The City and Borough of Juneau known as Juneau, is the capital city of Alaska. It is a unified municipality on Gastineau Channel in the Alaskan panhandle, it is the second largest city in the United States by area. Juneau has been the capital of Alaska since 1906, when the government of what was the District of Alaska was moved from Sitka as dictated by the U. S. Congress in 1900; the municipality unified on July 1, 1970, when the city of Juneau merged with the city of Douglas and the surrounding Greater Juneau Borough to form the current municipality, larger by area than both Rhode Island and Delaware. Downtown Juneau is nestled across the channel from Douglas Island; as of the 2010 census, the City and Borough had a population of 31,276. In 2014, the population estimate from the United States Census Bureau was 32,406, making it the second most populous city in Alaska after Anchorage. Fairbanks, however, is the state's second most populous metropolitan area, with 100,000 residents. Juneau's daily population can increase by 6,000 people from visiting cruise ships between the months of May and September.
The city is named after a gold prospector from Quebec, Joe Juneau, though the place was for a time called Rockwell and Harrisburg. The Tlingit name of the town is Dzántik'i Héeni, Auke Bay just north of Juneau proper is called Áak'w in Tlingit; the Taku River, just south of Juneau, was named after the cold t'aakh wind, which blows down from the mountains. Juneau is unusual among U. S. capitals in that there are no roads connecting the city to the rest of Alaska or to the rest of North America. The absence of a road network is due to the rugged terrain surrounding the city; this in turn makes Juneau a de facto island city in terms of transportation, since all goods coming in and out must go by plane or boat, in spite of the city being on the Alaskan mainland. Downtown Juneau sits at sea level, with tides averaging 16 feet, below steep mountains about 3,500 feet to 4,000 feet high. Atop these mountains is the Juneau Icefield, a large ice mass from which about 30 glaciers flow; the Mendenhall glacier has been retreating.
The Alaska State Capitol in downtown Juneau was built as the Federal and Territorial Building in 1931. Prior to statehood, it housed the federal courthouse and a post office, it housed the territorial legislature and many other territorial offices, including that of the governor. Today, Juneau remains the home of the state legislature and the offices of the governor and lieutenant governor; some other executive branch offices have moved elsewhere in the state. Recent discussion has been focused between relocating the seat of state government outside Juneau and building a new capitol building in Juneau. Long before European settlement in the Americas, the Gastineau Channel was a favorite fishing ground for the Auke and Taku tribes, who had inhabited the surrounding area for thousands of years; the A'akw Kwáan had a burying ground here. In the 21st century it is known as Indian Point, they annually harvested herring during the spawning season, celebrated this bounty. Since the late 20th century, the A'akw Kwáan, together with the Sealaska Heritage Institute, have resisted European-American development of Indian Point, including proposals by the National Park Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
They consider it sacred territory, both because of the burying ground and the importance of the point in their traditions of gathering sustenance from the sea. They continue to gather clams, gumboots and sea urchins here, as well as tree bark for medicinal uses; the city and state supported Sealaska Heritage Institute in documenting the 78-acre site, in August 2016 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. "It is the first traditional cultural property in Southeast Alaska to be placed on the register."Descendants of these indigenous cultures include the Tlingit people. Native cultures have rich artistic traditions expressed in carving, orating and dancing. Juneau has become a major social center for the Tlingit and Tsimshian of Southeast Alaska. Although the Russians had a colony in the Alaska territory from 1784 to 1867, they did not settle in Juneau, they conducted extensive fur trading with Alaskan Natives of the Aleutian Islands and Kodiak. Some ships explored this area, but did not record it.
The first European to see the Juneau area is recorded as Joseph Whidbey, master of the Discovery during George Vancouver’s 1791–95 expedition. He and his party explored the region in July–August 1794. Early in August he viewed the length of Gastineau Channel from the south, noting a small island in mid-channel, he recorded seeing the channel again, this time from the west. He said. After the California gold rush, miners migrated up the Pacific Coast and explored the West, seeking other gold deposits. In 1880, Sitka mining engineer George Pilz offered a reward to any local chief in Alaska who could lead him to gold-bearing ore. Chief Kowee arrived with some ore, several prospectors were sent to in
The City and Borough of Wrangell is a borough in the Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 2,369, up from 2,308 in 2000. Incorporated as a Unified Home Rule Borough on May 30, 2008, Wrangell was a city in the Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, its Tlingit name is Ḵaachx̱aana.áakʼw. The Tlingit people residing in the Wrangell area, who were there centuries before Europeans, call themselves the Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan after the nearby Stikine River. Alternately they use the autonym Shxʼát Ḵwáan; the central part of Wrangell is located at 56°28′15″N 132°22′36″W, in the northwest corner of Wrangell Island, whereas the borough now encompasses the entire eastern half of the former Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, in addition to the area around Meyers Chuck, in the Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area. It includes Thoms Place, a former census-designated place on Wrangell Island. Tlingit people and their ancestors have inhabited this island for thousands of years. According to Naanyaa.aayí clan traditions, Tlingit people migrated down the Stikine River during a time when the river still flowed underneath glaciers.
The population moved down the river, settling in different locations such as Tlákw.aan "Ancient Village", Sʼiknáx̱ "Across from the Grass", Shaal.aan "Fish Trap Town", Xakw.aan "Sandbar Village", Kayáash "Platform", Hehl "Foam People", Hehl being the senior of house of the village. Settlements on the coast included Chʼuxʼáasʼaan "Waterfall Town", Ḵeishangita.aan "Red Alder Head Village", Kʼaatsʼḵu Noow "Among the Sharps Fort", An.áan "Village that Rests", many others. The numerous petroglyphs found at Petroglyph Beach just north of Wrangell, as well as those scattered on the beaches of the many islands in the vicinity, attest to the long Tlingit presence, it is known and somewhat forgotten, that first peoples coastal migration to the Stikine River happened from the south. The Nass River people had several migrations into the area; the "Git Setti" people tell of their migration story in a totem raised in Wrangell in 1894 called "Kickssetti" Totem. The salt water inlet, now Wrangell Harbor was traditionally called Ḵaachx̱ana.áakʼw "Ḵaachx̱án's little lake".
Before the harbor mouth was dredged and cleared in the late 19th century, the mouth of this inlet would go dry at low tide, which led to its being called a lake. Ḵaachx̱án was a man from the village variously known as Ḵaalchʼalʼaan or Chʼaalʼít.aan, meaning "Willow House Village". The village site today is known as "Old Town" or "Old Wrangell". Ḵaachx̱án was a hermit who preferred living away from his relatives, lived in a smokehouse located on the rear shore of the lake, named after him. Wrangell was founded by Russians as one of the oldest non-Native settlements in Alaska, they started trading for furs with area Tlingit in 1811 at the site of present-day Wrangell. In 1834, Baron Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel head of Russian government interests in Russian America, ordered a stockade built near the Naanyaa.aayí clan house of Chief Shakes, called Shéiksh Hídi. This house was located about 13 miles north of Old Wrangell, on a small island in the middle of what is today Wrangell Harbor; the stockade, named Redoubt Saint Dionysius, was founded at the location of present-day Wrangell and stood near the end of the small peninsula that forms the northeastern side of the mouth of the harbor.
The British Hudson's Bay Company named the stockade Fort Stikine. The Tlingit had used the Stikine River as a trade route to the interior since ancient times, they protested when the Hudson's Bay Company began to use their trade routes. Two epidemics of smallpox in 1836 and 1840 reduced the Tlingit population in the area by half, as they had no acquired immunity, silenced most of the protest; the HBC abandoned the fort in 1849 after the area's stocks of sea otter and beaver were depleted, ending the fur trade. Fort Stikine remained under British rule until Alaska's purchase by the United States in 1867. In 1868, the U. S. built a military post called Fort Wrangell at the site, it remained active until 1877. The community around the post continued to grow through commerce with prospectors in the gold rushes of 1861, 1874–77, 1897; as in Skagway, businessmen looking to make money off the miners built many gambling halls, dance halls, bars. Thousands of miners traveled up the Stikine River into the Cassiar District of British Columbia during 1874, again to the Klondike in 1897.
The Wrangell Bombardment occurred on the 25th of December 1869 when a Stikine Indian named Lowan bit off Mrs. Jaboc Muller's third right finger, was killed in an ensuing fight by soldiers who mortally wounded an additional Stikine Indian; the following morning, Scutd-doo, the father of the deceased, entered the fort and shot the post trader's partner Leon Smith fourteen times. Smith died some 13 hours later; the US army made an ultimatum demanding Sccutd-doo's surrender, following bombardment of the Stikine Indian village, the villagers handed Scutd-doo over to the military in the fort, where he was court-martialed and publicly hanged before the garrison and assembled natives on 29 December, stating before he was hanged that he had acted in revenge against the
Alaska's at-large congressional district
Since becoming a U. S. state in 1959, Alaska has been entitled to one member in the United States House of Representatives, elected in the State's sole, at-large congressional district. Based on area, Alaska's congressional district is by far the largest congressional district in the United States, is one of the largest electoral districts in the world. Since March 6, 1973, Republican Don Young has been the member for the district; the district was created when Alaska achieved statehood on January 3, 1959, to elect Alaska's single member. Since Alaska has had a single congressional district. Election results from presidential races: This district is considered safely Republican because no Democrat has been elected since 1972 and because incumbent Don Young has faced a serious challenge since 1992 when he beat Mayor John Devens by 4%. Although allegations of corruption against Young led Democrats to target this seat in 2008, Young retained his seat. Source: "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2008. Since the death of Howard Wallace Pollock on January 9, 2011, there have been no living former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Alaska's at-large congressional district; the most serving Representative to die was Nick Begich, who disappeared in a plane crash on October 16, 1972, while in office. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
History of Alaska
The history of Alaska dates back to the Upper Paleolithic period, when foraging groups crossed the Bering land bridge into what is now western Alaska. At the time of European contact by the Russian explorers, the area was populated by Alaska Native groups; the name "Alaska" derives from the Aleut word Alaxsxaq, meaning "mainland". The U. S. purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. In the 1890s, gold rushes in Alaska and the nearby Yukon Territory brought thousands of miners and settlers to Alaska. Alaska was granted territorial status in 1912 by the United States of America. In 1942, two of the outer Aleutian Islands—Attu and Kiska—were occupied by the Japanese during World War II and their recovery for the U. S. became a matter of national pride. The construction of military bases contributed to the population growth of some Alaskan cities. Alaska was granted U. S. statehood on January 3, 1959. In 1964, the massive "Good Friday earthquake" leveled several villages; the 1968 discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay and the 1977 completion of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline led to an oil boom.
In 1989, the Exxon Valdez hit a reef in Prince William Sound, spilling between 11 and 34 million U. S. gallons of crude oil over 1,100 miles of coastline. Today, the battle between philosophies of development and conservation is seen in the contentious debate over oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Paleolithic families moved into northwestern North America before 10,000 BC across the Bering land bridge in Alaska. Alaska became populated by a variety of Native American groups. Today, early Alaskans are divided into several main groups: the Southeastern Coastal Indians, the Athabascans, the Aleut, the two groups of Eskimos, the Inupiat and the Yup'ik; the coastal migrants from Asia were the first wave of humans to cross the Bering land bridge in western Alaska, many of them settled in the interior of what is now Canada. The Tlingit were the most numerous of this group, claiming most of the coastal Panhandle by the time of European contact and are the northernmost of the group of advanced cultures of the Pacific Northwest Coast renowned for its complex art and political systems and the ceremonial and legal system known as the potlatch.
The southern portion of Prince of Wales Island was settled by the Haidas fleeing persecution by other Haidas from the Queen Charlotte Islands. The Aleuts settled the islands of the Aleutian chain 10,000 years ago. Cultural and subsistence practices varied among native groups, who were spread across vast geographical distances. On some islands and parts of the Alaskan peninsula, groups of traders had been capable of peaceful coexistence with the local inhabitants. Other groups could not manage the tensions and perpetrated exactions. Hostages were taken, individuals were enslaved, families were split up, other individuals were forced to leave their villages and settle elsewhere. In addition, eighty percent of the Aleut population was destroyed by Old World diseases, against which they had no immunity, during the first two generations of Russian contact. In 1784, Grigory Ivanovich Shelikhov arrived in Three Saints Bay on Kodiak Island, operating the Shelikhov-Golikov Company. Shelikhov and his men killed hundreds of indigenous Koniag founded the first permanent Russian settlement in Alaska on the island's Three Saints Bay.
By 1788 a number of Russian settlements had been established by Shelikhov and others over a large region, including the mainland areas around Cook Inlet. The Russians had gained control of the habitats of the most valuable sea otters, the Kurilian-Kamchatkan and Aleutian sea otters, their fur was thicker and blacker than those of sea otters on the Pacific Northwest Coast and California. The Russians, advanced to the Northwest Coast only after the superior varieties of sea otters were depleted, around 1788; the Russian entry to the Northwest Coast was slow, due to a shortage of ships and sailors. Yakutat Bay was reached in 1794 and the settlement of Slavorossiya was built there in 1795. Reconnaissance of the coast as far as the Queen Charlotte Islands was carried out by James Shields, a British employee of the Golikov-Shelikhov Company. In 1795 Alexander Baranov, hired in 1790 to manage Shelikhov's fur enterprise, sailed into Sitka Sound, claiming it for Russia. Hunting parties arrived in the following years and by 1800 three-quarters of Russian America's sea otter skins were coming from the Sitka Sound area.
In July 1799 Baranov established the settlement of Arkhangelsk. It was rebuilt nearby in 1804 and given the name Novo-Arkhangelsk, it soon become the primary colonial capital of Russian America. After the Alaska Purchase, it was renamed the first capital of Alaska Territory; the Russian Orthodox religion had been informally introduced, in the 1740s–1780s, by the fur traders. During his settlement of Three Saints Bay in 1784, Shelikov introduced the first resident missionaries and clergymen; this missionary activity would continue into the 19th century becoming the most visible trace of the Russian colonial period in contemporary Alaska. Spanish claims to Alaska dated to the papal bull of 1493, but never involved colonization, forts, or settlements. Instead there were various naval expeditions to claim it for Spain. In 17
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Outline of Alaska
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U. S. state of Alaska: Alaska – most extensive, westernmost, second newest, least densely populated of the 50 states of the United States of America. Alaska occupies the westernmost extent of the Americas, bordering British Columbia and the Yukon, is detached from the other 49 states; the summit of Denali at 6194 meters is the highest point of North America. Names Common name: Alaska Pronunciation: Official name: State of Alaska Abbreviations and name codes Postal symbol: AK ISO 3166-2 code: US-AK Internet second-level domain:.ak.us Nicknames Great Land Land of the Midnight Sun The Last Frontier Seward's Folly Seward's Ice Box, Polaria and Johnson's Polar Bear Garden were satirical names coined by members of the U. S. Congress during debate over the Alaska Purchase Adjectivals Alaska Alaskan Demonym: Alaskan Geography of Alaska Alaska is: a U. S. state, a federal state of the United States of America Location: westernmost North America Northern and Western Hemisphere Americas North America Anglo America Northern America United States of America Alaska Time Zone Population of Alaska: 710,231 Area of Alaska: Atlas of Alaska Places in Alaska Historic places in Alaska Ghost towns in Alaska National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska Bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Alaska National Natural Landmarks in Alaska National parks in Alaska – see List of areas in the United States National Park System.
Denali National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Katmai National Park and Preserve Kenai Fjords National Park Kobuk Valley National Park Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve State parks in Alaska Climate of Alaska Protected areas in Alaska State forests of Alaska Superfund sites in Alaska Wildlife of Alaska Fauna of Alaska Birds of Alaska Mammals of Alaska List of reservoirs and dams of Alaska Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Islands of Alaska Lakes of Alaska Mountains of Alaska Mountain peaks of Alaska Highest mountain peaks of Alaska Volcanic craters in Alaska Rivers of Alaska Waterfalls in Alaska Alaska Interior Alaska North Slope Alaska Panhandle Arctic Alaska Kenai Peninsula Matanuska-Susitna Valley Seward Peninsula Southcentral Alaska Southwest Alaska Alaska Peninsula Tanana Valley The Bush Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Boroughs and census areas of the state of Alaska Municipalities in Alaska Cities in Alaska State capital of Alaska: Juneau Largest city in Alaska: Anchorage City nicknames in Alaska Native tribal entities Towns in Alaska List of boroughs in Alaska Aleutians East Borough Anchorage Borough Bristol Bay Borough Fairbanks North Star Borough Haines Borough Juneau Kenai Peninsula Borough Ketchikan Gateway Borough Kodiak Island Borough Lake and Peninsula Borough Matanuska-Susitna Borough North Slope Borough Northwest Arctic Borough Sitka Borough Skagway Borough Unorganized Borough Wrangell Yakutat City and Borough Demographics of Alaska Alaska locations by per capita income Politics of Alaska Form of government: U.
S. state government United States congressional delegations from Alaska Alaska State Capitol Elections in Alaska Electoral reform in Alaska Legal status of Alaska Political party strength in Alaska Political scandals Alaska political corruption probe Government of Alaska Governor of Alaska Lieutenant Governor of Alaska State departments Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development Alaska Department of Corrections Alaska Department of Health and Social Services Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice Alaska Permanent Fund Alaska Volcano Observatory Alaska Department of Education & Early Development Alaska Department of Fish and Game Alaska Department of Natural Resources Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Alaska State Medical Board Alaska State Pension Investment Board Alaska Legislature Upper house: Alaska Senate Lower house: Alaska House of Representatives Alaska Legislative Council List of Alaska State Legislatures Courts of Alaska Alaska Court System Supreme Court of Alaska United States District Court for the District of Alaska List of United States federal courthouses in Alaska Cannabis in Alaska Capital punishment in Alaska: none.
Alaska abolished the death penalty prior to statehood, eight men were executed by the earlier territorial government and earlier "Miner's Courts" executed a number of men in the 19th century. See Capital punishment in the United States. Constitution of Alaska Crime in Alaska Gun laws in Alaska Law enforcement in Alaska Law enforcement agencies in Alaska Alaska State Troopers Penal system in Alaska Alaska Department of Corrections Prisons in Alaska Same-sex marriage in Alaska Alaska National Guard Alaska Air National Guard Alaska Army National Guard Alaska State Defense Force Assembly of the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska History of Alaska Prehistory of Alaska History of slavery in Alaska Russian Alaska, 1741 – 1867 Great Northern Expedition, 1733 – 1743 Spanish expeditions to Alaska, 1744 – 1791 U. S. Department of Alaska, 1867 – 1884 Alaska Purchase, treaty signed on March 30, 1867 Gold mining in Alaska Klondike Gold Rush, 1896 – 1899 Alaska boundary dispute, 1896 – 1903 District of Alaska, 1884 – 1912 Hay-Herbert Treaty, arbitration committee resolution occurred October 20, 1903 Ter
Kupreanof is a city at the eastern shore of Kupreanof Island in the Petersburg Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. The population is 27 as of the 2010 census, up from 23 in 2000, it was the smallest incorporated city in the state as of 2000. But is now the second smallest as of 2010, with Bettles, Alaska being the smallest, with 12 residents. Among the incorporators of Kupreanof were former longtime and much beloved Petersburg Grade School Principal Harold Bergman. Kupreanof was once called West Petersburg and was a thriving community of fur farms and commercial fishermen in the early to mid -20th century. Most residents moved over to the larger, more metropolitan city of Petersburg. Kupreanof remained a separate municipality when the Petersburg Borough incorporated, unlike the neighboring city of Petersburg. However, Kupreanof now lies inside the Petersburg Borough, whereas before, it was a home-rule city inside the unorganized Petersburg Census Area. Robert "Bobby" Dolan was mayor of Kupreanof for over 40 years.
Kupreanof is located at 56°49′21″N 132°58′57″W. It is across the Wrangell Narrows from Petersburg on Mitkof Island. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles, of which, 4.0 square miles of it is land and 2.1 square miles of it is water. Kupreanof first appeared on the 1930 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of West Petersburg, appearing under that name until the 1970 census, it formally changed its name to Kupreanof and incorporated as a city in 1975. As of the census of 2000, there were 23 people, 12 households, 6 families residing in the city; the population density was 5.7 people per square mile. There were 26 housing units at an average density of 6.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.30% White, 4.35% Asian, 4.35% from two or more races. There were 12 households out of which 16.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 50.0% were non-families. 50.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.92 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city population was spread out with 17.4% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 47.8% from 45 to 64, 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,833, the median income for a family was $100,470. Males had a median income of $51,250 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the city was $26,650. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line