Sava Petrović was the Metropolitan of Cetinje between 1735 and 1781, ruling what is known in historiography as the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro. He succeeded his relative Danilo I as Metropolitan in 1735, having served as Danilo's coadjutor since the 1719, when he was consecrated by Serbian Patriarch Mojsije I. Sava was a lesser memorable figure in Montenegrin history, having served during a period of constant and bitter tribal rivalries and power struggles in tribal leadership. A contemplative, happier as a studious monk than resolving conflicts, Sava preferred to leave his countrymen as they had been in the past, dependent on Venice and thus paying taxes to the Ottoman beys. In 1735, the year in which Sava became the Metropolitan of Cetinje, a new war broke out between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which Austria soon entered on Russia's side. Predictably this was welcomed by the Serbs in Austria-Hungary, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro in particular, who were ready to sacrifice everything in their long struggle for total independence.
Hajduk activity increased, threatening not only Ottoman-controlled Bosnia and Herzegovina but the coastal territory of Dalmatia ruled by Venice and by neighbouring Republic of Ragusa. Unable to impose firm leadership, Sava had little or no influence on events that transpired. Sava's goal was to secure more open borders for Montenegro, suffering under blockades imposed by its invading Western and Eastern neighbours on all sides; the Austrian government had induced the Serbs to leave their villages and towns and join the Austrian army. The good will of the Serbian hierarchy was needed by the Austrians in the continuing wars against the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, early Austrian successes in the campaign against the Ottomans, supported by Serb volunteers, were followed by serious reverses, after which Austria was forced to yield territory. In Montenegro, the pattern of raids and counter-attacks continued unabated with Highlander tribes taking the brunt of Ottomans reprisals. In 1740, the new Pasha of Scutari began preparations for an offensive in the region on a scale that appeared to make successful resistance impossible.
Opting for negotiations instead of warfare, the Highlander tribes sent forty of their chieftains to an arranged location for talks only to have them captured and decapitated, another 400 of their compatriots taken into slavery on the orders of the paša himself. Hard-pressed, Sava decided to follow his predecessor's example by seeking help from Orthodox Russia, offering to provide troops to serve in the Imperial Russian armies in return for some form of Russian protectorate over Montenegro. At the end of September 1742 Sava set off in person, on reaching St. Petersburg the following spring he presented Montenegro's case to the newly enthroned Empress Elizabeth; the empress promised financial aid, including further funds for the Cetinje monastery, but was unwilling to broach the question of a political arrangement that would afford Montenegro any military protection. Journeying back by way of Berlin, Frederick the Great gave him a beautiful golden cross, but such tokens of consideration, though well intended, fell short of meeting his hopes, his journey far from proving a turning-point in Montenegro's fortunes, served rather to prompt his withdrawal from public life.
From 1744 to 1766, Metropolitan Vasilije Petrović Njegoš, Sava's coadjutator, became the highest authority in Montenegro and its representative abroad. After Vasilije died at St. Petersburg in 1766, Sava again resumed his duties as Metropolitan. In 1766 the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć was banned by the Ottomans. Sava responded by writing to the Moscow Metropolitan that "the Serb Nation is under hard slavery" and so asked the Holy Synod of Russia to help the Serbian Patriarch. Sava wrote a letter to the Russian Empress asking "Protect the Serbs from the Greek and Turkish intruding We are ready to pay Russia in blood", he enumerated the Montenegrins among this "Serbian nation". In 1767, he wrote to the Republic of Ragusa that the Cetinje Metropolitanate was "happy that the government still used our Serbian language", he was succeeded as Metropolitan by Petar I Petrović-Njegoš. When introducing himself to Empress Elizabeth of Russia, he used "Metropolitan of Skenderija, the Coast and Montenegro — "Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Coast, Exarch of the Holy Throne of the Slav–Serb Patriarchate in Peć" — Name: In modern historiography his full name is sometimes written Sava Petrović Njegoš, or Sava Petrović-Njegoš.
Other spellings include Sava Petrović Njeguš
Đorđe Petrović OSA, better known by the sobriquet Black George, or Karađorđe, was a Serbian revolutionary who led the struggle for his country's independence from the Ottoman Empire during the First Serbian Uprising of 1804–1813. Born into an impoverished family in the Šumadija region of Ottoman Serbia, Karađorđe distinguished himself during the Austro-Turkish War of 1788–1791 as a member of the Serbian Free Corps, a militia made up of Habsburg and Ottoman Serbs, armed and trained by the Austrians. Fearing retribution following the Austrians' and Serb rebels' defeat in 1791, he and his family fled to the Austrian Empire, where they were to live until 1794, when a general amnesty was declared. Karađorđe subsequently became a livestock merchant. In 1796, the rogue governor of the Sanjak of Vidin, Osman Pazvantoğlu, invaded the Pashalik of Belgrade, Karađorđe fought alongside the Ottomans to quash the incursion. In early 1804, following a massacre of Serb chieftains by renegade Ottoman janissaries known as Dahis, the Serbs of the Pashalik rebelled.
Karađorđe was unanimously elected to lead the uprising against the Dahis at an assembly of surviving chiefs in February 1804. Within six months, most of the Dahi leaders had been captured and executed by Karađorđe's forces, by 1805, the final remnants of Dahi resistance had been crushed. Karađorđe and his followers now demanded far-reaching autonomy, a move which Sultan Selim interpreted as but the first step towards complete independence. Selim promptly ordered an army to march into the Pashalik; the Ottomans suffered a string of defeats at the hands of Karađorđe's forces. By 1806, the rebels had captured all the major towns in the Pashalik, including Belgrade and Smederevo, expelled their Muslim inhabitants. Burdened by the demands of the Russo-Ottoman War of 1806–1812, Selim offered the Serbs extensive autonomy, but Karađorđe refused in light of Russia's avowal to aid the rebels should they continue fighting. Frequent infighting, together with Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, weakened the rebels, the Ottomans were able to reverse many of their gains.
Karađorđe was forced to flee Serbia in October 1813 and Belgrade fell that month, bringing the First Serbian Uprising to a close. He and his followers were arrested and detained. Despite Ottoman requests for his extradition, the Austrians handed Karađorđe over to the Russians, who offered him refuge in Bessarabia. There, he joined the Greek secret society known as Filiki Eteria, which planned to launch a pan-Balkan uprising against the Ottomans. Karađorđe returned to Serbia in secret in July 1817, but was killed shortly thereafter by agents of Miloš Obrenović, a rival rebel leader, concerned that Karađorđe's reappearance would cause the Ottomans to renege on the concessions that they had agreed to following the Second Serbian Uprising of 1815. Karađorđe is considered the founder of the Karađorđević dynasty, which ruled Serbia in several intervals during the 19th and 20th centuries, his murder resulted in a violent, decades-long feud between his descendants and those of Obrenović, with the Serbian throne changing hands several times.
Đorđe Petrović was born into an impoverished family in the village of Viševac, in the Šumadija region of Ottoman Serbia, on 16 November 1768. He was the oldest of his parents' five children, his father, Petar Jovanović, had since become a peasant farmer. His mother, was a homemaker. Petrović's surname was derived from his father's given name, in line with contemporary Serbian naming conventions. Like most of his contemporaries, Petrović was illiterate, his family celebrated the feast day of Saint Clement. They are said to have been descended from the Vasojevići tribe of Montenegro's Lim River valley, his ancestors are thought to have migrated from Montenegro to Šumadija in the late 1730s or early 1740s. Petrović's childhood was difficult, his parents were forced to move around in search of a livelihood. His father worked as servant for a sipahi, an Ottoman cavalryman. Petrović himself spent his adolescence working as a shepherd. In 1785, he married Jelena Jovanović; the couple had seven children. Petrović worked for several landlords across Šumadija until 1787, when he and his family left the region and settled in the Austrian Empire, fearing persecution at the hands of the Ottoman janissaries.
It is said that as they were preparing to cross the Danube into Austria, Petrović's father began to have second thoughts about leaving Šumadija. Knowing that the entire family would be put in jeopardy if his father stayed behind, Petrović either took his father's life or arranged for someone to kill him instead. Following the outbreak of the Austro-Turkish War of 1788–1791, Petrović joined the Serbian Free Corps, took part in fighting the Ottomans in western Serbia; the Free Corps was a volunteer militia made up of both Ottoman and Habsburg Serbs, armed and trained by the Austrians. It was led by a Habsburg Serb officer, Major Mihailo Mihaljević. Petrović's participation in the war brought him invaluable military experience, as well as insight into the Austrians' military techniques, he was decorated for bravery, reaching the rank of sergeant. In this capacity, he was given command over a squad of 25 men; the Au
The Podunavlje District is one of nine administrative districts of Southern and Eastern Serbia. It expands across the central parts of Serbia. According to the 2011 census results, it has a population of 199,395 inhabitants, the administrative center is the city of Smederevo, it encompasses the municipalities of: Smederevo Smederevska Palanka Velika Plana According to the last official census done in 2011, the Podunavlje District has 199,395 inhabitants. 52.09% of the population lives in the urban areas. Ethnic composition of the district: Smederevo was the capital of the Serb State in the fourteenth century - there stood the royal palace at the time of the Serbian ruler Đurađ Branković. Today, in the remnants of the Smederevo fortress, finished in 1430, traces of the former palace and the house of the royal family can be discerned. At the old city cemetery stands a church from the fourteenth century, assumed to have been the family vault of the Serb ruler Đurađ Branković, which gave rise to numerous legends.
This area is well known as the place of the Karađorđe's assassination after The First Serbian Uprising around the Pokajnica monastery near Velika Plana. In economic regard, Smederevo is today one of the leading cities in Serbia, its major companies are the Smederevo Metal-processing Combine, the DP "Zelvoz" working on the technology of passenger and special railroad cars, the "Fagram" holding enterprise producing constructional machines - which, together with the "Tehnogas", "Jugopetrol", "Lasta" have contributed to making this region a successful and dynamic industrial center. This is a list of the settlements in the Podunavlje District: Administrative divisions of Serbia Districts of Serbia Podunavlje Note: All official material made by Government of Serbia is public by law. Information was taken from official website. Подунавски управни округ
Nicholas I of Montenegro
Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918. Nikola was born in the village of Njeguši, the ancient home of the reigning House of Petrović, his father, Mirko Petrović-Njegoš, a celebrated Montenegrin warrior, was elder brother to Danilo I of Montenegro, who left no male offspring. After 1696, when the dignity of Vladika, or prince-bishop, became hereditary in the Petrović family, the sovereign power had descended from uncle to nephew, the Vladikas belonging to the order of the black clergy who are forbidden to marry. A change was introduced by Danilo I, who declined the episcopal office and declared the principality hereditary in the direct male line. Mirko Petrović-Njegoš having renounced his claim to the throne, his son was nominated heir-presumptive, the old system of succession was thus incidentally continued. Prince Nikola, trained from infancy in martial and athletic exercises, spent a portion of his early boyhood at Trieste in the household of the Kustic family, to which his aunt, the princess Darinka, wife of Danilo II, belonged.
The princess was an ardent francophile, at her suggestion the young heir-presumptive of the vladikas was sent to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris. Unlike his contemporary, King Milan of Serbia, Prince Nikola was little influenced in his tastes and habits by his Parisian education. Nikola was a member of the "United Serbian Youth" during its existence. After the organization was prohibited in the Principality of Serbia and Austro-Hungary, the "Association for Serb Liberation and Unification" was established by Nikola, Marko Popović, Simo Popović, Mašo Vrbica, Vasa Pelagić, more, in Cetinje. Nikola was still in Paris when, in consequence of the assassination of his uncle Danilo I, he succeeded as prince. In November 1860 he married Milena, daughter of the vojvoda Petar Vukotić. In the period of peace which followed Nikola carried out a series of military and educational reforms; the country was embroiled in a series of wars with the Ottoman Empire between 1862 and 1878. In 1867 he met the emperor Napoleon III at Paris, in 1868 he undertook a journey to Russia, where he received an affectionate welcome from the tsar, Alexander II.
He afterwards visited the courts of Vienna. His efforts to enlist the sympathies of the Russian imperial family produced important results for Montenegro. In 1871 Prince Dolgorukov arrived at Montenegro on a special mission from the tsar, distributed large sums of money among the people. In 1869 Prince Nikola, whose authority was now established, succeeded in preventing the impetuous highlanders from aiding the Krivosians in their revolt against the Austrian government. In 1876 Nikola declared war against Turkey; the war resulted in a considerable extension of the Montenegrin frontier and the acquisition of a seaboard on the Adriatic. He justified the war as a revenge for the Battle of Kosovo. In 1876 he sent a message to the Montenegrins in Herzegovina: Under Murad I the Serbian Tsardom was destroyed, under Murad V it has to rise again; this is my wish of all of us as well as the wish of almighty God. The independence of Montenegro was recognised at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 and in the succeeding decades Montenegro enjoyed considerable prosperity and stability.
Education and the army expanded greatly. In 1883 Prince Nikola visited the sultan, with whom he subsequently maintained the most cordial relations. In 1900 Nikola took the style of Royal Highness. According to Bolati, the Montenegrin court was not grieving that much over the murder of King Alexander Obrenović, as they saw him as an enemy of Montenegro and obstacle to the unification of Serb Lands. "Although it wasn't said it was thought that the Petrović dynasty would achieve. All procedures of King Nikola shows that he himself believed that", he gave Montenegro its first constitution in 1905 following pressure from a population eager for more freedom. He introduced west-European style press freedom and criminal law codes. In 1906, he introduced the perper. On 28 August 1910, during the celebration of his jubilee, he assumed the title of king, in accordance with a petition from the Skupština, he was at the same time gazetted field-marshal in the Russian army, an honor never conferred on any foreigner except the Duke of Wellington.
When the Balkan Wars broke out in 1912 King Nikola was one of the most enthusiastic of the allies. He wanted to drive the Ottomans out of Europe, he defied the Powers and captured Scutari despite the fact that they blockaded the whole coast of Montenegro. Again in the
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Danilo I, Prince of Montenegro
Danilo Petrović Njegoš, was the Metropolitan or Prince-Bishop of Montenegro and prince of Montenegro from 1851 to 1860. During his reign, Montenegro became a secular state, a lay principality instead of a bishopric-principality, he became involved in a war with the Ottoman Empire in 1852, the Porte claiming jurisdiction in Montenegro, the boundaries between the two countries were not defined until 1858. Danilo, with the help of his elder brother, Voivode Mirko, defeated the Ottomans at Ostrog in 1853 and in the Battle of Grahovac in 1858; the town of Danilovgrad is named after him. When Petar II Petrović-Njegoš died, the Senate, under the influence of Đorđije Petrović, proclaimed Petar II's elder brother Pero Tomov Petrović as Prince. In a brief struggle for power, who commanded the support of the Senate, lost to the much younger Danilo who had much more support among people. Prior to the determination of Petar II's successor, after making peace between the Crmnica and Katunjani tribes, being recognized by all of the Montenegrin clans except for the Bjelopavlići, Danilo traveled to Vienna, Austrian Empire and to the Russian Empire to be ordained as Vladika, not Prince.
After Danilo returned from Russia in 1852, he took Pero and his supporters by surprise, bringing with him the endorsement from Nicholas I of Russia to become the Prince of Montenegro. Thus somewhat unexpectedly, Danilo became prince and Pero conceded defeat by returning to his position as president of the Senate. After centuries of theocratic rule, Danilo was the first Montenegrin secular prince who did not hold the ecclesiastical position of the Vladika, he was planning to upgrade the status of Montenegro turning it into a kingdom but did not live long enough to see his ambitions realized. It was during Danilo's reign that Montenegro won its most important battle with Turkey and its de facto independence, his charismatic elder brother, Grand Voivode Mirko Petrović-Njegoš led a 7,500 strong army and won the crucial Battle of Grahovac against the Turks on 1 May 1858. The Turkish forces were routed. A considerable arsenal of war trophies was left in the Montenegrins hands, to come handy again in the final wars of independence in 1862 and 1875-8.
This major victory had had more diplomatic significance. The glory of Montenegrin weapons was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Serbs in Vojvodina part of Austria-Hungary; this Montenegrin victory forced the Great Powers to demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Turkey, de facto recognizing Montenegro's centuries-long independence. In November 1858, a commission of foreign powers representatives demarcated the border between Montenegro and Turkey. Montenegro gained Grahovo, Nikšić's Župa, more than a half of Drobnjaci, Tušina, Lipovo, Upper Vasojevići, the part of Kuči and Dodoši. Danilo I sought in Russia a military ally while trying not to upset Austria, his educated and wealthy wife together with Russia's failure to live up to promise for Montenegro's international recognition of full sovereignty influenced his Francophile attitude. This Francophile attitude was detrimental to Danilo's relations with Russia and Serbia, who saw the good relations between Montenegro and France as a threat to their interests.
At the same time, all major European powers worked to undermine Russian influence in Southeastern Europe, the strongest in Montenegro. Knowing the mood of his people, Danilo refused to compromise on sovereignty of Montenegro averting to the extent the pressure from Europeans. At the same time, Russia was in no position to help Montenegro after suffering a defeat in the Crimean War in 1854. In the subsequent Congress of Paris in 1856, Russian government representatives did not have enough strength to support Montenegrin demands for the independence and territorial enlargement. However, the Russian government replied on Danilo's memorandum "that the Russian government has always recognized Montenegro's independence and will always do so regardless of the position of other great powers". During the trip to France, Danilo received some financial help from France hoping that France would insure the formal recognition of Montenegro's sovereignty. By the same token, Napoleon III hoped that this would bring Montenegro closer to French influence to the expense of the Russia.
This act of Danilo earned many enemies since it was seen by many influential Montenegrins as a betrayal of Russia. Danilo's enemies grew in numbers and included Danilo's elder brother, Grand Voivode Mirko and the president of the Senate Đorđije Petrović; the plans to organize the elimination of the Prince were coined by the Montenegrin emigration led by Stevan Perović Cuca and assisted by foreign powers. Danilo's loyals managed to assassinate Perović in Istanbul but the resistance to the Prince was not over. In domestic issues, Danilo was an authoritarian ruler; as it happened, the centralization of his power contributed to development of the modern functions of the state. Danilo used the Law of Petar I Petrović-Njegoš as an inspiration for his own General Law of the Land from 1855. Danilo's Code was based on the Montenegrin traditions and customs and it is considered to be the first national constitution in Montenegrin history, it stated rules, protected privacy and banned warring on the Austrian Coast.
Danilo organized the first census in Montenegro in 1855 and ordered that all Montenegrin households be recorded. According to the census, Montenegro's population was 80,000. Danilo