Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Federal subjects of Russia
Since March 18,2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. Three Russian cities of importance have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns within federal city keeping old structure of postal address. In 1993, there were 89 federal subjects listed, by 2008, the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia, every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Federal subjects have their own constitution and legislation, subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council and they do, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Composition of post-Soviet Russia was formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR, the Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. There are several groupings of Russian regions, Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight Federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia, are much larger and each encompass many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia specially for presidential envoys, an official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states,1. Another translation of the Constitution of Russia gives for article 65, each federal subject belongs to one of the following types, b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, however, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia, the merging process was finished on March 1,2008.
No new mergers have been planned since March 2008, Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от30 декабря2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Российская газета, №237,25 декабря1993 г
He is the inventor of the first cracking method. Besides the innovations he brought to the oil industry and the construction of bridges and buildings. These forms, based on non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry, are known today as hyperboloids of revolution, Shukhov developed not only many varieties of light-weight hyperboloid towers and roof systems, but the mathematics for their analysis. Shukhov is particularly reputed for his designs of hyperboloid towers such as the Shukhov Tower. Vladimir Shukhov was born in a town of Graivoron, Belgorod uezd and his father Grigory Ivanovich Shukhov was a minor government official, promoted for his efforts in the Crimean War. For a while, Grigory served as Mayor of Graivoron and as an administrator in Warsaw, in 1864 Vladimir entered Saint Petersburg gymnasium from which he graduated with distinction in 1871. During his high school years he showed mathematical talents, once demonstrating to his classmates, the teacher praised his skills but he failed the grade for violating the textbooks guidelines.
After graduating from the gymnasium, Shukhov entered the Imperial Moscow Technical School, in which his teachers included Pafnuty Chebyshev, Aleksey Letnikov, in the beginning of the year 1876 Shukhov graduated from school with distinction and a Gold Medal. Chebyshev offered him a job as a lecturer in mathematics at the Imperial Moscow Technical School, during his stay in the US, Shukhov came to know a Russian-American entrepreneur, Alexander Veniaminovich Bari who worked on the organization of the Fair. In 1877 Shukhov returned to Russia and joined the office of the Warsaw–Vienna railroad. Within several months, Shukhovs frustration with standard and routine engineering made him abandon the office, on his coming to Russia in 1877, Bari persuaded Shukhov to give up his medical education and to assume the office of Chief Engineer in a new company specializing in innovative engineering. Shukhov worked with Bari at this company until the October Revolution and their works revolutionized many areas of civil engineering, ship engineering, and oil industry.
The thermal cracking method, the Shukhov cracking process, was patented by Vladimir Shukhov in 1891, Shukhov always found time for a passionate hobby – photography. The photographic works of Shukhov opened new trends ahead of their flourishing of Fine art photography and he made photos in various genres, city landscape, constructivism. About two thousand photos and negatives made by Shukhov have survived until this day, after the October Revolution Shukhov decided to stay in the Soviet Union despite having received alluring job offers from around the world. Many signal Soviet engineering projects of the 1920s were associated with his name, in 1919 he framed his slogan, We should work independently from politics. The buildings, beams would be needed and so would we, in the 1930s during the Great Purge he retired from engineering work but was not arrested or persecuted. Shukov died on 2 February 1939 in Moscow and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery and his many honours included the Lenin Prize and the title of Hero of Labour
Hyperboloid structures are architectural structures designed using a hyperboloid in one sheet. The first hyperboloid structures were built by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov, the worlds first hyperboloid tower is located in Polibino, Dankovsky District, Lipetsk Oblast, Russia. Hyperbolic structures have a negative Gaussian curvature, meaning they curve inward rather than outward or being straight. As doubly ruled surfaces, they can be made with a lattice of beams, hence are easier to build than curved surfaces that do not have a ruling. With cooling towers, a structure is preferred. At the bottom, the widening of the tower provides an area for installation of fill to promote thin film evaporative cooling of the circulated water. In the 1880s, Shukhov began to work on the problem of the design of systems to use a minimum of materials, time. His calculations were most likely derived from mathematician Pafnuty Chebyshevs work on the theory of best approximations of functions, Shukhovs mathematical explorations of efficient roof structures led to his invention of a new system that was innovative both structurally and spatially.
The steel gridshells of the pavilions of the 1896 All-Russian Industrial. Two pavilions of this type were built for the Nizhni Novgorod exposition, one oval in plan, the roofs of these pavilions were doubly curved gridshells formed entirely of a lattice of straight angle-iron and flat iron bars. Shukhov himself called them azhurnaia bashnia, the patent of this system, for which Shukhov applied in 1895, was awarded in 1899. Shukhov turned his attention to the development of an efficient and his solution was inspired by observing the action of a woven basket holding up a heavy weight. Again, it took the form of a curved surface constructed of a light network of straight iron bars. Over the next twenty years, he designed and built close to two hundred of these towers, no two alike, most with heights in the range of 12m to 68m. At least as early as 1911, Shukhov began experimenting with the concept of forming a tower out of stacked sections of hyperboloids. Stacking the sections permitted the form of the tower to taper more at the top, increasing the number of sections would increase the tapering of the overall form, to the point that it began to resemble a cone.
By 1918 Shukhov had developed this concept into the design of a nine-section stacked hyperboloid radio transmission tower for Moscow, Shukhov designed a 350m tower, which would have surpassed the Eiffel Tower in height by 50m, while using less than a quarter of the amount of material. In July 1919, Lenin decreed that the tower should be built to a height of 150m, construction of the smaller tower with six stacked hyperboloids began within a few months, and Shukhov Tower was completed by March 1922
Written between 1969 and 1970 and passed around in samizdat, it was first published in 1973 in Israel and later, in 1977, in Paris. It was published in the Soviet Union only in 1989, during the era of Soviet history, in the literary almanac Vest and in the magazine Abstinence. At the start of the story, he has just been fired from his job as foreman of a telephone cable-laying crew for drawing charts of the amount of alcohol he and these graphs showed a clear correlation with personal characters. Venichka spends the last of his money on liquor and food for the journey, while on the train, he engages in lengthy monologues about history and politics. He befriends many of his fellow travellers and discusses life in the Soviet Union with them over multiple bottles of alcohol, eventually Venichka oversleeps his station and wakes up on the train headed back for Moscow. Still drunk, half-conscious and tormented by visions, he wanders aimlessly the night city streets, happens upon a gang of thugs. There is a monument for the novel in the Borby Square, Moscow, by the artists Valery Kuznetsov and Sergei Mantserev, consisting of two sculptures.
One shows a man clinging to the station sign Moscow. The other one shows a woman under the train station sign Petushki and the sentence In Petushki the jasmine never stops blooming. In 1994, Moscow Stations was adapted as a play and presented at the Garrick Theatre, London. The production won Critics Circle and Evening Standard awards, and transferred to New York in 1995 where it played at the Union Square Theatre, the End in V. Erofeevs Moskva-Petuski
Vladimir Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Vladimir, which is located 190 kilometers east of Moscow, as of the 2010 Census, the oblasts population was 1,443,693. The UNESCO World Heritage List includes the 12th-century cathedrals of Vladimir, Bogolyubovo, Vladimir Oblast borders Moscow, Ivanovo and Nizhny Novgorod Oblasts. The oblast is situated in the center of the East European Plain, the Klyazma and the Oka are the most important rivers. There are approximately three hundred lakes, the oblast is situated in a zone of mixed forests. The oblasts fauna currently includes more than fifty species of mammals, five species of reptiles, the semiaquatic Russian desman is listed in the Russian Red Book of endangered species. The region is inhabited by 216 species of birds, among which are the capercaillie, black grouse, partridge, goose, the lesser white-fronted goose is listed in the Red Book. Bodies of water in the region are rich in species of fresh-water fish.
Additionally, the oblast has several hunting farms, the total expanse of the oblasts surface waters is 32.9 hectares. The region has hundreds of rivers with a length of more than 8.6 million kilometers—there are 560 rivers. The Klyazma River flows into the Oka River on the edge of the oblasts border with the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The Klyazma Rivers major tributaries in the Vladimir Region are the Sherna, the Kirzhach, the Peksha, the Koloksha, the Nerl, the Sudogda, the Uvod, the Lukh, tributaries of the Oka within Vladimir oblast are the Gus and Ushna rivers. The Dubna River, a tributary of the Volga River, originates near the town of Alexandrov, the Oka River is navigable throughout the region. The rivers in the region are characterized by their flat currents, broad valleys, water levels are characterized by their high spring tides, low water periods over summer-autumn with occasional flooding during heavy rains, and stable/low levels throughout the winter. There are about three hundred lakes covering an area of five thousand hectares, most of them are small and undrained and many are overgrown with a peat layer.
The origin of the lakes varies, numerous oxbow lakes are scattered along the river valleys. The largest of them are Lake Urvanovskoe and Lake Visha, in the Meshchera Lowlands and in the northwest of the oblast are lakes of ancient alluvial valleys, Isikhry and others. Lakes of karst origin, located in the reaches of the Klyazma
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
The Klyazma River is a river in the Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and Vladimir Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Oka River. The length of the river is 686 kilometres, the area of its drainage basin is 42,500 square kilometres. The Klyazma River usually freezes up in November and stays under the ice until mid-April and its main tributaries are the Ucha, Kirzhach, Nerl, Teza, Lukh and Suvoroshch. The Klyazma is navigable within 120 kilometres from its estuary and in the area of the Klyazminskoye Reservoir
Petushinsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the sixteen in Vladimir Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast, the area of the district is 1,692 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Petushki, the population of Petushki accounts for 22. 3% of the districts total population. Закон №130-ОЗ от10 декабря2001 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Владимирской области и о порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №22-ОЗ от18 марта2014 г, Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Владимирские ведомости, №232,13 декабря2001 г, Постановление №433 от13 июня2007 г. «О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области», в ред, Постановления №169 от5 марта2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Постановление Губернатора области от13.06.2007 №433 О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Владимирские ведомости, №114,20 июня2007 г, Закон №159-ОЗ от13 октября2004 г. «О наделении Петушинского района и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Владимирские ведомости, №289–290,20 октября2004 г
Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25, the census was originally scheduled for October 2010, but was moved to 2013 allegedly for financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009 Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as originally scheduled, Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population has decreased by 2.3 million, according to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is currently 73. 7%, the median age is 38 years. The ethnic composition is dominated by Russians, demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census
Subdivisions of Russia
Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions. Since March 18,2014, the Russian Federation consisted of eighty-five federal subjects that are constituent members of the Federation, two of these federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol—are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. All federal subjects are of equal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. They do, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy, there are 6 types of federal subjects—22 republics,9 krais,46 oblasts,3 federal cities,1 autonomous oblast, and 4 autonomous okrugs. According to the Treaty, the Republic of Crimea is accepted as a subject with the status of a republic while the City of Sevastopol has received federal city status. Neither the Republic of Crimea nor the city of Sevastopol are politically recognized as parts of Russia by most countries and this was interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions became solely the responsibility of the federal subjects.
As a result, the modern structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another. Autonomous okrugs, while being under the jurisdiction of federal subject, are still constitutionally recognized as federal subjects on their own right. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is an exception in that it is not administratively subordinated to any federal subject of Russia. Okrugs are usually former autonomous okrugs that lost their federal subject status due to a merger with another federal subject. According to the law, the units of the division are as follows, Municipal district. In practice, municipal districts are formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts. In practice, urban okrugs are usually formed within the boundaries of existing cities of federal subject significance, intra-urban territory of a federal city, a part of a federal citys territory. In Moscow, these are called municipal formations, in St. Petersburg—municipal okrugs, towns, in Sevastopol, they are known as municipal okrugs and a town.
Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories and this municipal formation type would typically be established within the borders of existing city districts. In June 2014, Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug became the first urban okrug to implement intra-urban divisions, all of the federal subjects are grouped into nine federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. For economic and statistical purposes the federal subjects are grouped into twelve economic regions, economic regions and their parts sharing common economic trends are in turn grouped into economic zones and macrozones. In order for the Armed Forces to provide an efficient management of units, their training, and other operational activities
In some places, the term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a water tower, especially one with tall and narrow proportions. Water towers often operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, other types of water towers may only store raw water for fire protection or industrial purposes, and may not necessarily be connected to a public water supply. A water tower serves as a reservoir to help with water needs during peak usage times. The water level in the tower typically falls during the peak hours of the day. This process keeps the water freezing in cold weather. Standpipes provided a convenient fixed location to measure flow rates, designers typically enclosed the riser pipes in decorative masonry or wooden structures. By the late 19th-Century, standpipes grew to include storage tanks to meet the demands of growing cities. Many early water towers are now considered significant and have been included in various heritage listings around the world. Some are converted to apartments or exclusive penthouses, in certain areas, such as New York City in the United States, smaller water towers are constructed for individual buildings.
In California and some states, domestic water towers enclosed by siding were once built to supply individual homes. The reservoir in the tower may be spherical, cylindrical, or an ellipsoid, with a height of approximately 6 metres. A standard water tower typically has a height of approximately 40 m, pressurization occurs through the hydrostatic pressure of the elevation of water, for every 10.20 centimetres of elevation, it produces 1 kilopascal of pressure. 30 m of elevation produces roughly 300 kPa, which is enough pressure to operate and provide for most domestic water pressure, the height of the tower provides the pressure for the water supply system, and it may be supplemented with a pump. The volume of the reservoir and diameter of the piping provide, relying on a pump to provide pressure is expensive, to keep up with varying demand, the pump would have to be sized to meet peak demands. During periods of low demand, jockey pumps are used to meet these lower water flow requirements, very high volumes and flow rates are needed when fighting fires.
Using wireless sensor networks to monitor water levels inside the tower allows municipalities to automatically monitor, Water towers can be surrounded by ornate coverings including fancy brickwork, a large ivy-covered trellis or they can be simply painted. Some city water towers have the name of the city painted in large letters on the roof, as an aid to aviators. Sometimes the decoration can be humorous, an example of this are water towers built side by side, labeled HOT and COLD