The 2013 Tippeligaen was the 68th completed season of top division football in Norway. The competition began 15 March 2013 and ended on 10 November 2013, when Strømsgodset defeated Haugesund 4–0 to win their second league title; the league was contested by 16 teams: The best 13 teams of the 2012 season and Sarpsborg 08 who won promotion from the 2012 1. Divisjon and Sandnes Ulf who retained their spot in the top league after beating the 1. Divisjon side Ullensaker/Kisa in the relegation play-off. Molde who won Tippeligaen the previous season failed to defend the championship and ended on sixth place. Strømsgodset who won silver in 2012, won their first league championship in 43 years, finishing one point ahead of title contenders Rosenborg. Haugesund won bronze for the first time in the history, while Tromsø and Hønefoss were relegated to the 2014 1. Divisjon. Molde, Strømsgodset and Rosenborg were involved in the title race in the 2012 season. After Rosenborg lost against the other title contenders Molde and Strømsgodset in the 27th and the 28th round Molde secured their second straight Tippeligaen title with one match left to play when Strømsgodset lost against Sandnes Ulf.
Fredrikstad and Stabæk were relegated after finishing 15th and 16th while Sandnes Ulf had to play a relegation play-off against the 1. Divisjon side Ullensaker/Kisa, which they won 7–1 on aggregate. After the 2012 season, Rosenborg's head coach Jan Jönsson was fired from his position, was replaced by the head coach of the successful Norwegian under-21 team, Per Joar Hansen. Jönsson was soon appointed as head coach of Aalesund, as a replacement for Kjetil Rekdal, fired. Rekdal returned to his old club Vålerenga, which he won the league with in 2005. Martin Andresen had announced in October 2012 that he would leave his position as manager of Vålerenga after the season. In addition Per-Mathias Høgmo left Tromsø after his contract expired, they appointed Agnar Christensen as the new head coach. Ahead of each Tippeligaen season, the newspapers in Norway predict. In 2013, all of the major newspapers predicted that either Rosenborg would win the league; the opening match of the 2013 season was played between Viking and the defending champions Molde in Stavanger.
Viking won the match 2–1 after a match-winning goal by Trond Olsen. Molde became the first defending champion in Norway to lose the first four matches of the season, with their manager Ole Gunnar Solskjær stating that the club wouldn't be able to defend the title. After collecting two points in the first seven matches, Molde won their first match 4–1 against local rivals Aalesund. Aalesund had an impressing season opener, by winning four of the first four matches, after the loss against Molde they won 7–1 against Lillestrøm with Abderrazak Hamdallah scoring a hat-trick, was positioned second after nine matches. With Molde out of the race for the title, it looked as though it was going to be a fight between Strømsgodset and Rosenborg. Aalesund were, only five points behind the leaders Rosenborg, after they won three consecutive matches away from home, with 10 matches left to play the players started to talk about winning the league. After Aalesund lost three matches in a row, the team was too far behind the top two teams, three points behind Viking in third place.
Aalesund went seven matches without winning, but with a record-high number of points the club finished the season in fourth place. Tromsø, who finished fourth and lost the Norwegian Cup Final in the previous season, were the only Norwegian team to qualify for the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League group stage, but their form in the league after the summer break was declining, they soon found themselves fighting against relegation; the team did however manage to put an end to Rosenborg's streak of 16 matches without losing, when Tromsø won 1–0 at home. After the loss at home against Start in the 25th round, Tromsø had collected six points in the last 12 matches and the club fired the head coach Agnar Christensen and replaced him with Steinar Nilsen, who had saved the team from relegation in 2005 and 2006. For the first time since the 2005 season, the championship was determined in the decisive match of the season. Strømsgodset were leading the league one point ahead of Rosenborg, could secure the championship in the home-match against bronze-winners Haugesund.
At the same time, six teams were not safe from relegation with one match left to play. Divisjon side if they finished 14th in the league. Rosenborg was leading 2–0 at half-time against Lillestrøm, Strømsgodset needed to score a goal in their match against Haugesund to secure the title. Ola Kamara sent Strømsgodset up in a 1–0 lead, after Stefan Johansen and Øyvind Storflor scored one goal each and Ola Kamara scored his second goal in the game, Strømsgodset won the match 4–0 and secured their first championship since the 1970 season. Tromsø had to win the match away against Brann, who had nothing to play for in the last round, to avoid relegation but Tromsø had not won a single match away from home during the season, lost the last match 4–1, were relegated to the 1. Divisjon after an 11-year-long spell in the top flight. Hønefoss had to win their last match to avoid relegation, were leading the match against Odd, but Frode Johnsen scored the match-winning goal and Odd won 3–2. Sarpborg 08 lost the last match 2–1 against Viking, despite leading when the stoppage time began, finished 14th in the league, a mett the 1.
Divisjon side Ranheim in the relegation play-off They won 1-0 at home a
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b
2. Divisjon is the third-highest level of the Norwegian football league system. There are 28 teams divided into two groups, at the end of the season the winner of each group earns promotion to the second-highest division, 1. Divisjon; the teams finishing in second place in their respective group will qualify for the promotion play-offs, where they will face each other. The winner will play against the 14th placed team in 1. Divisjon for promotion; the bottom three teams in each group are relegated to 3. Divisjon. 2. Divisjon is the highest league a reserve team can participate in, only reserve teams from the Eliteserien clubs are allowed to enter; the participation of reserve teams stirs debate from time to time. Between 1963 and 1990, 2. Divisjon was the second highest level of the Norwegian football league system, therefore the name of the third highest level was 3. Divisjon; when the highest level was rebranded in 1991, this level changed its name to 2. Divisjon. From 2009 to 2011, the official name of the league was Fair Play ligaen, from 2012 to 2015 the name was Oddsen-ligaen.
The league is branded as PostNord-ligaen, sponsored by PostNord. All group winners, excluding second teams of top division teams, were promoted to 1. Divisjon; each group winner played qualification play-offs to decide which teams promote to 1. Divisjon. Teams in bold promoted to 1. Divisjon through qualification play-offs. All group winners, excluding second teams of top division teams, were promoted to 1. Divisjon. Teams in bold were promoted to 1. Divisjon. Teams in italics were relegated to 2. Divisjon. Reserve teams of clubs from the two top divisions can participate in the 2. Divisjon. Reserve teams of clubs from the 1. Divisjon can not play in the 2. Divisjon, so if a team is relegated from the 1. Divisjon, the club's reserve team will be relegated to the 3. Divisjon regardless of their final position in the league. From 2016, 2. Divisjon has its title sponsorship rights sold to PostNord. Current 2. Divisjon table and fixtures at Soccerway 2. Divisjon stats at Fotballen.eu DF-02 an interest group for the 2.
Eliteserien is a Norwegian professional league for association football clubs. At the top of the Norwegian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 16 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 1. Divisjon. Seasons run from March to November with each team playing 30 matches. Most games are played on Sunday evenings. Eliteserien was founded in 1937 as Norgesserien, the first season was the 1937–38 season; the structure and organisation of Eliteserien along with Norway's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes right up to the present day. Starting with the 2017 season the league is called Eliteserien after NFF decided to drop the sponsor name from the name of the league after the 2016 season; the broadcasting rights were in December 2015 secured by Discovery Networks who signed a six-year deal giving them rights to broadcast all the 240 games in Eliteserien from 2017 to 2023. The deal was worth; the league generates NOK 400 million per year in domestic television rights.
Sixteen clubs have won the title since the inception of the league in 1937: Rosenborg, Viking, Lillestrøm, Vålerenga, Larvik Turn, Lyn, Strømsgodset, Fram Larvik, Moss and Stabæk. In 2010, Rosenborg became, still remain, the only club to complete an Eliteserien campaign without losing a single game; the record of most points in a season is 71 by Molde in 2014. Since its establishment as a one-group top flight in 1963, forty-seven clubs have competed in Eliteserien. Before 1937, there was no national league competition in Norway. Starting in 1937–38, the various regional leagues in Southern Norway were aligned into eight districts, with a championship playoff between the winners to crown a national champion; this competition was called Norgesserien. In the early years, the top flight teams were divided into eleven groups from eight districts; the league champion was decided in either a knockout tournament or a final between the winners of these groups. Fredrikstad was the first champions of the league, winning the 1937–38 season.
They won the two-legged final against Lyn 4–0 on aggregate. Fredrikstad defended their title in the 1938–39 season. From the 1937–38 season and until the beginning of World War II, the teams were divided into eight district groups. There were plans at the time to merge the district leagues into a national competition, but because of World War II, this process was delayed until after the war, although the first post-war season in 1947–48 had eleven district-based groups. In 1948, Hovedserien was created, consisting of the 16 top teams from the district leagues, who were placed into two groups of eight, with the group winners playing a two-legged final for the national championship at the end of the season; this format was in place from the 1948–49 season until 1960–61, when it was decided to merge the two groups into a single top division, have the season follow the calendar year from 1963 onwards. The 1950s were dominated by Larvik Turn. Fredrikstad won their latest league title in 1960–61, which secured their ninth title out of sixteen possible.
Larvik Turn won Hovedserien three times in four seasons from 1955–56. The 1961–62 season was played during 15 months; the teams from the two groups in the 1960–61 top division were put in one group consisting of 16 teams. The 1961–62 season became a transitional season, where the 16 top-flight teams were placed in a single group, playing a season that went on for 15 months and one half of its teams were relegated. Still known as Hovedserien, the 1961–62 season is referred to as Maratonserien due to its unusual length, and was won by Brann. In 1963, a single top division containing ten teams was introduced, the league was renamed 1. Divisjon; the first regular one-league season was played spring-autumn and was won by title defenders Brann in 1963. The league was expanded to 12 teams in 1972. Teams from Northern Norway were not allowed to gain promotion to the top division before 1972, were subject to stricter promotion rules than teams from the rest of Norway until 1979. Viking won the league four consecutive seasons beginning in 1972.
Lillestrøm won back-to-back titles in 1976 and 1977. In 1979 teams from Northern Norway were given the same promotion rights as the rest of the country. In the beginning of the 1980s, Vålerengen were the dominant team, with their titles from 1981, 1983 and 1984. In 1990, the league was renamed Tippeligaen, after Norsk Tipping, the main sponsor of the league since then. However, unofficially the league was still known as 1. Divisjon by most people, and ahead of the 1991-season it was decided to let the second level league of Norwegian football "inherit" the name 1. Divisjon to help Tippeligaen establish as a brand. Rosenborg of Trondheim won the first year the league bore the name Tippeligaen in 1990. Followed by a win by Viking of Stavanger in 1991. In 1992, Rosenborg started a run of 13 consecutive titles. During the first years of Rosenborg's thirteen-year run, they won the league with substantial margins, only challenged by Bodø/Glimt, Lillestrøm and Brann. However, this was narrowing down towards a dramatic finish in 2004, where the Trondheim team tied with Vålerenga of Oslo in game points and on goal difference, but finished ahead on number of goals scored.
However, in 2005 the winning streak came to an end as
The 2012 Tippeligaen was the 67th completed season of top division football in Norway. The competition began on 23 March 2012 and ended on 18 November 2012, with a summer break from 28 May to 30 June; the defending champions are Molde. At the end of the season, the two teams who were placed last were relegated to the 2013 1. Divisjon and were replaced with Sarpsborg 08 for the 2013 Tippeligaen; the team that finished third last, Sandnes Ulf, played a two-legged match against a challenger from Adeccoligaen, Ullensaker/Kisa. Sandnes Ulf won the play-off, were not relegated. Strømsgodset were leading the league most of the season, but four matches before the end of the season there were three teams competing for the title. Rosenborg lost out on the title-race after losing to Molde. Molde secured the title in the 29th round after they won 1–0 at home, while Strømsgodset lost 2–1 against Sandnes Ulf. Stabæk were relegated after being positioned at the bottom of the table throughout the season. Ahead of the last round, four teams were fighting against relegation, but Fredrikstad lost their match against the league-winners Molde and were relegated, while Sandnes Ulf played promotion play-off against Ullensaker/Kisa.
The average attendance in 2012 were 7,014 spectators, down from 7,995 in 2011, the lowest average attendance in Tippeligaen since 2003. The teams ending the 2011 season in the bottom two places of the table were relegated to the 2012 1. Divisjon. Sarpsborg 08 finished in last place, was relegated in their first season in the league. IK Start joined them in relegation. Hønefoss as 2011 1. Divisjon winners and runners-up Sandnes Ulf were directly promoted at the end of the season. Sandnes Ulf appeared in Tippeligaen for the first time while Hønefoss returned after one year on the second tier. Sandnes Ulf won 7–1 on aggregate. Updated to games played on 3 November 2012. Source: Soccerway1 ^ The home team is listed in the left-hand column. Colours: Blue = home team win. At the end of the season, Stabæk and Fredrikstad were relegated directly to Adeccoligaen, will be replaced by Start and Sarpsborg who were directly promoted. Five teams entered a play-off for the last Tippeligaen spot in the 2013 season.
These were: A) Sandnes Ulf B) Sandefjord C) Mjøndalen D) Bodø/Glimt E) Ullensaker/Kisa The four Adeccoligaen teams first played a single game knockout tournament, with the winner advancing to a two-legged tie against the Tippeligaen team for the 16th and final spot in the 2013 season. Sandnes Ulf retained their Tippeligaen spot with an aggregate 7-1 win over Ull/Kisa
The 2014 Tippeligaen was the 69th completed season of top division football in Norway. The competition began on 28 March 2014, two weeks than in the previous season. A three-week summer-break in June was scheduled due to the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the decisive match was played on 9 November 2014; the league was contested by 16 teams: the best 13 teams of the 2013 season, the 14th-placed Sarpsborg 08 who won the relegation-playoffs against Ranheim, in addition to Bodø/Glimt and Stabæk who won promotion from the 2013 1. Divisjon; the 14th-placed team, took part in a two-legged play-off against Mjøndalen, the winners of the 2014 1. Divisjon promotion play-offs. First leg Second leg Mjøndalen gained promotion to the 2015 Tippeligaen. Divisjon. Updated to games played on 9 November 2014. Source: Nifs.no1 ^ The home team is listed in the left-hand column. Colours: Blue = home team win. Season at soccerway.com Season at RSSSF
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate