the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1863, Boston College Law School was formally organized in the 1920s and opened its doors on September 26, 1929. It was accredited by the American Bar Association in 1932 and the Association of American Law Schools in 1937. Located in the Lawyer's Building opposite the Massachusetts State House in central Boston, it moved to the main Boston College campus in 1954 and to its present 40-acre campus, the home of the former Newton College of the Sacred Heart, in 1975. Stemming from the nickname of Boston College athletics teams, the term "Legal Eagle" is sometimes used to refer to students and alumni of Boston College Law School; the term Triple Eagle, which technically designates a recipient of any three degrees from Boston College, is used to refer to graduates of Boston College High School, Boston College, BC Law. Boston College Law School has been referred to as the "Disney Land of Law Schools."
BC Law offers several programs abroad including the Semester in London Program and the Semester in The Hague Program with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The law school has exchange programs with Bucerius Law School, the Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, numerous other law faculties throughout the world. Ranking Summary Above the Law: 16th. S. News & World Report 2019: 27th. Boston College is ranked number 5 for "Professors Rock." In 2015, "Above The Law" ranked Boston College Law School 16th overall in the country. Regarding recruiting at the top law firms in the country, since 2007 the National Law Journal has ranked BC Law in the top 15 law schools because of the large number of graduates the school places in the top American law firms. Harvard was the only other Boston school; the U. S. News & World Report 2016 Law School Rankings placed Boston College Law School 30th in the country. BC Law's legal writing program ranked 9th in its tax program 23rd. Above the Law, a legal blog that focuses on BigLaw, ranked Boston College Law School 16th in the country in 2015, based on a ranking that focuses on job placement at the top large law firms.
Boston College Law School has two main, student-run publications: Boston College Law Review and the Uniform Commercial Code Reporter-Digest. In Spring 2017, the Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, the Journal of Law and Social Justice published their last issues and consolidated into the Boston College Law Review; the Boston College Law Review is the Law School's main flagship journal and was ranked 22nd in the 2017 Washington & Lee Law Review Rankings. Starting in Fall 2017, it will publish eight issues per year, it endeavors to publish high-quality pieces written by students and scholars on a wide variety of legal issues. The Uniform Commercial Code Reporter-Digest is published by Matthew Bender & Company, a division of LexisNexis, it provides annotations on numerous cases relating to the Uniform Commercial Code, thereby serving as a helpful research tool. Boston College Law School maintains an online publication, the Intellectual Property and Technology Forum, covering issues of copyright and patent law.
In a new building opened in 1996, the Law Library is located on the Boston College Law School campus in Newton, contains 500,000 volumes covering all major areas of American law and primary legal materials from the federal government, the United Kingdom, the United Nations, the European Union. The library features a substantial treatise and periodical collection and a growing collection of international and comparative law material; the library's Coquillette Rare Book Room houses works from the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries, including works by and about Saint Thomas More. Center for Human Rights and International Justice Business Institute, Boston College Center for Asset Management Center for Corporate Citizenship Center for East Europe and Asia Center for Ignatian Spirituality Center for International Higher Education Center For Investment Research And Management Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture International Study Center Irish Institute Jesuit Institute The Rappaport Center for Law and Public Policy Small
Plame affair grand jury investigation
The CIA leak grand jury investigation was a federal inquiry "into the alleged unauthorized disclosure of a Central Intelligence Agency employee's identity", a possible violation of criminal statutes, including the Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982, Title 18, United States Code, Section 793. The "CIA leak scandal", or the "Plame affair", refers to a dispute stemming from allegations that one or more White House officials revealed Valerie Plame Wilson's covert CIA identity as "Valerie Plame" to reporters. In his July 14, 2003 Washington Post column, Robert Novak revealed the name of CIA employee Valerie Plame, wife of Joseph C. Wilson IV, who had covert status. Wilson, a former U. S. Ambassador, had criticized the Bush Administration in a July 6, 2003, editorial in The New York Times. Wilson argued that the Bush Administration misrepresented intelligence prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In his column, Novak diminished Wilson's claims: Wilson never worked for the CIA, but his wife, Valerie Plame, is an Agency operative on weapons of mass destruction.
Two senior administration officials told me Wilson's wife suggested sending him to Niger to investigate... On October 1, 2003, Richard Armitage told both Secretary of State Colin Powell and the Federal Bureau of Investigation that he "was the inadvertent leak". On September 26, 2003, at the request of the CIA, the Department of Justice and the FBI began a criminal investigation into the possible unauthorized disclosure of classified information regarding Valerie Wilson's CIA affiliation to various reporters in the spring of 2003. Then-Attorney General John Ashcroft headed up the investigation. On August 13, 2005 journalist Murray Waas reported that Justice Department and FBI officials had recommended appointing a special prosecutor to the case because they felt that Karl Rove had not been truthful in early interviews, withholding from FBI investigators his conversation with Cooper about Plame and maintaining that he had first learned of Plame's CIA identity from a journalist whose name Rove could not recall.
In addition, then-Attorney General John Ashcroft, from whose prior campaigns Rove had been paid $746,000 in consulting fees, had been briefed on the contents of at least one of Rove's interviews with the FBI, raising concerns of a conflict of interest. An October 2, 2003 New York Times article connected Karl Rove to the matter and highlighted his prior employment in three previous political campaigns for Ashcroft. Ashcroft subsequently recused himself from the investigation at the end of December 2003. U. S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois Patrick Fitzgerald was appointed Special Counsel on December 30, 2003. Letter from James B. Comey, Acting Attorney General, to Patrick J. Fitzgerald, United States Attorney: By the authority vested in the Attorney General by law, including 28 U. S. C. 509, 510, 515, in my capacity as Acting Attorney General pursuant to 28 U. S. C. 508, I hereby delegate to you all the authority of the Attorney General with respect to the Department's investigation into the alleged unauthorized disclosure of a CIA employee's identity, I direct you to exercise that authority as Special Counsel independent of the supervision or control of any officer of the Department.
Fitzgerald began investigations into the leak working from White House telephone records turned over to the FBI in October 2003. Fitzgerald learned of Armitage's role in the leak "shortly after his appointment in 2003". On October 31, 2003, a grand jury began taking testimony. A complete list of witnesses to testify there is not known, in part because Fitzgerald has conducted his investigation with much more discretion than previous presidential investigations; some individuals have acknowledged giving testimony, including White House Press Secretary Scott McClellan, Deputy Press Secretary Claire Buchan, former press secretary Ari Fleischer, former special advisor to the president Karen Hughes, former White House communications aide Adam Levine, former advisor to the Vice President Mary Matalin, former Secretary of State Colin Powell. Fitzgerald interviewed President George W. Bush. Legal filings by Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald contain many pages blanked out for security reasons, leading some observers to speculate that Fitzgerald has pursued the extent to which national security was compromised by Plame's identity being revealed.
In March 2004, the Special Counsel subpoenaed the telephone records of Air Force One. Alberto Gonzales — Attorney General serving as White House Counsel Colin Powell — former Secretary of State on August 16, 2004 George Tenet — former Director Bill Harlow — former spokesman John McLaughlin — Deputy Director Irving Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Jr. — Chief of Staff Mary Matalin — former advisor Karen Hughes — former special advisor Karl Rove — Senior Advisor Israel Hernandez — former advisor to Karl Rove, Commerce Department official Susan Ralston — secretary to Karl Rove Claire Buchan — Deputy Press Secretary Ari Fleischer — former Press Secretary Adam Levine — former press aide Scott McClellan — Press Secretary Carl Ford — former director of Bureau of Intelligence and Research in the State Department. Matt Cooper — Time journalist Judith Miller — The New York Times journalist Walter Pincus — Washington Post journalist Bob Woodward — Washington Post Assistant Managing Editor Robert Novak — columnist who published Plame's identity Viveca Novak — Time magazine reporter Tim Russert — NBC News senior correspondent, host of Meet the Press Robert Luskin — attorney for Karl Rove.
Several journalists have testified on this matter. Columnist Robert Novak, who admitted that the CIA attempted to dissua