Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. This designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line. In recent times, the manufacturers of some cars have added to the designation with the term front-mid which describes a car where the engine is in front of the passenger compartment but behind the front axle. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation, or on the front axle; this layout is the most traditional form, remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a great deal of space is packaged in a location passengers and luggage would not use; the main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle. Car handling is not ideal, but predictable. In contrast with the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the FWD layout eliminates the need for a central tunnel or a higher chassis clearance to accommodate a driveshaft providing power to the rear wheels.
Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the driven wheels, FWD cars are considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, gravel or wet tarmac; when hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout due to the shift of weight to the rear wheels when climbing. The cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the driven wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates less grip is available for cornering, which can result in understeer. High-performance vehicles use the FWD layout because weight is transferred to the rear wheels under acceleration, while unloading the front wheels and reducing their grip putting a cap on the amount of power which could realistically be utilized.
Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but negates the benefit of extra power. This was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29, 1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV, 1949 Saab 92 and the 1959 Mini. In the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, General Motors. Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focused on luxury vehicles, however retained the rear-wheel-drive layout in their smaller cars, though their MINI marque are FWD. There are four different arrangements for this basic layout, depending on the location of the engine, the heaviest component of the drivetrain.
The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. The engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the front of the car. With the engine so far back, the weight distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal; the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight distribution issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the car's low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling, remarkable for the era. Renault is the most recent user of this format - having used it on the Renault 4, the first generation Renault 5, but it has since fallen out of favor since it encroaches into the interior space; the 1946 Panhard Dyna X, designed by Jean-Albert Grégoire, had the engine longitudinally in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the engine and the differential at the rear of the assembly.
This arrangement, used by Panhard until 1967 had a weight distribution problem analogous to that of the Cord L29 mentioned above. However, the Panhard's air-cooled flat twin engine was light, mounted low down with a low centre of gravity reducing the effect; the air-cooled flat twin engine of the Citroën 2CV was mounted low, in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the axle line and the differential between the two. This became quite popular; this is the standard configuration of Subaru front-wheel-drive vehicles. In 1979, Toyota introduced and launched their first front-wheel-drive car, the Tercel, it had its engine longitudinally mounted, unlike most other front-wheel-drive cars on the market at that time; this arrangement continued on the second-generation Tercel, until 1987, the third generation received a new, transversely mounted engine. Other front-wheel-drive Toyota models, such as Camry, Corolla, had transversely mounted engines from the beginning on; the 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado used a novel arrangement which had the engine and transmission in a'side-by-side' arrangem
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A station wagon called an estate car, estate or wagon, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate, hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, however station wagons are longer and are more to have the roofline extended to the rear of the car to maximize the cargo space; the names "station wagon" and "estate car" are a result due to the initial purpose of the car being to transport people and luggage between a country estate and the nearest train station. The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, the car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom and France began to produce station wagons models, by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, however since sales have declined as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.
Reflecting the original purpose of transporting people and luggage between country estates and train stations, the body style is called an "estate car" or "estate" in the United Kingdom, "station wagon" in American, New Zealand and African English. In the United States, early models with exposed wooden bodies became known as woodies. In Germany, the term "Kombi" is used, short for Kombinationskraftwagen. Station wagons have been marketed using the French term "break de chasse", which translates as "hunting break", due to shared ancestry with the shooting-brake body style. Manufacturers may designate station wagons across various model lines with a proprietary nameplate. Examples include "Avant", "Caravan", "Kombi", "Sports Tourer", "Sports Wagon, "Tourer", "Touring" and "Variant". Station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. Folding rear seats are common on both station wagons and hatchbacks.
Distinguishing features between hatchbacks and station wagons are: D-pillar: Station wagons are more to have a D-pillar. Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume — with windows aside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a station wagon roof more extends to the rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume — a hatchback roof might more rake down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior volume, with shorter rear overhang and with smaller windows aside the cargo volume. Other differences are more variable and can include: Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, whereas a hatchback would more allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour. Seating: Station wagons may have two or three rows of seats, while hatchbacks may only have one or two; the rearmost row of seating in a station wagon is located in the cargo area and can be either front-facing or rear-facing. Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion in the cargo volume.
Rear Door: Hatchbacks feature a top-hinged liftgate for cargo access, with variations ranging from a two-part liftgate/tailgates to a complex tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid. Station wagons have enjoyed numerous tailgate configurations. Hatchbacks may be called Liftbacks when the opening area is sloped and the door is lifted up to open. A design director from General Motors has described the difference as "Where you break the roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle", he said. "You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon."It has become common for station wagons to use a shared platform with other body styles, resulting in many shared components being used for the wagon and hatchback variants of the model range. Many modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas springs — where the rear window can swing up independently. Wagons have employed numerous designs; the earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate.
Both were manually operated. This configuration prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon body style in the 1920s through the 1940s, it remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford, including the 1957-58 Del Rio two-door wagon. This style was adopted on aftermarket camper shells for pickup trucks, seeing that pickup trucks had a bottom half tailgate as an OEM feature. In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. In the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window—it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was common on both compact wagons. Side hinge: A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats; this was supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate. These have a retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded
The Citroën Berlingo and Peugeot Partner are identical panel vans and leisure activity vehicles produced by PSA Peugeot Citroën since 1996. The third generation is sold as the Opel/Vauxhall Combo, as the Toyota ProAce City from 2019; the panel vans are available in passenger versions named the Berlingo Multispace and Partner Combi, Partner Tepee, Peugeot Rifter for the third generation. In Italy, the first generation of the Partner was known as the Peugeot Ranch, they were based on the Citroën ZX/Peugeot 306 estate floorpan and mechanicals. With their rectangular, box like cargo space and aerodynamic front, conceptually they can be considered the descendants of the Citroën 2CV panel van; the new 2018 Citröen Berlingo and Peugeot Partner/Rifter share their design with the new Vauxhall/Opel Combo, following GM's stake acquisition in PSA. Both the Berlingo and Partner have been produced in CNG and electric versions and with four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines; the Berlingo/Partner was launched in July 1996.
When the Berlingo was first shown at the Mondial de l'Automobile in 1996, a set of three concept cars was presented: Berlingo Coupé de Plage Berlingo Berline Bulle Berlingo Grand LargeThe Berline Bulle concept was a roomy small car, that could be considered as a precursor for the C3. Only one of these concepts was developed, the Grand Large version, developed into the Multispace and Combi people carriers/leisure vans. A revised version, featuring a redesigned interior and front end, was released in December 2002. During 2004, there was a minor facelift, including changes to the grille and light clusters The vans were designed to be powered by petrol, electric, or CNG. An electric version was available from 1998 to 2005. Two different models replaced the first generation of the Berlingo in 2008; the smaller, known as the Citroën Nemo, was developed in cooperation with Fiat and Tofaş. Based on the Fiat Grande Punto platform, it is built in Turkey and is marketed as the Peugeot Bipper and Fiat Fiorino.
The Peugeot and Citroën are identical. The Nemo is intended to be smaller than the original Berlingo; the Berlingo II, styled by Gilles Vidal, is based on PSA's Platform 2 and therefore is larger, more expensive than its predecessor. The engine range is similar to other current models of the PSA Group; the Berlingo and Partner were unveiled in January 2008, with the Berlingo launched first, in the European market, in April 2008, followed by the Partner in May 2008. Mexico still sells this generation alongside the original Partner, as do a few other countries, as the Grand Raid and Partner Origin. An electric version has been available since 2013. In March 2017, a five seater Citroen E-Berlingo Multispace was announced; the third generation Berlingo and a new Peugeot Rifter was unveiled at the 2018 Geneva Auto Show. The model will be sold as the fourth generation Opel Combo after General Motors partnered with PSA in 2012. From late 2019, the Toyota will offer the Proace City, following the extension of the partnership in utility vehicles between the two manufacturers.
It will be unveiled at the 2019 Commercial Vehicle Show. Panel van Leisure activity vehicle Official Citroën Berlingo web page Peugeot Partner Tepee Outdoor Exterior and Interior Full 3D HD Peugeot Partner Tepee Active MPV 1.6HDI 92 Exterior and Interior in Full 3D HD
Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport; the Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, is considered an important major international auto show. First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition; the show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own. Areas of the show: Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels. Electric cars and alternative powered cars.
Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, engineering. Converted cars. Accessories and parts for motor cars OEM: original equipment manufacturers Workshop installations for the repair and maintenance of motor cars Miscellaneous products and services related to the car industry Animation / Attractions; the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 89th Geneva Motor Show was held between 7 and 17 March 2019; the 88th Geneva Motor Show was held on 8 to 18 March 2018. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017; the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015; the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014. The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013; the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011; the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010.
Over 80 introductions were expected for the show. Press days for the show started on 2 March 2010; the 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009. The following vehicles were introduced: The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 6–16 March 2008; the following vehicles were introduced: The following were scheduled to be introduced at the 2007 Geneva Auto Show: In addition, Subaru introduced its new boxer diesel engine, Honda showed its next generation clean diesel engine. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas. Ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP 1.6l natural gas engine. Serial production will be evaluated. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small electric city car, with a battery that can be 80% recharged in just 15 minutes; the following introductions were featured at the 2006 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2005 Geneva show: The following introductions were made from 4 to 14 March 2004 at the Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2003 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2002 Geneva show: The following major introductions were made at the 2001 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2000 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1999 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1998 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1997 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1996 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1995 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1994 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1993 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1992 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1991 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1990 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1989 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo SZ Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 Daihatsu Applause Ford Fiesta Urba Ford Via concept Lancia Delta Integrale 16v Lotus Carlton Mercedes-Benz 500SL Peugeot Agades concept Sbarro Osmos concept The following introductions were made at the 1988 Geneva show: Ford Saguaro concept Maserati Karif Sbarro Robur concept The following introductions were made at the 1987 Geneva show: Aston Martin Lagonda Sbarro Monster G concept The following introductions were made at the 1986 Geneva show: Aston Martin V8 Zagato coupe BMW 524d Citroën Eole concept Rover CCV concept Sbarro Challenge 2+2 concept Volvo 480 Zender Vision 3C concept The following introductions were made at the 1985 Geneva show: Ferrari 412 Lamborghini Countach LP5000 S Quattrovalvole Michelotti PAC Peugeot Griffe 4 concept Sbarro Challenge concept Sbarro Super Five Volvo 780 The following introductions were made at the 1984 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo 33 1.5 Giardinetta Alfa Romeo Tempo Libero concept Ferrari 288 GTO Ford APV concept Lamborghini Jalpa P350 Sbarro Super Eight concept Sbarro Mercedes Benz Biturbo Zagato Z33 "Free Time" The following introductions were made at the 1983 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo Delfino concept Alfa Romeo Zeta Sei concept Fiat Ritmo Coupe concept Ford Trio concept Lincoln Quicksilver concept Renault Gabbiano concept The following introductions were made at the 1982 Geneva show: Bentley Mulsanne Turbo Lamborghini LMA002 Michelotti CVT 58 concept Opel Corsa Spider concept Sbarro Super Twelve concept Volkswagen Golf GTD The followin
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA. The family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the company's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Léon Serpollet in 1889. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot, in 1896; the Peugeot company and family are from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the shareholders agreed to a recapitalisation plan for Groupe PSA, in which Dongfeng Motors and the French government each bought a 14% stake in the company. Peugeot has received many international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114.9g CO2/km.
Peugeot is known as a reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are still running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s, where Peugeot is called "the lion". Peugeot has been involved in motor sport for more than a century. Peugeot Sport won the World Rally Championship five times, the Dakar Rally seven times, the 24 Hours of Le Mans three times, the World Endurance Championship twice, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup twice surpassing Toyota and Audi and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge Championship three times. During the last year, Peugeot Sport has surpassed the record set in the ascent to Pikes Peak with the Peugeot 208 T16 driven by Sébastien Loeb; the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee and salt grinders; the company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, bicycles.
Armand Peugeot introduced his "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles. The company's logo a lion walking on an arrow, symbolized the speed and flexibility of the Peugeot saw blades; the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the automobile early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler and others, was convinced of its viability; the first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889. Steam power required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a four-wheeled car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence; the car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension and a sliding-gear transmission. An example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont. More cars followed, 29 being built in 1892, 40 in 1894, 72 in 1895, 156 in 1898, 300 in 1899.
These early models were given "type" numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car. Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the world's first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot. Five Peugeots qualified for the main event, all finished. Lemaître finished 3 min 30 sec behind the Comte de Dion whose steam-powered car was ineligible for the official competition. Three Peugeots were entered in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris, where they were beaten by Panhard's car (despite an average speed of 20.8 km/h and taking the 31,500 franc prize. This marked the debut of Michelin pneumatic tyres in racing on a Peugeot; the vehicles were still much horseless carriages in appearance and were steered by a tiller. In 1896, the first Peugeot engines were built. Designed by Rigoulot, the first engine was an 8 hp horizontal twin fitted to the back of the Type 15, it served as the basis of a nearly exact copy produced by Rochet-Schneider.
Further improvements followed: the engine moved to the front on the Type 48 and was soon under a bonnet at the front of the car, instead of hidden underneath. In 1896, Armand Peugeot broke away from Les Fils de Peugeot Frères to form his own company, Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot, building a new factory at Audincourt to focus on cars. In 1899, sales hit 300; the same year, Lemaître won the Nice-Castellane-Nice Rally in a special 5,850 cc 20 hp racer. At the 1901 Paris Salon, Peugeot debuted a tiny shaft-driven 652 cc 5 hp one-cylinder, dubbed "Bébé", shed its conservative image, becoming a style leader. After placing 19th in the 1902 Paris-Vienna Rally with a 50 hp 11,322 cc racer, failing to finish with two similar cars, Peugeot quit racing. In 1898, Peugeot Motocycles presents at the Paris Motorshow the first motorcycle equipped with a Dion-Bouton motor. Peugeot Motocycles remains the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Peugeot added motorcycles to it