The Peugeot 202 is a supermini developed and designed by the French car manufacturer Peugeot. Production of the car ran between 1938 and 1942 and after a brief production run of 20 in early 1945, restarted in mid-1946, it was sold until 1949, by when it had been replaced by the 203. Production started in January 1938, the car was formally launched on 2 March 1938 with a dinner and presentation for the specialist press in the fashionable Bois de Boulogne district of Paris; the previous autumn, at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, Peugeot had staged a massive "referendum" among visitors to the show stand to find out what customers expected from the new small car under development. It is not clear whether there would still have been time to incorporate any of the suggestions of the public in the car as launched, but the participative nature of the exercise generated positive pre-launch publicity for the 202; the steel bodied 202 was recognisable as a Peugeot from the way that the headlights were set, as on the older 302, close together, in a protected location behind the front grille.
Most customers chose the four-door berline version which by 1948 came with a steel-panel sliding sun roof included in the price. However the boot/trunk was small and could be accessed only from within the car, there being no outside boot lid; the two-seater two-door cabriolet "décapotable" did have a separate boot lid but cost 30% more than the berline. Priced closely to the berline was a structurally similar four-door four-seater "berline découvrable", which featured a full fold away hood: this type of body would become difficult to provide using the monocoque body structure becoming mainstream and which would be a feature of the Peugeot 203. Both the Peugeot 202 and the Peugeot 203 had frontal suicide doors. Between 1947 and 1949 the manufacturer produced 3,015 timber bodied "hatch" conversions: this model cost 55% more than the berline, anticipated future Peugeot policy by using a longer chassis than that used on other 202 versions; the extensive use of timber took the company back to a technology that it had abandoned in 1931 when production of the Type 190 ended, according to the manufacturer was above all a response to shortage of sheet steel in post-war France.
There were only two models offered in France in this class offering so wide a range of body types. With the body removed, an eye catching aspect of the 202's chassis was the positioning of the battery, located below and ahead of the radiator; this arrangement, which made inspection or replacement of the battery exceptionally easy, was made possible by the "streamlined" sloping front grill, shared with the manufacturer's larger models introduced during the late 1930s, such as the Peugeot 402 and its derivative, the 302. The 202 was powered by a 1133 cc water-cooled engine giving a maximum of 30 PS at 4000 rpm and a top speed of 100 km/h. Fuel-feed came via overhead valves, at a time when the most obvious competitor, the introduced Renault Juvaquatre, was still powered by a side-valve power unit. Power was transferred to the rear wheels by means of a three-speed manual transmission featuring synchromesh on the top two ratios. Back in 1931 the 202's predecessor, the Peugeot 201, had been the first mass market volume model to feature independent front suspension.
Independent front suspension held to improve both the road holding and the ride of the car, was again incorporated on the new 202, meaning that this was a feature across the entire Peugeot range: the same claim could not be made for the range on offer from rival Renault. As on the contemporary Citroën Traction elaborate "Pilote" style wheels, featuring alternating holes and structural metal support sections round the outside of the inner hub, were replaced by simpler pressed disc wheels when, following a heroic reconstruction effort at the Sochaux plant, production could be resumed in 1946 following the war. Small improvements continued to be implemented until the point where production ended. Hydraulic brakes were a new feature for 1946. Shortly after this the dashboard was redesigned to incorporate a glove box. For 1948 the wheels were embellished with chrome plated hub caps and the car received redesigned hydraulic shock absorbers. A final fling, exhibited in October 1948 for the 1949 model year, was the Peugeot 202 "Affaires", a reduced specification version, with the heater removed and thinner tires fitted.
The 202 Affaires lost the sliding-steel-panel sunroof which by now had become a standard fitting on the regular 202 Berline. The list price was 320,000 Francs which represented a saving of more than 6% on the list price for the standard car; the bargain basement marketing may have helped clear accumulated component inventory, but the cabriolet version was delisted shortly after the October 1948 Motor Show closed: by now commentators and potential customers were focused on the Peugeot 203, formally launched in 1948, by which time it had been the subject of extensive pre-launch promotion and publicity by Peugeot for more than a year. 104,126 were built
The Peugeot 504 is a mid-size, front-engine, rear wheel drive automobile manufactured and marketed by Peugeot from 1968 to 1983 over a single generation in four-door sedan and wagon configurations — but with two-door coupe and pickup truck variants. The 504 was noted for its robust body structure, long suspension travel, torque tube drive shaft — enclosed in a rigid tube attached at each end to the gearbox housing and differential casing, relieving drive train torque reactions; the 504 achieved widespread popularity in far-flung rough-terrain countries — including Brazil, Australia, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Benin and Nigeria. More than three million 504s were manufactured in its European production, with production continuing globally under various licensing arrangements — including 27,000 assembled in Kenya and 425,000 assembled in Nigeria, using knock-down kits — with production extending into 2006. Having debuted as Peugeot's flagship at the 1968 Paris Salon, the 504 received the 1969 European Car of the Year.
In 2013, the LA Times called it "Africa's workhorse." Peugeot's flagship, the 504 made its public debut on 12 September 1968 at the Paris Salon. The press launch, scheduled for June 1968 was at the last minute deferred by three months, production got off to a delayed start because of the political and industrial disruption which exploded across France in May 1968; the 504 was a sunroof-equipped four-door saloon, introduced with a carbureted 1,796 cc four-cylinder petrol engine 79 bhp with optional fuel injection. A column-mounted four-speed manual transmission was standard; the 504 was European Car of the Year in 1969, praised for its styling, chassis, visibility, strong engine and refinement. The 504 Injection two-door coupé and two-door cabriolet were introduced at the Salon de Geneva in March 1969; the engine produced the same 79 bhp of output as in the fuel-injected saloon, but the final drive ratio was revised to give a higher road speed of 20.6 mph at 1,000 rpm. Available models: 504 4-door saloon 504 Injection 4-door saloon 504 Injection 2-door coupé 504 Injection 2-door cabriolet The 504 received a new four-cylinder 1971 cc engine, rated at 96 bhp and 104 bhp, a four-cylinder 2112 cc diesel engine rated at 65 bhp.
The 1796 cc engine remained available. In September 1970 an estate was added, featuring a higher rear roof, lengthened wheel base and solid rear axle with four coil springs, it was joined by the 7-seat "Familiale", which had all its occupants facing forward in three rows of seats. 504 4-door saloon 504 5-door estate 504 Injection 4-door saloon 504 Diesel 4-door saloon 504 Injection 2-door coupé 504 Injection 2-door cabriolet 504 pickup In April 1973, because of the oil crisis Peugeot presented the 504 L. It featured a coil sprung a smaller 1796 cc engine rated at 79 bhp; the different rear axle required somewhat more space. At the 1974 October Motor Show Peugeot presented a more powerful engine for the 504 coupé and cabriolet, now fitted with a 2664 cc V6 unit developed in collaboration with Volvo and Renault; this was the same engine that would be used for the 604 berline, to be introduced at Geneva five months in March 1975. The engine incorporated various innovative features such as an aluminium cylinder block, a fuel-feed system that employed carburetors of differing type, one featuring a single chamber controlled directly according to the movement of the accelerator pedal, the second being a twin chamber carburetor designed to operate with the first, using a pneumatic linkage.
Maximum output for the 504 coupé and cabriolet fitted with this new V6 engine was given as 136 bhp, supporting a top speed of 186 km/h. During 1975, the first full year of production, 2643 of these six-cylinder 504 coupés and cabriolet were produced, considered a respectable number, although dwarfed by the 236,733 four-cylinder 504 "berlines" and "breaks" produced by Peugeot in France in the same year. Following the launch of the six-cylinder cars, the four-cylinder versions of the coupé and cabriolet 504s were delisted: they returned to the showrooms in 1978 in response, it was reported, to customer demand. At the Paris Motor Show of October 1976 the option of an enlarged diesel engine was introduced; the stroke of 83 mm remained the same as that of the existing 2112 cc diesel motor, but for the larger engine the bore was increased to 94 mm, giving an overall 2304 cc along with an increase in claimed power output from 65 to 70 bhp. The 2112 cc diesel engine would find its way into the Ford Granada since Ford did not at the time produce a sufficient volume of diesel sedans in this class to justify the development of their own diesel engine.
Peugeot 504 production in Europe was pruned back in 1979 with the launch of the Peugeot 505, although the 504 Pickup was introduced as a replacement for the 404 Pickup for the 1980 model year. The last European-made example rolled off the production line in 1983, although the pick up version continued in production, was available in Europe until 1993. More than three million 504 passenger cars were produced in Europe; the 505 shared most of the Peugeot 504 mechanical parts to the Peugeot 604 and Talbot Tagora. As of December 2015, 197 examples of the Peugeot 504 are stil
A station wagon called an estate car, estate or wagon, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate, hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, however station wagons are longer and are more to have the roofline extended to the rear of the car to maximize the cargo space; the names "station wagon" and "estate car" are a result due to the initial purpose of the car being to transport people and luggage between a country estate and the nearest train station. The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, the car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom and France began to produce station wagons models, by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, however since sales have declined as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.
Reflecting the original purpose of transporting people and luggage between country estates and train stations, the body style is called an "estate car" or "estate" in the United Kingdom, "station wagon" in American, New Zealand and African English. In the United States, early models with exposed wooden bodies became known as woodies. In Germany, the term "Kombi" is used, short for Kombinationskraftwagen. Station wagons have been marketed using the French term "break de chasse", which translates as "hunting break", due to shared ancestry with the shooting-brake body style. Manufacturers may designate station wagons across various model lines with a proprietary nameplate. Examples include "Avant", "Caravan", "Kombi", "Sports Tourer", "Sports Wagon, "Tourer", "Touring" and "Variant". Station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. Folding rear seats are common on both station wagons and hatchbacks.
Distinguishing features between hatchbacks and station wagons are: D-pillar: Station wagons are more to have a D-pillar. Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume — with windows aside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a station wagon roof more extends to the rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume — a hatchback roof might more rake down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior volume, with shorter rear overhang and with smaller windows aside the cargo volume. Other differences are more variable and can include: Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, whereas a hatchback would more allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour. Seating: Station wagons may have two or three rows of seats, while hatchbacks may only have one or two; the rearmost row of seating in a station wagon is located in the cargo area and can be either front-facing or rear-facing. Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion in the cargo volume.
Rear Door: Hatchbacks feature a top-hinged liftgate for cargo access, with variations ranging from a two-part liftgate/tailgates to a complex tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid. Station wagons have enjoyed numerous tailgate configurations. Hatchbacks may be called Liftbacks when the opening area is sloped and the door is lifted up to open. A design director from General Motors has described the difference as "Where you break the roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle", he said. "You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon."It has become common for station wagons to use a shared platform with other body styles, resulting in many shared components being used for the wagon and hatchback variants of the model range. Many modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas springs — where the rear window can swing up independently. Wagons have employed numerous designs; the earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate.
Both were manually operated. This configuration prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon body style in the 1920s through the 1940s, it remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford, including the 1957-58 Del Rio two-door wagon. This style was adopted on aftermarket camper shells for pickup trucks, seeing that pickup trucks had a bottom half tailgate as an OEM feature. In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. In the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window—it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was common on both compact wagons. Side hinge: A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats; this was supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate. These have a retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded
The Renault 4CV is a rear-engined, rear-wheel-drive, 4-door economy supermini manufactured and marketed by the French manufacturer Renault from August 1947 through July 1961. It was the first French car to sell over a million units, was superseded by the Dauphine; the 4CV was of 3.6 m in length with front suicide doors. CV is the abbreviation of the French equivalent to "horsepower" as a unit of power; the name 4CV thus refers to the car's tax horsepower. The 4CV was conceived and designed covertly by Renault engineers during the World War II German occupation of France, when the manufacturer was under strict orders to design and produce only commercial and military vehicles. Between 1941 and 1944 Renault was placed under the technical directorship of a francophile engineer, Wilhelm von Urach who failed to notice the small car project emerging on his watch. A design team led by the company's technical director, Fernand Picard returned from Renault's aero-engine division to the auto business and Charles-Edmond Serre, with Renault for longer than anyone else, envisioned a small, economical car suitable for the period of austerity expected after the war.
This was in contrast to Louis Renault himself who, in 1940, believed that after the war Renault would need to concentrate on its traditional mid-range cars. Jean-Auguste Riolfo, head of the test department, was made aware of the project from an early stage as were several other heads of department. In May 1941 Louis Renault himself burst into an office to find Serre and Picard studying a mock-up for the car's engine. By the end of an ad hoc meeting, Renault's approval for the project, now accorded the code "106E", was provided. However, because the Germans had forbidden work on any new passenger car models, the 4CV development was defined as a low priority spin-off from a project to develop a new engine for a post-war return of the company's 1930s small car, the Juvaquatre: departmental bosses installed by the Germans were not to be trusted in respect of "Project 106E", while von Urach, their overlord, always managed to turn a blind eye to the whole business. In November 1945 the government invited Ferdinand Porsche to France to explore the possibility of relocating the Volkswagen project to France as part of the reparations package under discussion.
On 15 December 1945, Porsche found himself invited to provide Renault with advice concerning their forthcoming Renault 4CV. Earlier that year, newly nationalised Renault had acquired a new boss, the former resistance hero Pierre Lefaucheux, he had been arrested by the Gestapo in June 1944, deported to Buchenwald concentration camp. The Gestapo transferred him to Metz for interrogation, but the city was deserted because of the advancing allied front, the Germans abandoned their prisoner. Lefaucheux was enraged that anyone should think the by now production-ready Renault 4CV was in any way inspired by the Volkswagen, more enraged that the politicians should presume to send Porsche to provide advice on it; the government insisted on nine meetings involving Porsche. Lefaucheux insisted that the meetings would have no influence on the design of the Renault 4CV, Porsche cautiously went on record with the view that the car would be ready for large scale production in a year. Lefaucheux was a man with contacts.
As soon as the 4CV project meetings mandated by the politicians had taken place, Porsche was arrested in connection with war crimes allegations involving the use of forced labour including French in the Volkswagen plant in Germany. Porsche was accompanied on his visit to the Renault plant by his son Feri, the two were offered release in return for a substantial cash payment. Porsche was able to provide only half of the amount demanded, with the result that Ferry Porsche was sent back to Germany, while Ferdinand Porsche, despite never facing any sort of trial, spent the next twenty months in a Dijon jail; the first prototype had only two doors and was completed in 1942, two more prototypes were produced in the following three years. Pierre Lefaucheux, appointed to the top job at Renault early in 1945, tested the 4CV prototype at Louis Renault's Herqueville estate. In 1940, Louis Renault had, according to one source, directed his engineering team to "make him a car like the Germans'." Until the arrangement was simplified in 1945, the 4CV featured a'dummy' grille comprising six thin horizontal chrome strips, intended to distract attention from the similarity of the car's overall architecture to that of the German Volkswagen, while recalling the modern designs of the fashionable front-engined passenger cars produced in Detroit during the earlier 1940s.
An important part of the 4CV's success was due to the new methodologies used in its manufacture, pioneered by Pierre Bézier. Bézier had begun his 42-year tenure at Renault as a tool setter, moving up to tool designer and becoming head of the tool design office; as director of production engineering in 1949, he designed the transfer lines producing most of the mechanical parts for the 4CV. The transfer machines were high-performance work tools designed to machine engine blocks. While imprisoned during World War II, Bézier developed and improved on the automatic machine principle, introduced before the war by General Motors; the new transfer station with multiple workstations and electromagnetic heads, enabled different operations on a
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
Panhard Dyna Z
The Panhard Dyna Z is a lightweight motor car produced by Panhard of France from 1954 to 1959. It was first presented to the press at a Paris restaurant named "Les Ambassadeurs" on 17 June 1953 and went into production the following year. In 1959 it was replaced by the Panhard PL 17. Panhard was one of the world's oldest auto manufacturers and since 1945 had become known for producing economical cars. Panhard, like Citroën, considered itself a leader, not a follower of automotive trends, the Dyna Z featured an impressive array of unusual engineering choices. In 1955 Citroën had taken a 25% holding in Panhard's automobile business and during the next two years the national dealership networks of the two businesses were integrated; this gave Citroen and Panhard dealers an expanded market coverage, incorporating now a small car, a medium-sized saloon and a large car range. It gave the Panhard Dyna Z, during its final years in production, a level of market access that its predecessor had never enjoyed.
Sales benefited. The Dyna X was replaced by the more streamlined Dyna Z in 1954; this was developed into the similar PL 17, launched in 1959, in an attempt to conform to the styles of the time. Like its predecessor the Dyna X and the Panhard Dynavia concept that influenced its design, the Dyna Z's body was aluminium with steel tube subframes front and rear joined by steel plate reinforcements in the sills; the decision to use aluminium sheeting for car bodies had been taken at a time when a sudden drop off in demand for fighter planes had left the producers with a glut of the metal, but in subsequent years the relative cost advantage of sheet steel had increased steadily. Other sources emphasize an underlying error with the original costings for the model which had taken no account of the off-cuts from the aluminium coils after the blanks for the body panels had been cut from them. Jean Panhard's explanation to a sympathetic interviewer concludes with the observation that "nobody wanted to buy offcuts except at a ridiculously low price, this difference was our profit margin."
In Summer 1954 the cost penalty of persisting with aluminium bodywork had become financially unsustainable, from September 1955 the Dynas Type "Z1" switched to steel bodywork though the door shells, trunk/boot and hood/bonnet were at this stage still made of aluminium. The switch to a sheet-steel body shell, attributed to "various setbacks" with the aluminium body of the earlier Type Z1, imposed an instant weight penalty of 123 Kg. and had to be accompanied by a substantial redesign of the front suspension and a change to the shock absorbers, though cost savings were too late to avoid the need for Panhard to sign their suicidal refinancing "agreement" with Citroën in April 1955. By 1958, only the bumpers, the fuel tank, the engine cooling shroud and most of the engine and transaxle cases were aluminium, but the weight was still quite low for a comfortable six-seater saloon, when compared with narrower competitor models from Peugeot and Simca, its unusual and modern design gave it a unique combination of space, ride comfort and fuel economy at a competitive price.
But reliability suffered and fuel prices were not high enough in France, for people to put energy efficiency first. The car suffered from some engine and wind noise; the Tiger version had a full cooling shroud. Εnhanced specification/performance version as sold in the US: Price: $2000 Engine: 851 cc Flat-twin— Four-stroke, air-cooled, concentric torsion bar valve springs on roller bearings, hollow aluminum push rods with hardened steel tips, roller main bearings and big end rod bearings of "Panhard Patent" design with an additional set of smaller rollers carrying the roller cage. The cylinder "jugs" pulled off pistons like those of the VW air-cooled engines. Soft engine mounts to smooth the roughness of the two-cylinder four-stroke engine, radial flow fan bolted to crank shaft, full cooling shroud, aluminum structure and cooling fins. Herringbone timing gears, steel pinion and a "Celcon" phenolic gear running with slight interference fit, permissible due to the flexibility of the "Celcon". Power: 50 hp. @ 5500 rpm Last years of Tigres, 24s rated 60 hp.
Drive: front wheel drive— Drive shafts concentric tubes with rubber in the space between the inner and outer tubes. Cardan joint at the inner end next to the transaxle, double cardan constant velocity joint at the outer end at the wheel. Transmission: cable operated four-speed manual cast aluminum case transaxle with 2nd and 3rd synchromesh, transfer gears and second and fourth of "herringbone" design, column shift.— Unlike most front wheel drive inline engine transaxles, the gearbox is between the engine and the final drive. Engine-clutch-gearbox-final drive, direct drive through gearbox in third gear, fourth "overdrive." Final drive spiral bevel gear on primary shaft, step-down to differential gear through helical pinion and gear. Clutch: conventional friction clutch, cable operated. Optional in some markets: magnetic clutch filled with iron "filings".— When a coil fixed to the casing was energized, the "filings" stiffened between the rotating casing on the crankshaft and the driving disc fixed to the gearbox input shaft.
The electricity supplied by a special double generator, one set of windings supplying the battery and the rest of the electrical system, the other set of windings powering the magnetic clutch. As the engine accelerated above idle speed, the generator began
The Peugeot 204 is a small family car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot between 1965 and 1976. The 204, known in development as Project D12, was available in many body styles including a sedan/saloon/berline, convertible/cabriolet, hatchback/coupe, estate/wagon, a van, it was launched in Paris, France on 23 April 1965 and became the best-selling car in France from 1969 to 1971. The 204 used a front-wheel drive layout and was launched on 20 April 1965 with a single overhead cam 1130 cc petrol engine. In September 1975, less than a year before production ceased, it received a more modern petrol engine, now of 1127 cc. Claimed maximum output, which at launch had been 53 bhp, increased to 59 bhp, though there was a marginal reduction in maximum torque. Following the demise of the 204 the new 1127 cc engine found its way into a version of the Peugeot 304 estate: the smaller engine enjoyed in France tax benefits when compared to the 1290 cc engines fitted to most 304s. For certain export markets engine compression ratios and power on the petrol/gasoline engines were reduced in order to accommodate lower octane fuels.
Towards the end of 1968 a 1255 cc diesel engine option became available for the 204 estate and fourgonette versions. At the time, this is thought to have been the smallest diesel engine fitted in a commercially available car anywhere in the world. In April 1973 the diesel unit was increased in size to 1357 cc, in September 1975 this diesel unit became an option on the 204 saloon. Fuel economy on the 204 Diesel was startlingly good, with overall fuel consumption at 5.7 litres per 100 km: performance was correspondingly underwhelming with a claimed top speed of 130 km/h. Out of the 150,000 diesel 204s produced, fewer than 30,000 were saloons; until the early 1980s when Volkswagen started heavy promotion of their diesel-engined Golf / Rabbit, unless cars were large enough to be used as taxis, most European customers for saloon cars avoided diesel engines. 204 engines were aluminium and transversely mounted which increased available passenger space within a given wheelbase: the 204 was the first production Peugeot to feature this format which would become normal for small and mid-sized front-wheel-drive European passenger cars.
The engine had a distinctive design. This design helped; the 204 was the first Peugeot to be equipped with disc brakes, albeit only on the front wheels. The car proved to have good handling, decent performance, excellent fuel economy; the compact engine and the transverse engine combined with a body wider than the class average to provide a level of interior space comparable to larger cars such as Peugeot's own 404: both cars were Pininfarina designs. The 204 featured neither the fins of the 404 nor the sharp corners characteristic of the other major French launch of 1965; the resulting less aggressive look has been seen as a'more European' moving away from a tendency to follow US styling trends, apparent in new car launches during the preceding two decades. The Peugeot 204's frontal styling owes much to the 1961 Cadillac Jacqueline by Pininfarina, whilst its rear and that of the prototype Pininfarina styled Mini-based MG ADO 34 of 1964 are strikingly similar; the rear end of the 1970 Lancia Flavia Pininfarina Coupe of 1969–74 displays the same influence.
The options list was not extensive but, as with the larger Peugeot saloons, it was possible to specify a sliding steel panel sunroof. At launch only the four-door saloon version was offered, but the five-door'break' station wagon came along less than six months in the Autumn of 1965. 1966 saw the arrival of a two-door cabriolet and a three-door hatchback, marketed as a coupé. Both were priced only 20 % above the level of the saloon; the range was completed in 1966 with the arrival of the'fourgonette' van version which in most respects followed the design of the estate, but with only one door on each side and a steel panel in place of the side windows behind the b pillar. 1969 saw the Autumn launch of the Peugeot 304, a 204 with a larger engine, a restyled front end and, in the case of the saloon version, a increased rear overhang giving rise to more luggage space. The 204 range was correspondingly pruned: the 204 coupé and cabriolet received the dashboard of the new 304 in 1969 only to be withdrawn in 1970, replaced by bodied 304 equivalents.
The estate and fourgonette continued to be offered, along with the saloon, until the 204 range was withdrawn in 1976. Although the model run lasted more than a decade, the Peugeot 204 changed little during that time: early saloons/berlines had a split rear bumper with numberplate set between the two halves, a flat rear panel and small oval tail lights. For 1975, the stainless steel front grill was replaced by a black plastic grill of the same overall shape; the gearshaft for RHD UK cars was moved from the steering column to the floor. In Great Britain, a Peugeot 204 saloon tested by Britain's Autocar magazine in September 1966 had a top speed of 86 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 22 seconds. An overall fuel consumption of 32.0 miles per imperial gallon was achieved. The test car was priced by Peugeot in Britain at £903 including taxes: a British competitor, the Triumph 1300 was retailing for £835; the British domestic auto market still enjoyed significant tariff protection at this time.
The journal commended the car for lively performa