Aigueblanche is a former commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Grand-Aigueblanche. Peter of Aigueblanche was a medieval Bishop of Hereford. A nobleman from Savoy, he came to England as part of the party accompanying King Henry III's bride Eleanor of Provence, he entered the royal service, becoming bishop in 1241. He served the king for a number of years as a diplomat, helping to arrange the marriage of Prince Edward. Peter became embroiled in King Henry's attempts to acquire the kingdom of Sicily, Peter's efforts to raise money towards that goal brought condemnation from the clergy and barons of England; when the barons began to revolt against King Henry in the late 1250s and early 1260s, Peter was attacked and his lands and property pillaged. He was arrested in 1263 by the barons, before being restored to his lands after the Battle of Evesham. Aigueblanche is twinned with: Villeneuve, Italy Communes of the Savoie department Official site
Boniface of Savoy (bishop)
Boniface of Savoy was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England. He was the son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, owed his initial ecclesiastical posts to his father. Other members of his family were clergymen, a brother succeeded his father as count. One niece was married to King Henry III of England and another was married to King Louis IX of France, it was Henry who secured Boniface's election as Archbishop, throughout his tenure of that office he spent much time on the continent. He clashed with his bishops, with his nephew-by-marriage, with the papacy, but managed to eliminate the archiepiscopal debt which he had inherited on taking office. During Simon de Montfort's struggle with King Henry, Boniface helped Montfort's cause, but supported the king. After his death in Savoy, his tomb became the object of a cult, he was beatified in 1839. Boniface and his elder brother Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy, were sons of Thomas I, Count of Savoy, Margaret of Geneva, he is thus not to be confused with his nephew, fellow member of the House of Savoy, Count Boniface of Savoy, the son of Amadeus IV.
The elder Boniface was born about 1207 in Savoy. He was the eleventh child of his parents; some sources state. However, there is no evidence of this, it would have been unusual for a nobleman to enter that order with its strict discipline, he had a brother Peter of Savoy, named Earl of Richmond in 1240 and yet another brother William of Savoy, Bishop of Valence and a candidate to be Bishop of Winchester in England. Boniface was the Prior of Nantua in 1232 along with the bishopric of Belley in Burgundy; when his father died, he received the castle of Ugine as his inheritance, he surrendered any entitlement to any other inheritance in 1238. After the marriage of his niece, Eleanor of Provence to King Henry III of England, Henry attempted to have Boniface elected Bishop of Winchester, but was unable to get the cathedral chapter to elect Boniface. On 1 February 1241 he was nominated to the see of Canterbury. Pope Innocent IV confirmed the appointment on 16 September 1243, as an attempt to placate Henry.
Boniface did not, come to England until 1244 and was present, in the following year 1245, at the First Council of Lyon. There, he was consecrated by Innocent IV on 15 January at Lyons, but it was only in 1249 that he returned to England and was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 1 November 1249. Before he returned in 1249, he helped arrange the marriage another of his nieces, Beatrice of Provence, the sister of Queen Eleanor, to Charles of Anjou, the brother of King Louis IX of France; the medieval chronicler Matthew Paris said that Boniface was "noted more for his birth than for his brains." He showed little concern for the spiritual duties of his office. His exactions and his overbearing behaviour, combined with the fact that he was a foreigner, offended the English, he was involved in advancing the fortunes of his family on the continent, spent fourteen of the twenty-nine years he was archbishop outside England. He made strenuous efforts to free his office from debt, as he had inherited a see, in debt over 22,000 marks, but managed to clear the debt before his death.
He did this for seven years, from the papacy. When a number of bishops refused to pay, they were suspended from office, he worked for the canonisation of Edmund of Abingdon while he was at the papal court-in-exile at Lyon from 1244 to 1249. In 1244, Boniface rejected Robert Passelewe, selected as Bishop of Chichester, on the grounds that Passelewe was illiterate. Boniface nominated his own candidate, Richard of Chichester, although the king objected, Pope Innocent IV confirmed Richard's election. In 1258, Boniface objected to the selection of Hugh de Balsham as Bishop of Ely, tried to elevate Adam Marsh instead, but Hugh appealed to Rome, which upheld Hugh's election. Boniface held church councils to reform the clergy, in 1257 at London, in 1258 at Merton, in 1261 at Lambeth. During his archiepiscopate, a provincial court was established in the archdiocese of Canterbury, with a presiding Officialis appointed by Boniface. Boniface was energetic in defending the liberties of his see, clashed with King Henry over the election of Henry's clerk Robert Passelewe to the see of Chichester.
Robert Grosseteste, the Bishop of Lincoln, had examined Passelewe, found him unfit for episcopal office, Boniface quashed the election in 1244. He was involved in disputes with the king's half-brothers Aymer de Valence, Bishop of Winchester, he quarrelled with his suffragan bishops, who resented his attempts to supervise their affairs closely. In 1250 Boniface attempted a visitation of his province, this disturbed his suffragan bishops, who protested that Boniface was taking exorbitant amounts of money during his visits, they appealed to the pope, who reaffirmed the right of Boniface to conduct his visitation, but set a limit on the amount that could be taken from any monastery or church. After the visitation, Boniface left England again, only returned in 1252, after the pope had decided the bishops' appeal in Boniface's favour. After his return, he continued to assert his rights and settled a number of disputes with his bishops, he secured professions of obedience from all but three of the 37 bishops consecrated during his time as archbishop.
He set up a court at Canterbury that heard appeals from the ecclesiastical courts of his suffragan bishops. Boniface clashed with Henry's half-brothers, the Lusignans, who arrived in England in 1247 and competed for lands and promotions with the queens' Savoy relativ
Matthew Paris, known as Matthew of Paris, was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire. He wrote a number of works historical, which he scribed and illuminated himself in drawings coloured with watercolour washes, sometimes called "tinted drawings"; some were written in some in Anglo-Norman or French verse. His Chronica Majora is an oft-cited source, though modern historians recognise that Paris was not always reliable, he tended to denigrate the Pope. However, in his Historia Anglorum, Paris displays a negative view of Frederick, going as far as to describe him as a "tyrant" who "committed disgraceful crimes". In spite of his surname and knowledge of the French language, Paris was of English birth, is believed by some chroniclers to be of the Paris family of Hildersham, Cambridgeshire, he may have studied at Paris in his youth after early education at St Albans School. The first we know of Matthew Paris is that he was admitted as a monk to St Albans in 1217.
It is on the assumption. He was at ease with the nobility and royalty, which may indicate that he came from a family of some status, although it seems an indication of his personality, his life was spent in this religious house. In 1248, Paris was sent to Norway as the bearer of a message from Louis IX to Haakon IV. Apart from these missions, his known activities were devoted to the composition of history, a pursuit for which the monks of St Albans had long been famous. After admission to the order in 1217, he inherited the mantle of Roger of Wendover, the abbey's official recorder of events, in 1236. Paris revised Roger's work; this Chronica Majora is an important historical source document for the period between 1235 and 1259. Interesting are the illustrations Paris created for his work; the Dublin MS contains interesting notes, which shed light on Paris' involvement in other manuscripts, on the way his own were used. They are in French and in his handwriting: "If you please you can keep this book till Easter" "G, please send to the Lady Countess of Arundel, that she is to send you the book about St Thomas the Martyr and St Edward which I copied and illustrated, which the Lady Countess of Cornwall may keep until Whitsuntide" some verses "In the Countess of Winchester's book let there be a pair of images on each page thus": It is presumed the last relates to Paris acting as commissioning agent and iconographical consultant for the Countess with another artist.
The lending of his manuscripts to aristocratic households for periods of weeks or months at a time, suggests why he made several different illustrated versions of his Chronicle. Paris' manuscripts contain more than one text, begin with a rather random assortment of prefatory full-page miniatures; some have survived incomplete, the various elements now bound together may not have been intended to be so by Paris. Unless stated otherwise, all were given by Paris to his monastery; the monastic libraries were broken up at the Dissolution. These MS seem to have been appreciated, were collected by bibliophiles. Many of his manuscripts in the British Library are from the Cotton Library. Chronica Majora. Corpus Christi College, Mss 26 and 16, 362 x 244/248 mm. ff 141 + 281, composed 1240–53. His major historical work, but less illustrated per page than others; these two volumes contain annals from the creation of the world up to the year 1253. The content up to 1234 or 1235 is based in the main on Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum, with additions.
There are 100 marginal drawings, some fragmentary maps and an itinerary, full-page drawings of William I and the Elephant with Keeper. MS 16 has recently had all prefatory matter re-bound separately. A continuation of the Chronica, from 1254 until Paris' death in 1259, is bound with the Historia Anglorum in the British Library volume below. An unillustrated copy of the material from 1189 to 1250, with much of his sharper commentary about Henry III toned down or removed, was supervised by Paris himself and now exists as British Library Cotton MS Nero D V, fol. 162–393. Flores Historiarum. Chetham's Hospital and Library, Manchester, MS 6712. Only part of the text, covering 1241 to 1249, is in Paris' hand, though he is credited with the authorship of the whole text, an abridgement of the Chronica with additions from the annals of Reading and of Southwark. Additional interpolations to the text make it clear, it was started there, copying another MS of Paris' text that went up to 1240. It was sent back to the author for him to update.
The illustrations are similar to Paris' style but not by him. Additions took the chronicle up to 1327. Historia Anglorum. British Library, Royal MS 14 C VII, fols. 8v–156v. 358 x 250 mm, ff 232 in all. A
Aiguebelle is a former commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Val-d'Arc. Communes of the Savoie department
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. A canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church; this way of life grew common in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth; those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons. In the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e.g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the cathedral chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a vicar capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese.
Since the 1983 revision of the Code of Canon Law, this responsibility belongs to the college of consultors, unless the national bishops conference decides that the functions that canon law ascribes to the college of consultors, including this one, are to be entrusted to the cathedral chapter. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, although an individual canon may be a member of a religious order. However, they are ordained, that is, priests or other clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained exclusively in connection with cathedral churches. A canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches; the dean and chapter are the formal body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral and for electing the bishop. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, it is dropped from a cleric's title nomenclature.
However, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a honorary title. It is awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese. Honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments, they are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral. Speaking, canons in the Anglican Communion are of this sort, thus are equivalent to a monsignor in the Roman Catholic Church wearing the violet or violet-trimmed cassock, associated with that rank. In some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council. Priests of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre are, in fact, titular or honorary canons of these respective Orders and have the right to the honorific title of "Canon" and "Monsignor" in addition to the choir dress of a canon, which includes the mozetta (black with purple piping for Malta and white with a red Jerusalem cross for Holy Sepulchre.
Since the reign of King Henry IV, the heads of state of France have been granted by the pope the title of sole honorary canon of Saint John Lateran and Saint Peter's. On the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, hence is held by Emmanuel Macron; this applies when the French President is not a Catholic or is an atheist. The proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain Felipe VI. Before the Reformation, the King of England was a canon of the basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls. In addition to canons who are clerics in holy orders, cathedrals in the Anglican Communion may appoint lay persons as canons; the rank of "lay canon" is conferred upon diocesan chancellors. It has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David's Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception; the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David's became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries.
The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, assigned for the monarch's use. A canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. There are four canon professorships in the University of Oxford in conjunction with Christ Church Cathedral and two in Durham University in conjunction with Durham Cathedral, although academics titled "canon professor" may be found at other universities where the appointments as canon and professor have been made independently. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the express purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, to appoint not more than two
Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III, 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint, was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231. He was the son of Alfonso IX of Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was Count of Aumale. Ferdinand III was one of the most successful kings of Castile, securing not only the permanent union of the crowns of Castile and León, but masterminding the most expansive campaign of Reconquista yet. By military and diplomatic efforts, Ferdinand expanded the dominions of Castile into southern Spain, annexing many of the great old cities of al-Andalus, including the old Andalusian capitals of Córdoba and Seville, establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries. Ferdinand was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X and, in Spanish, he is known as Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey. Places such as San Fernando, San Fernando, La Union, Patron Saint of the Diocese of Ilagan,Province of Isabela - San Fernando de Ilagan and the San Fernando de Dilao Church in Paco, Manila in the Philippines, in California, San Fernando City and the San Fernando Valley, were named for him and placed under his patronage.
The exact date of Ferdinand's birth is unclear. It has been proposed to have been as early as 1199 or 1198, although more recent researchers date Ferdinand's birth in the summer of 1201. Ferdinand was born at the Monastery of Valparaíso; as the son of Alfonso IX of León and his second wife Berengaria of Castile, Ferdinand is a descendant of Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile on both sides, as his paternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Leon and maternal great grandfather Sancho III of Castile were the sons and successors of Alfonso VII. Ferdinand has other royal ancestors from his paternal grandmother Urraca of Portugal and his maternal grandmother Eleanor of England a daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. From his birth to 1204 Ferdinand was designated heir to his father's kingdom of Leon with the support of his mother and the kingdom of Castile despite the fact that he was Alfonso IX's second son. Alfonso IX had a son and two daughters from his first marriage to Teresa of Portugal but at the time he never acknowledged his first son as his heir.
However, the Castilians saw the elder Ferdinand as threat to Berengaria's son. The marriage of Ferdinand's parents was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berengaria took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father, King Alfonso VIII of Castile. In 1217, her younger brother, Henry I, died and she succeeded him on the Castilian throne with Ferdinand as her heir, but she surrendered it to her son; when Ferdinand's father, Alfonso IX of León, died in 1230, his will delivered the kingdom to his older daughters Sancha and Dulce, from his first marriage to Teresa of Portugal. But Ferdinand contested the will, claimed the inheritance for himself. At length, an agreement was reached, negotiated between their mothers and Teresa, signed at Benavente on 11 December 1230, by which Ferdinand would receive the Kingdom of León, in return for a substantial compensation in cash and lands for his half-sisters and Dulce. Ferdinand thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.
Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. Since the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 halted the advance of the Almohads in Spain, a series of truces had kept Castile and the Almohad dominions of al-Andalus more-or-less at peace. However, a crisis of succession in the Almohad Caliphate after the death of Yusuf II in 1224 opened to Ferdinand III an opportunity for intervention; the Andalusian-based claimant, Abdallah al-Adil, began to ship the bulk of Almohad arms and men across the straits to Morocco to contest the succession with his rival there, leaving al-Andalus undefended. Al-Adil's rebellious cousin, Abdallah al-Bayyasi, appealed to Ferdinand III for military assistance against the usurper. In 1225, a Castilian army accompanied al-Bayyasi in a campaign, ravaging the regions of Jaén, vega de Granada and, before the end of the year, had installed al-Bayyasi in Córdoba. In payment, al-Bayyasi gave Ferdinand the strategic frontier strongholds of Baños de la Encina and Capilla.
When al-Bayyasi was rejected and killed by a popular uprising in Cordoba shortly after, the Castilians remained in occupation of al-Bayyasi's holdings in Andújar and Martos. The crisis in the Almohad Caliphate, remained unresolved. In 1228, a new Almohad pretender, Abd al-Ala Idris I'al-Ma'mun', decided to abandon Spain, left with the last remnant of the Almohad forces for Morocco. Al-Andalus was left fragmented in the hands of local strongmen, only loosely led by Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami. Seeing the opportunity, the Christian kings of the north - Ferdinand III of Castile, Alfonso IX of León, James I of Aragon and Sancho II of Portugal - launched a series of raids on al-Andalus, renewed every year. There were no great battle encounters - Ibn Hud's makeshift Andalusian army was destroyed early on, while attempting to stop the Leonese at Alange in 1230; the Christian armies romped through the south unopposed in the field. Individual Andalusian cities were left to resist or negotiate their capitulation by themselves, with little or no prospect of rescue from Morocco or anywhere else.
The twenty years from 1228
Battle of Evesham
The Battle of Evesham was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, the rebellious barons by the future King Edward I, who led the forces of his father, King Henry III, it took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of Worcestershire. With the Battle of Lewes, Montfort had won control of royal government, but after the defection of several close allies and the escape from captivity of Prince Edward, he found himself on the defensive. Forced to engage the royalists at Evesham, he faced an army twice the size of his own; the battle soon turned into a massacre. Though the battle restored royal authority, scattered resistance remained until the Dictum of Kenilworth was signed in 1267. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, had gained a dominant position in the government of the Kingdom of England after his victory at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier, he held the King, Prince Edward, the King's brother Richard of Cornwall in his custody.
However, his sphere of influence began to shrink owing to loss of key allies. In February, Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby was imprisoned in the Tower. An more important collaborator, Gilbert de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, deserted to the side of the King in May of the same year. With Gloucester's assistance, Prince Edward escaped from Montfort's captivity. With the Lords of the Welsh Marches now in rebellion, Montfort solicited the aid of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the Prince of Wales. Llywelyn agreed to help, in return for full recognition of his title and the promise that he could keep all military gains. Whatever benefits this alliance might have brought Montfort, the large concessions cost him popularity at home. Meanwhile, Edward laid siege to the town of Gloucester. Montfort's goal now became to unite with the forces of his son Simon, engage with the royal army, but the younger Simon moved much too westwards from London. Simon made it to the baronial stronghold of Kenilworth, but Edward managed to inflict great losses on Simon's forces, many of whom were quartered outside the castle walls.
From there the Prince moved south, where on 4 August, using many banners captured at Kenilworth to deceive Montfort into thinking his reinforcements were arriving, he managed to trap the older Montfort in a loop of the Avon, blocking off the only bridge and thereby forcing Montfort to fight without his son's reinforcements. When Montfort realized this, he commented: "May the Lord have mercy upon our souls, as our bodies are theirs." Heeding a lesson learned at the Battle of Lewes, the royals took position on the high ground. Along a ridge called Green Hill, just north of Evesham, Edward set up his forces on the left, with Gloucester commanding the right. At about eight in the morning, Montfort left the town of Evesham as a great thunderstorm began to rage. At Lewes, the baronial forces had gained confidence to win the day by a sense of divine destiny, reinforced by white crosses on their uniforms; this time the royal army had taken their lead, wore a red cross as their distinguishing mark. According to the chronicler William Rishanger, when Montfort saw the advance of the royal troops, he exclaimed that "They have not learned that for themselves, but were taught it by me."The respective forces of the baronial and royal armies have been estimated to be 5,000 and 10,000 strong.
Montfort, facing such unfavourable numbers, decided to concentrate his forces on the centre of the enemy's front, hoping to drive a wedge through the line. Though the tactics were successful, the baronial forces soon lost the initiative as the Welsh infantry provided by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd had proved unreliable, deserted at an early point; the flanks of the royal army closed in on Montfort's. With Montfort confronted by a force twice the size of his own, on unfavourable ground, the battle turned into a massacre. With their defeat at Lewes still fresh in memory, the royalists fought with a strong sense of bitterness and resentment; as a result, despite attempts to surrender, most of the baronial rebels were killed on the battlefield rather than taken prisoner and ransomed, as was the common custom and practice. In what has been referred to as "an episode of noble bloodletting unprecedented since the Conquest", Montfort's son Henry was killed first Simon himself lost his horse and died fighting.
His body was mutilated. King Henry himself, in the custody of Montfort and dressed up in his colours, was rescued from the mêlée by Roger de Leybourne, a converted rebel; the royals were eager to settle scores after Montfort's defeat. At the Parliament at Winchester in September the same year, all those who had taken part in the rebellion were disinherited, yet though the uprising of the younger Simon Montfort in Lincolnshire was over by Christmas, scattered resistance remained. The main problem was the garrison encamped at the impregnable Kenilworth Castle, a siege started in the summer of 1266 seemed futile. By the end of October, the royals drew up the so-called Dictum of Kenilworth, whereby rebels were allowed to buy back their land at prices dependent on their level of involvement in the rebellion; the defenders of the castle turned down the offer at first, but by the end of the year conditions had become intolerable, in 1267 the Dictum was agreed upon. As far as wide-scale confrontations went, the Battle of Evesham and its aftermath marked the end of baronial opposition in the reign of Henry III.
The kingdom now entered into a period of unity and progress that lasted until t