Danilo I, Metropolitan of Cetinje
Danilo Šćepčević was the Metropolitan of Cetinje between 1696 and 1735. He styled himself vojevodič srpskoj zemlji, Danilo Šćepčević was born in Njeguši to father Stepan and mother Ana. His family belonged to the Heraković brotherhood and he signed himself Danilo Šćepčev Heraković Njeguš. Danilo had a brother, known as Rade Šćepčev, as a fifteen-year-old, he was a witness to the battle of Vrtijeljka. It is possible that he heard the details of the battle from some survivor and he mentioned noble and famous hajduks who fell at Vrtijeljka in a letter to the Montenegrin chiefs dated to 1714. Danilo was, as other Serbian bishops, unwilling to subordinate himself to Kalinik I, the new Patriarch of Peć. In 1700, he not attend an assembly dedicated to Kalinik in Peć. Danilo was chirotonized by Arsenije III as the bishop of Cetinje and Metropolitan of Skenderija, the chirotony, which took place during the national-church assembly, was participated by Serbian metropolitans from all over the Serbian lands, as well as other notable Serbs.
It is likely that Danilo had met Arsenije III earlier when Arsenije was in Cetinje in 1689, asking the Montenegrins to take up arms and unite and he coordinated defense operations and partially settled tribal disputes among his people. An uprising broke out in 1711, after calls by Danilo, during his rule political ties between Russia and Montenegro were first established. Russian historian Pavel Rovinsky, in writing about Montenegrin-Russian relations, concluded that it was the pretensions of Turkey, on May 1,1718, the Republic of Venice recognized Danilo as the spiritual authority over the Orthodox in Paštrovići and the Bay of Kotor. From on, until the fall of Venice, the Metropolitans of Cetinje had the right to new and reconstruct destroyed churches in those territories. Danilos choice of Sava II clearly had a lot to do with family ties and clan membership, like Danilo, Sava became a monk, serving in the Maine monastery on the coast where he was consecrated as an archpriest in 1719 by the Serbian Patriarch of Peć, Mojsije.
From the time of his ordination onwards, Danilo sought to introduce the young Sava gradually to political life, Danilo was instrumental in the process of connecting families and tribes. He was said to have issued the extermination of the Turkicized, as included in The Mountain Wreath, danil, Metropolitan of Skenderija and Primorje,1715. Danil, Bishop of Cetinje, Njegoš, Duke of the Serb land,1732, književnost Crne Gore od XII do XIX vijeka. Medaković, Milorad G. Marijan Miljić, ed. Vladika Danilo, sva svojeručna pisma vladike Danila Petrovića
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals, some of the terms used for individual clergy are cleric, clergywoman and churchman. In Islam, a leader is often known formally or informally as an imam, mufti. In Jewish tradition, a leader is often a rabbi or hazzan. Cleric comes from the ecclesiastical Latin clericus, for belonging to the priestly class. This is from the Ecclesiastical Greek clericus, meaning appertaining to an inheritance, Clergy is from two Old French words, clergié and clergie, which refer to those with learning and derive from Medieval Latin clericatus, from Late Latin clericus. Clerk, which used to mean one ordained to the ministry, in the Middle Ages and writing were almost exclusively the domain of the priestly class, and this is the reason for the close relationship of these words. Now, the state is tied to reception of the diaconate.
Minor Orders are still given in the Eastern Catholic Churches, and it is in this sense that the word entered the Arabic language, most commonly in Lebanon from the French, as kleriki meaning seminarian. This is all in keeping with Eastern Orthodox concepts of clergy, which include those who have not yet received, or do not plan to receive. A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who have religious authority or function. Buddhist clergy are often referred to as the Sangha. This diversity of monastic orders and styles was originally one community founded by Gautama Buddha during the 5th century BC living under a set of rules. The interaction between Buddhism and Tibetan Bon led to a uniquely Tibetan Buddhism, within which various sects, the interaction between Indian Buddhist monks and Chinese Confucian and Taoist monks from c200-c900AD produced the distinctive Chan Buddhism. In these ways, manual labour was introduced to a practice where monks originally survived on alms, layers of garments were added where originally a single thin robe sufficed and this adaptation of form and roles of Buddhist monastic practice continued after the transmission to Japan.
For example, monks took on administrative functions for the Emperor in particular secular communities, again, in response to various historic attempts to suppress Buddhism, the practice of celibacy was relaxed and Japanese monks allowed to marry. This form was transmitted to Korea, during Japanese occupation, as these varied styles of Buddhist monasticism are transmitted to Western cultures, still more new forms are being created. This broad difference in approach led to a schism among Buddhist monastics in about the 4th century BCE
Nicholas, Crown Prince of Montenegro
Nikola II Petrović-Njegoš, Crown Prince of Montenegro is the Head of the House of Petrović-Njegoš which once reigned over Montenegro. He is Hereditary Grand Master of the Dynastic Orders of Petrović-Njegoš, St. Peter of Cetinje, the title of the Crown Prince is usually only borne by those persons who held it legally under monarchy and by courtesy after the monarchy ended. Nicholas II was born decades after Montenegro became a part of Yugoslavia and was officially never a Crown Prince as he was never an heir apparent or presumptive of a reigning sovereign. Nevertheless, this title was never disputed by anyone and is considered as held by courtesy. The house of Petrović came originally from Herzegovina and settled in Njeguši around 1400, niegosch was born around 1425 and became the Voivode of Njegoš. Prince Nikola II descends from Danilo Petrović-Njegoš who obtained the hereditary Dignity of Vladika of Montenegro in 1711 when it became a theocracy, Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš was recognized as Sovereign Prince of Montenegro by Russia on 21 March 1852, and established succession by male primogeniture.
His successor, Prince Nikola I assumed the style of Royal Highness on 19 December 1900, Nikola is related to the former royal House of Obrenović through Yephrem, younger full brother of Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia. During World War I the Petrović Njegoš family were forced to flee the country in 1915 after the Army of Montenegro was overwhelmed by the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the end of the war, the Kingdom of Serbia annexed Montenegro while abolishing the Kingdom of Montenegro, the family made their home in France where Nikola I of Montenegro died in exile in 1921. The same year, King Nikolas maternal grandson, Alexandar Karađorđević became king of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, of which Montenegro had become a part. Though Prince Nikola II is de jure King of Montenegro he uses the style of His Royal Highness Crown Prince or His Royal Highness Prince Nikola II of Montenegro, Prince Nikola II was born in an internment camp in Occupied Czechoslovakia on July 71944.
He is the son and heir of the late Prince Michael of Montenegro, Grand-Duke of Grahovo and Zeta, who lived in exile until his death in 1986, and Geneviève Prigent. Prince Michael was regarded by Montenegros monarchists as king from 7 March 1921 and his parents married on 27 January 1941 and divorced in Paris, France, on 11 August 1949, exactly 5 weeks after his 5th birthday. Genevieve received custody of young Nikola and raised him largely as a single mother, growing up in France, Prince Nikola barely saw his father, knew very little about Montenegro and was raised and educated as a Frenchman. Prince Nikola made public pronouncements of his willingness to return to the Montenegrin throne if that were the wish of the people. Furthermore, he believed that the bill would prevent the dynasty from participating in political life and he said that the civil list amount that was announced in the press was not actually contained in the proposed version of the bill that he was shown. Owing to his stance on this bill, Nikola chose not to attend the celebrations of the centenary of the Kingdom of Montenegro that were held on 28 August 2010.
In 1964 he was admitted to the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, between 1967 and 1971 he worked on several architectural projects, including a winter sports resort in Avoriaz and with Shamaï Haber on several university science faculties
Battle of Velbazhd
The Battle of Velbazhd is a battle which took place between Bulgarian and Serbian armies on 28 July 1330, near the town of Velbazhd. Three years the bulk of the Bulgarian and Serbian armies clashed at Velbazhd, Serbian victory shaped the balance of power in Balkans in the next two decades. The Bulgarians did not lose territory after the battle but were unable to stop the Serbian advance towards Macedonia, Serbia managed to conquer Macedonia and parts of Thessaly and Epirus reaching its greatest territorial extent ever. Their new King Stefan Dušan was crowned Emperor with Bulgarian help in 1346, after Dušans death in 1355 his Empire disintegrated as did Bulgaria after the death of Ivan Alexander in 1371 and both states were subsequently destroyed by the Ottoman Turks. Both Empires were faced with serious external and internal problems and from the 1280s the Serbs began to expand their Kingdom to the south in northern Macedonia, after in 1328 Andronikos III won and deposed his grandfather. Serbia and the Byzantines entered a period of bad relations, closer to the state of undeclared war, on the other hand, the Bulgarian Emperor Michael Asen III supported his brother-in-law Andronikos III.
Previously, in 1324, he divorced and ousted his wife and Stefan’s sister Anna Neda, during that time the Serbs captured some important towns such as Prosek and Prilep and even besieged Ohrid. The two Empires were seriously worried about the fast growth of Serbia and on 13 May 1327 settled a clearly anti-Serb peace treaty. After another meeting with Andronikos III in 1329, the decided to invade their common enemy. Michael Shishman desired to retake the north-western and south-western Bulgarian lands which the Serbs had previously conquered, the plan included the thorough elimination of Serbia and its partition between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. According to some Serbian chroniclers, he demanded the submission of the Serbian king, Michael called in his ally Basarab of Wallachia who sent him a strong unit, as well as detachments of Ossetians/Jassiges and Tatars, a total of 3,000 men. Michaels army was estimated by contemporaries to be 12,000 strong, Stefan Uroš strengthened his army by more Spanish and German mercenaries, experienced warriors which presented an elite unit of Serbian army which comprised a total of 18,000 fighters.
Serbian objective was to prevent the joining of the allies and to fight in separate battles, fearing an attack on Morava valley by the way of Nish the Serbian King gathered his army in the field of Dobrich, on the confluence of the Toplica river into the Morava. On 19 July the Bulgarian army led by the Emperor himself set off from the capital Tarnovo, marched through the Iskar Gorge and Sofia and entered the northern parts of the Struma valley. From there he continued towards Zemen and set his camp in the village of Shishkovtsi On the next day the army reached the important border castle near the village of Izvor. From there it was divided two groups, the main forces under Michael Shishman through the northern parts of the Konyavska mountain. The smaller part which included the army went through an easier but longer road through the mountain. Other Bulgarian forces under the command of the Emperors brother Belaur set off from his seat in Vidin, according to some historians they were stationed as a reserve around the Izvor castle while others think that he arrived too late
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Zenica is the fourth-largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the capital of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity. Zenica is located about 70 km north of Sarajevo and is situated on the Bosna river, surrounded by a mountainous, the city is home to 115,134 inhabitants as of 2013. Zenica was an important economic and military center during the Banate of Bosnia and the Kingdom of Bosnia, the citys old quarter contains several attractions, including the former synagogue, dating from 1906, which is now part of the City Museum. There is a mosque, an Austrian fountain and an old farm house. Known by the Romans as Bistua Nova, the became known as Bilino Polje, Brod. During the Middle Ages, the town was important in the governance of the Bosnian Kingdom, nearby were the stone fortress of Vranduk, the residence of the Kings of Bosnia at Bobovac and the village of Janjici, where the Did, head of the Bosnian Church resided. The nearby villages of Puhovac and Pojske are the site of several Stećak tombstones, unique to Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of Croatia and Serbia.
In one description from the year 1697, Zenica is compared to a delta of the Nile, where melons grow and those projects include a railway from Bosanski Brod to Zenica built in 1879, a coal mine, paper works, steel factory, and a prison. An Orthodox Church was built in 1882, two Roman Catholic churches in 1910, a synagogue in 1903, several coaching inns, a hotel, the city changed markedly in character during this period as might be expected during such a developmental boom. Zenica managed to escape major physical damage or large-scale reprisals and human casualties, following the liberation of Zenica by the Partisans in 1945, the town began to grow rapidly as the steel industry developed further. The town spread to encompass the former villages of Bilino Polje and Radakovo, in 1948 the population was only 12,000 people, but by 1961 it had grown to over 30,000. In 1981 the town had over 63,000 people, the city has seen a sixfold increase in its population over 50 years. In 1991, the year before the Bosnian War began, Zenica became the headquarters of one of the first private and independent radio stations in Eastern Europe, Radio CD-CEMP.
In the spring of 1993, Zoran Mišetić, a journalist and owner of Radio CD-CEMP, was granted the Belgian Award for Independent Journalism, known as The Pen Of Peace. On 19 April 1993, during the Croat-Bosniak War,15 civilians were killed and 50 others injured, the grenade was fired from the village of Puticevo. A total of six grenades landed, in rounds of three, one round of two at 12.10 pm, one round of two shells at 12.24 pm, and a further round of two shells at 12.29 pm. During this period Zenica was isolated from the rest of the world for a year, the city suffered considerable civilian casualties from sniper fire and hunger. Bosnias fourth-largest city had no water or electricity, during the war, the demographics of the city were altered by an influx of ethnic Bosniaks refugees from other parts of Bosnia, while the Serb population left for parts of Serb-controlled Bosnia
Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro. The city was called Titograd between 1946 and 1992 when Montenegro was part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Podgoricas favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and the meeting point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement. The city is close to winter ski centres in the north, the citys population was 204,877 in the 2011 census. The Podgorica Municipality contains 10. 4% of Montenegros territory and 29. 9% of its population and it is the administrative centre of Montenegro and its economic and educational focus. The name Podgorica means below the hill, Gorica being the name of the cypress-covered hill that overlooks the city centre. Some three kilometres north-west of Podgorica lie the ruins of Roman-era Doclea, from which Roman Emperor Diocletian hailed, in centuries, Romans corrected the name to Dioclea, guessing wrongly that an i had been lost in vulgar speech.
Duklja is the version of that word. When founded, the town was called Birziminium, in the Middle Ages, it was known as Ribnica. The name Podgorica was used from 1326, from 1946 to 1992, the city was named Titograd in honour of Josip Broz Tito, the former President of Yugoslavia. Podgorica is located in central Montenegro, the area is crossed with rivers and the city itself is only 15 kilometres north of Lake Skadar. The Morača and Ribnica rivers flow through the city, while the Zeta, Cijevna and Mareza flow nearby. Morača is the largest river in the city, being 70 m or 230 ft wide near downtown, except for the Morača and Zeta, other rivers have an appearance of small creeks. The richness in bodies of water is a feature of the city. In contrast to most of Montenegro, Podgorica lies in a flat area at the northern end of the Zeta plain. The only exceptions are hills which overlook the city, the most significant is 130.3 m high Gorica Hill, citys namesake, which rises above the city centre. The other hills include Malo brdo, Velje brdo, Ljubović, in the main, these are too steep for development and thus limit the citys expansion, especially to the north.
However, urbanization has been encroaching on the slopes of the hills since 1990s. Podgorica city proper has an area of 108 square kilometres, while actual urbanized area is much smaller, the mean annual rainfall is 1,600 mm
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed during the interwar period and first half of World War II. It was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, the Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification. For its first eleven years of existence, the Kingdom was officially called the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, the official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929. The state was ruled by the Serbian dynasty of Karađorđević, which ruled the Kingdom of Serbia under Peter I from 1903 onwards. Peter I became the first king of Yugoslavia until his death in 1921 and he was succeeded by his son Alexander I, who had been regent for his father. He was known as Alexander the Unifier and he renamed the kingdom Yugoslavia in 1929 and he was assassinated in Marseille by Vlado Chernozemski, a member of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, during his visit to France in 1934.
The crown passed to his then-still under-aged son Peter and his cousin Paul ruled as Prince regent until 1941, when Peter II would come of age. The royal family flew to London the same year, prior to the country being invaded by the Axis powers, in April 1941, the country was occupied and partitioned by the Axis powers. A royal government-in-exile, recognized by the United Kingdom and, later, in 1944, after pressure from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the King recognized the government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia as the legitimate government. This was established on 2 November following the signing of the Treaty of Vis by Ivan Šubašić, Trumbić faced initial hostility from Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pašić, who preferred an enlarged Serbia over a unified Yugoslav state. In 1916, the Serbian Parliament in exile decided on the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at a meeting inside the Municipal Theatre of Corfu. The Kingdom was formed on 1 December 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, on 1 December 1918, the new kingdom was proclaimed by Alexander Karađorđević, Prince-Regent for his father, Peter I of Serbia.
The creation of the state was supported by pan-Slavists and Serbian nationalists, for the pan-Slavic movement, all of the South Slav people had united into a single state. For Serbian nationalists, the goal of uniting the majority of the Serb population across south-eastern Europe into one state was achieved. Furthermore, as Serbia already had a government and police force, the newly established Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes participated in the Paris Peace Conference with Trumbić as the countrys representative. Almost immediately, it ran into disputes with most of its neighbours, Slovenia was difficult to determine, since it had been an integral part of Austria for 400 years. The Vojvodina region was disputed with Hungary, Macedonia with Bulgaria, a plebiscite was held in the Province of Carinthia, which opted to remain in Austria. Austrians had formed a majority in this region although numbers reflected that some Slovenes did vote for Carinthia to become part of Austria, the Dalmatian port city of Zadar and a few of the Dalmatian islands were given to Italy
Otto von Habsburg
He became the pretender to the former thrones, Head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1922, upon the death of his father. He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007, with his fathers accession to the thrones in 1916, he was likely to become the Emperor. As his father never abdicated, Otto was considered by himself, his family and he has been described as one of the leaders of the Austrian Resistance. Otto von Habsburg played a role in the revolutions of 1989. Later he was a supporter of the EU membership of central. A noted intellectual, he published books on historical and political affairs. Otto has been described as one of the architects of the European idea and of European integration together with Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer, Otto was exiled in 1918 and grew up mostly in Spain. His devout Catholic mother raised him according to the old curriculum of Austria-Hungary, preparing him to become a Catholic monarch.
During his life in exile, he lived in Switzerland, Spain, France, the United States, and from 1954 until his death, finally in Bavaria, in the residence Villa Austria. His funeral took place at St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna on 16 July 2011, he was entombed in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, Otto was born at Villa Wartholz in Reichenau an der Rax, Austria-Hungary. His godfather was the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, his godmother was his grandmother Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, in November 1916, Otto became Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary and Croatia when his father, Archduke Charles, acceded to the throne. However, in 1918, at the end of the First World War, the monarchies were abolished, the Republics of Austria and Hungary founded instead, Hungary did become a kingdom again, but Charles was never to regain the throne. Instead, Miklós Horthy ruled as regent until 1944, in a kingdom without a king, Otto spoke German, Croatian, Spanish and Latin fluently. In life, he would write some 40 books in German, Hungarian and his mother made him learn many languages because she believed he one day might rule over many lands.
Ottos family spent the subsequent years in Switzerland, and on the Portuguese island of Madeira, on his fathers deathbed, his mother, Empress Dowager Zita, told the 9-year-old, your father is now sleeping the eternal sleep—you are now Emperor and King. The family eventually relocated to the Basque town of Lekeitio, where 40 Spanish grandees bought them a villa, the Austrian parliament had officially expelled the Habsburg dynasty and confiscated all the official property. In 1935, he graduated with a PhD degree in Political and Social Sciences from the University of Louvain in Belgium and his thesis was on the right, born of usage and of the peasant law of inheritance, of the indivisibility of rural land ownership in Austria. From his fathers death throughout the remainder of his time in exile, Otto considered himself the emperor of Austria
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles. As a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, and Dž counting as single letters. Vuks Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, and was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period. Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, and has the official status. It is a script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov, Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Serbian language in Croatia is officially recognized as a minority language, Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity. In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only even though, according to a 2014 survey, Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyrils disciples, the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. There was no distinction between capital and lowercase letters, the literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Savas Nomocanon, Dušans Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution in 1813, there he met Jernej Kopitar, a linguist with interest in slavistics.
Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform the Serbian language and he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, which was published in 1868 and he wrote several books, Mala prostonarodna slaveno-serbska pesnarica and Pismenica serbskoga jezika in 1814, and two more in 1815 and 1818, all with the alphabet still in progress. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used, Ю, я, Ы and Ѳ, in his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ. The alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death