For petroleum refinery engineering, see Process engineering. Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Exploration and production are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry. Exploration, by earth scientists, petroleum engineering are the oil and gas industry's two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. Petroleum geology and geophysics focus on provision of a static description of the hydrocarbon reservoir rock, while petroleum engineering focuses on estimation of the recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil and gas within porous rock at high pressure; the combined efforts of geologists and petroleum engineers throughout the life of a hydrocarbon accumulation determine the way in which a reservoir is developed and depleted, they have the highest impact on field economics.
Petroleum engineering requires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines, such as geophysics, petroleum geology, formation evaluation, economics, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, well engineering, artificial lift systems and petroleum production engineering. Recruitment to the industry has been from the disciplines of physics, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and mining engineering. Subsequent development training has been done within oil companies; the profession got its start in 1914 within the American Institute of Mining and Petroleum Engineers. The first Petroleum Engineering degree was conferred in 1915 by the University of Pittsburgh. Since the profession has evolved to solve difficult situations. Improvements in computer modeling and the application of statistics, probability analysis, new technologies like horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery, have drastically improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer in recent decades. Automation and robots are being used to propel the industry to more efficiency and safety.
Deep-water and desert conditions are contended with. High temperature and high pressure environments have become commonplace in operations and require the petroleum engineer to be savvy in topics as wide-ranging as thermo-hydraulics and intelligent systems; the Society of Petroleum Engineers is the largest professional society for petroleum engineers and publishes much technical information and other resources to support the oil and gas industry. It provides free online education and access to SPE Connect, an exclusive platform for members to discuss technical issues, best practices, other topics. SPE members are able to access the SPE Competency Management Tool to find knowledge and skill strengths and opportunities for growth. SPE publishes peer-reviewed journals and magazines. SPE members receive a complimentary subscription to the Journal of Petroleum Technology and discounts on SPE's other publications. SPE members receive discounts on registration fees for SPE organized events and training courses.
SPE provides fellowships to undergraduate and graduate students. According to the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statics, petroleum engineers are required to have a bachelor's degree in engineering a degree focused on petroleum engineering is preferred, but degrees in mechanical and civil engineering are satisfactory as well. Petroleum engineering education is available at many universities in the United States and throughout the world - in oil producing regions. U. S. News & World Report maintains a list of the Best Undergraduate Petroleum Engineering Programs. SPE and some private companies offer training courses; some oil companies have considerable in-house petroleum engineering training classes. Petroleum engineering has been one of the highest paid engineering disciplines, although there is a tendency for mass layoffs when oil prices decline and waves of hiring as prices rise. SPE annually conducts a salary survey. In 2017, SPE reported that the average SPE professional member reported earning USD $194,649, the average base pay was USD $151,122.
The average base pay reported in 2016 was $143,006. Base pay and other compensation was on average was highest in the United States where the base pay was USD $174,283. Drilling and production engineers tended to make the best base pay, USD $160,026 for drilling engineers and USD $158,964 for production engineers. Base pay on average ranged from USD $96,382-174,283. There are still significant gender pay gaps, which may be explained by males having an average of 19.4 years of experience and females having an average of 12.7 years, in 2017 more than half of female respondents reported an increase in base pay received since 2016. In 2017, the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the median pay for petroleum engineers was USD $132,280, or $63.60 per hour. The same summary projects that there will be 15% job growth in this field from 2016 to 2026. In 2016, U. S. News & World Report named petroleum engineering the top college major in terms of highest median annual wages of college-educated workers.
The 2010 National Association of Colleges and Employers survey showed petroleum engineers as the highest paid 2010 graduates, at an average annual salary of $125,220. For individuals with experience, salaries can range from $170,000 to $260,000, they make an average of $112,000 a year and about $53.75 per hour
"Aston Martin Music" is the third single from rapper Rick Ross's fourth studio album Teflon Don. The song was released as a single on October 5, 2010; the song, produced by J. U. S. T. I. C. E. League, features vocals from Canadian recording artist Drake and American singer Chrisette Michele. Directed by Gil Green, the music video was premiered on BET's "106 & Park" on October 13, 2010; the video, filmed in Miami, contains Aston Martin models, including the V8 Vantage Volante, DBS V12 Volante, DB9 Volante and Rapide. Drake and Chrisette Michele are featured in the video as well as a cameo from rapper Birdman, it starts with a young Rick Ross determined to live a luxurious life. Throughout the video, scenes of Ross's lover and her dilemma are played; the plot of the video demonstrates Rick Ross' lover taking the fall for a D. E. A. Bust, finding Rick Ross waiting with an Aston Martin for her to drive when she is released; the Leading model who plays the role of Ross's woman is Tracey Thomas. The song interpolates lyrics from LL Cool J's 1987 single "I Need Love".
A song by Drake called "Paris Morton Music" features similar music, credited to J. U. S. T. I. C. E. League, it differs from "Aston Martin Music" as it does not feature Chrisette Michele. However, Drake's rather short verse from the original has been extended to a hook, played once at the start and once at the end of the song, with Drake's rapping in the middle. Drake's rap verse from Paris Morton Music is featured on Aston Martin Music's single and the music video. A sequel was featured on Drake's third studio album, Nothing Was the Same as the outro "Pound Cake / Paris Morton Music 2" featuring Jay-Z. "Paris Morton Music" was included as a track on Care Package. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Joe Elvin was a Cockney comedian and music hall entertainer and a Founder of the Grand Order of Water Rats, a show business charity. With other leading performers he took part in the Music Hall War of 1907, which supported less well paid music hall artistes in their strike for better pay and conditions. Elvin was the son of Joseph Peter Keegan, an actor and music-hall artiste, his wife, Annie Delaney, he was educated at a Catholic school in Tottenham Court Road while at the same time receiving tuition in dancing and other performance skills. He made his début in pantomime at Brighton's Theatre Royal in 1871 and began his music-hall career the following year as a juvenile comic and clog dancer at Crowder's in Greenwich, he appeared with his father as'Joe Keegan and Little Elvin', their first real success being Poor Jo, based on Dickens's Bleak House. During a season for the vaudeville entrepreneur Tony Pastor in New York City in 1882 they turned to more comic material. Impresario Fred Karno described Elvin as one of a handful of physical comedians who "made significant changes in music-hall fare."
Elvin developed the character of the loud and irreverent cockney working man having a good time. With Marie Dainton, Marie Lloyd and Little Tich, Elvin was a leading force behind the'Music Hall War' of 1907 when they persuaded other less well paid music hall artistes to strike for better pay and conditions and to picket the theatres that broke the strike; this action led to the formation of the'Variety Artists Federation', which decades was absorbed into Equity. In December 1907 he helped found and became the first president of the Variety Artistes Benevolent Fund, set up by performers to replace a previous society, controlled by agents and managers. In 1909 Elvin was the prime mover in a scheme that caused Brinsworth Home to be built for retired music-hall performers. Elvin was the brother of variety artiste Frank Keegan, who died in 1951; the two appeared together as'Keegan and Elvin', including at the 1887 variety performance benefit for Charles Ash at the Royal Victoria Hall in Lambeth. His wife, Charlotte Keegan, was a variety artist, performing as Mrs Joe Elvin.
She died on September 8, 1916. In 1889 Elvin was a founder with Jack Lotto of the Grand Order of Water Rats, a show business charity which began life when a betting syndicate that had grown up around a trotting pony owned by Elvin agreed to donate any winnings to charity, gaining its name when someone referred to the pony during a rainy trip to the Derby as looking more like a water rat. Elvin served as'King Rat' in 1894, his interests included his extensive charitable and benevolent work and a lifelong interest in horse-racing, as owner and keen gambler. He retired in the early 1920s and a benefit concert was held for him at the London Palladium in March 1923, he appeared in the 1900 silent film The Rats. Elvin is buried in Bandon Hill Cemetery in Wallington in Surrey beside his friends and fellow music hall artistes Eugene Stratton and Jack Lotto. Joe Elvin on IMDb Elvin on the Grand Order of Water Rats website
This is an incomplete list of Scottish Statutory Instruments in 2000. Seeds Regulations 2000 Sea Fishing Order 2000 Potatoes Originating in Egypt Regulations 2000 Public Finance and Accountability Act 2000 Order 2000 Public Finance and Accountability Act 2000 Order 2000 Food Protection Partial Revocation Order 2000 Food Order 2000 Animal Feedingstuffs from Belgium Regulations 2000 Food Protection Partial Revocation Order 2000 Food Protection Revocation Order 2000 Food Protection Revocation Order 2000 Sea Fishing Order 2000 Food Protection Partial Revocation Order 2000 Pesticides Regulations 2000 National Health Service Amendment Regulations 2000 Food Protection Partial Revocation Order 2000 Sea Fishing Order 2000 National Health Service Amendment Regulations 2000 Act of Sederunt 2000 Scrabster Harbour Revision Order 2000 Housing Revenue Account General Fund Contribution Limits Order 2000 Sea Fishing Order 2000 Food Order 2000 Food Protection Partial Revocation Order 2000 Health Act 1999 Order 2000 Non-Domestic Rate Order 2000 Local Government Finance Order 2000 National Health Service AmendmentRegulations 2000 National Health Service Amendment Regulations 2000 Public Finance and Accountability Act 2000 Order 2000 Health Technology Board for Scotland Order 2000 Commissioner for Local Administration in Scotland Regulations 2000 Charities Amendment Regulations 2000 National Health Service Amendment Regulations 2000 Commissioner for Local Administration in Scotland Order 2000 Dairy Produce Quotas Amendment Regulations 2000 Sea Fishing Order 2000 National Health Service Regulations 2000 Non-Domestic Rating Amendment Regulations 2000 Valuation for Rating Amendment Regulations 2000 Non-Domestic Rating Amendment Order 2000 Valuation for Rating Regulations 2000 Disabled Persons Regulations 2000 Local Authorities' Traffic Orders Regulations 2000 Meat Amendment Regulations 2000 Food Standards Act 1999 Regulations 2000 Act of Adjournal 2000 Act of Sederunt 2000 Registered Establishments Order 2000 Census Order 2000 Scotland Act 1998 Amendment Order 2000 69) Police Grant Order 2000 Local Government Pension Scheme Amendment Regulations 2000 Food Protection Partial Revocation Order 2000 Valuation Timetable Amendment Order 2000 Local Government Amendment Regulations 2000 National Lottery etc.
Act 1993 Order 2000 National Health Service (Travelling Expe
Senselessness is the English translation of the 2004 novel Insensatez written in Spanish by Salvadoran writer Horacio Castellanos Moya. Senselessness was published in 2008 by New Directions Publishers; the translation was short-listed for the 2009 Best Translated Book Award. A sex-obsessed lush of a writer is employed by the Catholic Church to edit and tidy up a 1,100 page report on the army's massacre and torture of the indigenous villagers a decade earlier; the writer becomes mesmerized by the poetic phrases written by the indigenous people and becomes paranoid and frightened, not only by the spellbinding words he must read, but by the murders and generals that run his country. The country, never named, is identifiable as Guatemala through the mention of two presidents, Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo and Efrain Rios Montt
Charles R. Conn is the CEO of Oxford Sciences Innovation, a £600 million investment company supporting deep science and technology from the University of Oxford, he is the former warden and global CEO of Rhodes House and the Rhodes Trust, was responsible for administering the Rhodes Scholarship from 2013 to 2018. Conn studied at Boston University's University Professors Program before reading philosophy and economics at Balliol College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar from Massachusetts. Conn subsequently worked at the Boston Consulting Group and gained an MBA at Harvard Business School. Conn was a partner at Company, where he focused on growth strategies and energy, he co-founded Citysearch in 1995, in 1997 the California Software Industry Council named him Entrepreneur of the Year. Conn oversaw the merger with Ticketmaster, acquisition of Match.com and the company’s public share offering. He became chairman of Ticketmaster Online-Citysearch in 2001. Conn subsequently worked as senior advisor to the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation where his projects included the preservation of wild salmon ecosystems and the Palmyra Atoll research station.
He is a Henry Crown Fellow of the Aspen Institute. Conn sits or has sat on several company and non-profit boards or advisory committees, including Patagonia, the Arcadia Foundation, the Oxford Internet Institute, Trout Unlimited, the Atlantic Salmon Foundation, he acts as an adviser and investor in start-up technology companies that focus on clean energy solutions and related areas. Conn was warden and CEO of the Rhodes Trust from June 2013 to August 2018, he was the first American to hold this position, the first Warden of Rhodes House not to have served on the University of Oxford faculty. During his time as CEO of Rhodes House, Conn led a project to transform the Rhodes Trust into a 21st-century institution; this involved raising funds to secure the endowment for existing country scholarships and expand the scholarships globally. During his time as warden the annual number of scholars increased from 83 to 101, adding China, UAE, Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, East Africa, West Africa and new global Rhodes Scholarships.
During Conn's tenure, the Trust started a convening program of alumni fellows. The Trust pioneered several new partnerships, including with Atlantic Philanthropies to set up the Atlantic Institute and with the Eric & Wendy Schmidt Fund for Strategic Innovation to establish Schmidt Science Fellows. Other partnerships included the Said Foundation, Templeton Foundation and Schwarzman Scholars program. * Since moving to Oxford, Conn has become a trustee of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation in Cape Town, South Africa, an advisory board member of the Oxford Internet Institute. In January 2014, he became a Professorial Fellow of Oxford University. Conn announced his retirement as warden of Rhodes House for the end of his five-year term, in August 2018. In March 2019, Conn was appointed CEO of Oxford Sciences Innovation, the £600m investment company formed in partnership with the University of Oxford to develop the University’s deep science and technology ideas, he was joined by former CFO of Google. Conn was married to Beverley Robertson, they have three children together.
His partner is Camilla Borg, a member of the staff of Rhodes House as director of special projects. Bulletproof Problem Solving: The One Skill That Changes Everything, Wiley. Thinking About Historical Legacies: Looking for Just Principles and Processes, The Institute for Historical Justice & Reconciliation. Robbing the Grandchildren: Foundations’ shortsightedness is jeopardizing the planet’s future, Stanford Social Innovation Review. Conservation Biology through the Lens of a Career in Salmon Conservation. Conservation Biology, he was a co-author of'Staircases to growth' in McKinsey Quarterly. Https://web.archive.org/web/20160316102640/http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/rhodes-trust/the-warden