China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
PSA TU engine
The PSA TU engine is a family of small four-cylinder engines used in the Peugeot and Citroën range of cars. It was introduced in 1986 with the Citroën AX, replacing the X family, although it shared many components with its predecessor; the TU is available in either petrol or a non-turbo Diesel variants, the latter called TUD. The TU engine is distantly related to the older X-Type engine - sharing a similar overhead camshaft architecture, but the key differences are the belt driven camshaft, that the TU is mounted in a conventional upright position with a separate, end-on mounted transmission and unequal length drive shafts; the X engine, by comparison, had an integral transmission mounted on the side of the crankcase, sharing a common oil supply and was mounted lying flat on its side within the car. The TU engine is/was used in the following cars: Citroën: AX, Saxo, C2, C3, C4, BX, ZX, Xsara, C15, Nemo and Berlingo. Peugeot: 106, 205, 206, 207, 309, 306, 307, 405,Bipper and Hoggar, Samand Soren, iranian Peugeot 405 and Pars.
The TUD engine was only used in 11 cars of which 6 were non-PSA models: the Citroën AX, Citroën Saxo, Citroën Xsara. PSA has now stopped production of original TU engines, although EC engines related to the TU5 unit, are now in production for emerging markets such as China and Russia and available in both 1.6 and 1.8 liter versions. The TU9 was the entry-level version, used in a variety of cars including the Citroën AX, Peugeot 205 and 106, it had a displacement of 1.0 L, with a bore and a stroke of 70 mm × 62 mm. Power was 45 PS, but it was increased to 50 PS in 1992, with the adoption of central fuel injection and a catalytic converter. Production was stopped in the Citroen Saxo and Peugeot 106 with the introduction of Euro III in 2001; the TU1 has a displacement of 1.1 L, with a bore and a stroke of 72 mm × 69 mm. Power was 55 PS, but it was increased to 60 PS in 1992, with the adoption of central fuel injection and a catalytic converter; the introduction of Euro III led to the adoption of multi point injection, but power remained the same.
This engine was the entry-level option in the Citroën C2 and C3 and Peugeot 206. The TU2 has a displacement of 1.3 L, with a bore and a stroke of 75 mm × 73 mm. Power was 95 PS, powering the Citroën AX Sport, but a more powerful version of the TU24 was developed for the Peugeot 205 Rallye with a straighter intake manifold and larger venturi size in the Weber carburetors. A new version with 100 PS was created in 1992 for the Peugeot 106 Rallye, with the adoption of a Magneti Marelli fuel injection system and a catalytic converter; this version in the 106 Rallye uses a different taller TU3 aluminum block to the TU24, different con rod lengths and pistons to the TU24. The aluminium heads differ in port size and shape with different camshafts; the valve sizes are slightly different with the TU24 being 39.3 mm Inlet / 31.2 mm Exhaust. TU2J2 being 39.5 mm Inlet and 31.4 mm Exhaust with thinner valve stems to the TU24. The TU3 has a displacement of 1.4 L, with a bore and a stroke of 75 mm × 77 mm. This engine has been one of the most used by the PSA Group, with applications in superminis and midsize cars, including a stint in competition use in the Citroën AX GT Cup and the Citroën AX GTI Cup, held in many European countries throughout the early 1990s in both circuit racing and rallying.
In its early years, it was available with either a single or double barrel carburetor, with fuel injection introduced in 1990 for the AX GTI and 106 XSi, capable of delivering 100 PS at 6600 rpm. The carburated versions gave way to fuel injection in 1992, while the sports version was retired in 1996. A DOHC 16-valve version of the TU3 with variable valve timing was introduced in 2004 with the Peugeot 206 Quiksilver Edition. However, this version was named ET3 as a prelude for the new PSA/BMW Prince engine family; the TU5 has a displacement of 1.6 L, with a stroke of 78.5 mm × 82 mm. It was available in 8- and 16-valve configuration, but only the DOHC 16V option remains; the block is made of cast iron and the head is aluminium. Power is 109 PS in most current applications, the same as the DV6 1.6 L Diesel engine, although a sporty 122 PS version is used to power the Citroën C2 VTS. The TU5 has been used in motorsports by both Peugeot; the latest application is in the Citroën C-Elysée and Peugeot 301 where it is renamed as EC5.
For the Chinese market, it is named as the N6A 10FXA3A PSA and produces 88 PS. TU5 JP+ and TU5 JP/L4 are same engines, but with slight differences; the TUD was the diesel variant. An indirect injection diesel with mechanical pump, it used the alloy cylinder casings of the TU3 with stronger wet liners. This was thus called TUD3. In 1994 displacement was increased to 1.5 L, with a bore and a stroke of 77 mm × 82 mm, the block recast in iron with bores directly in the block, the engine being renamed TUD5. Besides a number of applications in the
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
Dongfeng Fengshen L60
The Dongfeng Fengshen L60 is a compact sedan produced by Dongfeng Motor Corporation under the Dongfeng Fengshen sub-brand. The Dongfeng Fengshen L60 sedan was previewed by the Dongfeng Fengshen L60 Concept during the 2014 Beijing Auto Show; the production version debuted during the 2015 Shanghai Auto Show in April 2015. The Dongfeng Fengshen L60 is based on the extended version of the PSA PF2 platform that underpinned the first generation Peugeot 408 compact sedan produced by Dongfeng-PSA in China; the Dongfeng Fengshen L60 sedan was launched on to the Chinese car market in March 2015 with prices starting from 89,700 yuan to 129,700 yuan. Fengshen L60 Official Website
Groupe PSA is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel and Vauxhall brands. Peugeot is the largest PSA brand in the world. PSA is listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange and is again a constituent of the CAC 40 index after having been removed in 2012. Beginning in 2016, PSA began to outline a strategy which entailed the rapid expansion of the company, through both geographic expansion and acquisitions of other car companies. PSA has announced plans to enter the Indian, Canadian, ASEAN, other markets in the coming years. Headquartered in Rueil-Malmaison, PSA, with sales of 3.78 million units, was in 2018 the second-largest Europe-based automaker. In December 1974 Peugeot S. A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroën. On 9 April 1976 they increased their stake of the bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group, becoming PSA Peugeot Citroën. Since Citroën had two successful new designs in the market at this time and Peugeot was prudent in its own finances, the PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979.
In late 1978, PSA purchased the failing Chrysler Europe from the troubled US parent firm for a nominal US$1.00, plus assumption of outstanding debt, leading to losses for the consortium from 1980 to 1985. Further investment was required because PSA decided to create a new brand for the entity for the disparate French and British models, based on the Talbot sports car last seen in the 1950s. From on, the whole Chrysler/Simca range was sold under the Talbot badge until production of Talbot-branded passenger cars was shelved in 1987 and on commercial vehicles in 1992. All of this investment caused serious financial problems for the entire PSA group. In 1987, the company dropped the Talbot brand for passenger cars when it ceased production of the Simca-developed Horizon. What was to have been the Talbot Arizona became the Peugeot 309, with the former Rootes plant in Ryton and Simca plant in Poissy being turned over for Peugeot assembly from October 1985. Producing Peugeots in Ryton was significant, as it signaled the first time that PSA would build cars in the UK.
The Talbot name survived for a little longer on commercial vehicles until 1992 before being shelved completely. From 1987 to 1995, the Ryton plant produced the Peugeot 405 saloon. On 29 February 2012, PSA announced the creation of a major alliance with General Motors, as part of which GM became PSA's second-largest shareholder, after the Peugeot family, with a holding of 7%; the alliance was intended to enable $2 billion per year of cost savings through platform sharing, common purchasing and other economies of scale. In July 2012, a union official said that PSA Peugeot Citroën would cut as much as 10 percent of its French workforce of 100,356 employees on permanent and temporary contract; the jobs cut was more than announced. On 24 October, PSA said it was close to an agreement with creditor banks on €11.5 billion of refinancing and had won state guarantees on €7 billion in further borrowing by its Banque PSA Finance. CEO Philippe Varin says that "Citroën and Peugeot are too close", so he plans on positioning Citroën C-line models lower than Peugeot with DS models above Peugeot.
On 12 December 2013, General Motors announced it was selling its 7% stake in PSA Peugeot Citroën to the multibillion-dollar Padmapriya Automobile Investment Group. In 2014, Dongfeng Motor Group, the Chinese partner that builds PSA cars in China, the French government each took a 13% stake in PSA, in a financial rescue operation, reducing the Peugeot family share from 25% to 14%. Following Dongfeng and the French government each acquiring stakes in Groupe PSA, various cost-cutting measures at the company turned its fortune around and reduced PSA's debt, until the company began to turn a profit beginning in 2015. A new CEO, Carlos Tavares, was engaged and began to implement various cost-cutting measures and expanded the model range of all three core brands, alongside the creation of a new brand, DS Automobiles. In early 2016, PSA unveiled a roadmap detailing its plan to re-enter the North American car market for the first time since 1991. Although many only expected the DS to enter the North American market, PSA announced that all of its brands would be sold across the continent.
The plan to re-enter the market has three-stages, be a partner in a transportation network company begin renting and sharing PSA's own vehicles to the public several years after, followed by a full launch, establishing a dealer network in 2020. On 10 February 2017, PSA announced a 50:50 joint venture with the C. K. Birla Group the owner of the Hindustan Motors to sell Peugeot, Citröen, DS vehicles in India and purchase of the Ambassador brand from Hindustan Motors at the cost of INR 80 Crore; this marks the first time in over twenty years. On 14 February 2017 PSA announced that it was in talks to acquire Opel and Vauxhall Motors from General Motors; the talks were in an advanced stage, but were a surprise to the press and to much of Opel's leadership as they had plans to transform the company into an electric-car-only brand using the platform of the Opel Ampera-e for a wide range of models. GM agreed to continue to supply PSA with other electric vehicle technology. GM reported a loss of US$257 million from its European operations on 2016, sixt
PSA EW/DW engine
The PSA EW/DW engine is a family of straight-4 petrol and diesel engines manufactured by the PSA Group for use in their Peugeot and Citroën automobiles. The EW/DW family was introduced in 1998 as a replacement for the XU engineThe EW/DW uses many parts from the XU, most notably the crankshaft, but is built with lighter materials; the EW name is used for DW for Diesel engines. All EWs are DOHC multivalve with displacement from 1.7 to 2.2 L. They are used for large family cars and executive cars, as well as large MPVs, although the 2.0 L is used for some hot hatch models. The DW started with an SOHC 2-valve design between 2.0 to 2.0 L receiving DOHC and four valves per cylinder upon the introduction of the 2.2 L in 2000 with the Citroën C5 and Peugeot 607. Turbocharged versions received the commercial designation HDi; the DW10 served as the basis for the Ford/PSA engine partnership using second generation common rail and a variable-geometry turbocharger for the first time on the 2.0 L design. The EW7 has a bore and a stroke of 82.7 mm × 81.4 mm, for a displacement of 1.7 L.
It is used as an entry level engine for the Citroën C5, the Peugeot 406 and the Peugeot 407. The EW7A is Euro 4 only, no longer for sale in Europe as of January 1, 2011; the EW10 has a bore and a stroke of 85 mm × 88 mm, for a displacement of 2.0 L. It is used throughout the PSA Group, including the Citroën C4 and C5 and Peugeot 206 307 and 407. A gasoline direct injection variant, called EW10 D and marketed as HPi, was used in the Citroën C5 and Peugeot 406 starting in 2001, but was discontinued in 2003 due to low sales; the EW10 J4S variant is a high performance version used in the 206 GTI 180, 206 RC, 307 Féline and C4 VTS. Power was raised to 177 PS. EW10 A is a further development of the EW10 J4, presenting somewhat higher power and torque due to the introduction of Variable valve timing. Fuel consumption is decreased. Power is 140 PS at torque 200 N ⋅ m at 4000 rpm. Citroën states 143 PS and Peugeot 140 PS for the same 140 PS engine; as of January 1, 2010 and the requirements of Euro 5 emission regulations, the EW10 is no longer available in Europe.
For most use, they are replaced with Prince engines. The EW12 was introduced to replace the low-pressure turbo variant of the XU10, it has a bore and stroke of 86 mm × 96 mm, for a displacement of 2.2 L. Citroën only uses it on the C8 MPV, while Peugeot, which has more a sporty image, uses it in the 406 SRi and 406 Coupe, 407, the 607 executive model and 807 MPV; the EW12J4 is Euro 4 only, no longer for sale in Europe as of January 1, 2011. The DW8 is for all intents and purposes an evolution of the XUD9 and is the only diesel engine in the family not to feature a turbocharger or common-rail direct injection, it is used in vans such as the Citroën Berlingo and Peugeot Partner but can be found in more affordable versions of the Peugeot 206 and 306. The DW8 was phased out in 2007; the DW8 is matched to 250 N ⋅ m couple, manual gearbox. Specifications Displacement: 1.9 L Valves: 8 valve, single overhead cam Bore x Stroke: 82.2 mm × 88 mm Power output: 71 PS Torque: 127 N⋅m RPM to which the Torque refers: 2500 Production Start Date: 1 June 2000 The 2.0 L DW10 was the first PSA Diesel engine to feature common rail direct injection, was given the commercial designation HDi.
It has a bore and a stroke of 85 mm × 88 mm for a total displacement of 2.0 L, replacing the XUD9 in 1999. It was available in 90 PS form, with two valves per cylinder and a non-intercooled turbo. An intercooler was added in the year, boosting power to 109 PS. Available in the midsized models, such as the Citroën Xsara and Xantia and Peugeot 306, 406 and Peugeot 206 it was soon spread across the PSA range, such as the LCVs, while a 16-valve version, with 109 PS, was used in the large MPVs built in association with Fiat. Suzuki was a customer for these powerplants, using them in the European Grand Vitara. Eurovan-based commercial vans, the Citroën Jumpy, Peugeot Expert and Fiat Scudo were available with a 94 PS DW10 BTED engine, an intercooled version of the original 90 PS design; the DW10 was used as the basis for the new family of Diesel engines co-developed with Ford, it is used in the Focus, C-Max and Volvo C30/S40/V50, besides various Citroën and Peugeot passenger models. The DOHC 16-valve powerplants were mated to a second generation common rail injection system and a variable-geometry turbocharger, pushing power to 136 PS.
It is fitted with six-speed automatic transmission. The DW10B and DW10C are Euro 5-compliant, therefore still available for sale in Europe.2014 Euro 6 variant DW10FC and DW10FD added to the range which introduced SCR emissions control technology The 2.2 L DW12 has a bore and a stroke of 85 mm × 96 mm. Unlike the initial DW10 designs, it was fitted with 16 valves from the beginning, made its debut in the 2000 with the Citroën C5, Peugeot 406, Peugeot 406 Coupe and Peugeot 607, being used only in the larger models. In 2006 it was added to the PSA/Ford family, wit
Compact car is a vehicle size class— predominantly used in North America— that sits between subcompact cars and mid-size cars. The present-day definition is equivalent to the European C-segment or the British term "small family car". However, prior to the downsizing of the United States car industry in the 1970s and 1980s, larger vehicles with wheelbases up to 110 in were considered "compact cars" in the United States. In Japan, small size passenger vehicle is a registration category that sits between kei cars and regular cars, based on overall size and engine displacement limits; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, compact cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 100–109 cu ft; the beginnings of U. S. production of compact cars were the late 1940s prototypes of economy cars, including the Chevrolet Cadet and the Ford Vedette.
Neither car reached production in the U. S. however the Vedette was produced by Ford SAF in France. The first U. S produced, it was built on a 100-inch wheelbase, nonetheless still a large car by contemporary European standards. The term "compact" was coined by a Nash executive as a euphemism for small cars with a wheelbase of 110 inches or less, it established a new market segment and the U. S. automobile industry soon adopted the "compact" term. Several competitors to the Nash Rambler arose from the ranks of America's other independent automakers, although none enjoyed the long-term success of the Rambler. Other early compact cars included the Willys Aero and the Hudson Jet. In 1954, 64,500 cars sold in the U. S. were small American cars, out of a total market of five million car. Market research indicated that five percent of those surveyed said they would consider a small car, suggesting a potential market size of 275,000 cars. By 1955, the Nash Rambler that began as a sideline convertible model became a success and was now available in station wagon and sedan body styles.
During the Recession of 1958, the only exception to the sales decline was American Motors with its compact, economy-oriented Ramblers that saw high demand among cautious consumers. By 1959, sales of small imported cars increased to 14% of the U. S. passenger car market, as consumers turned to compact cars. By this time, smaller cars appealed to people with a college education and a higher income whose families were buying more than one car. Customers expected compact cars to provide improved fuel economy compared to full-sized cars, while maintaining headroom and plenty of trunk space. Between 1958 and 1960, the major U. S. car manufacturers made a push towards compact cars, resulting in the introduction of the Studebaker Lark, Chevrolet Corvair, Ford Falcon, Plymouth Valiant. These models gave rise to compact vans built on the compact car platforms, such as the Studebaker Zip Van, Chevrolet Covair Greenbrier, Ford Econoline and Dodge A100. During the 1960s, compacts were the smallest class of North American cars, but they had evolved into only smaller versions of the 6-cylinder or V8-powered six-passenger sedan.
They were much larger than compacts by European manufacturers, which were five-passenger 4-cylinder engine cars. Adverising and road tests for the Ford Maverick and the Rambler American made comparisons with the popular Volkswagen Beetle. Compact cars were the basis for a new small car segment that became known as the pony car, named after the Ford Mustang, built on the Falcon chassis. At that time, there was a distinct difference in size between compact and full-size models, an early definition of the compact was a vehicle with an overall length of less than 200 in, much larger than European equivalents. In the early 1970s, the domestic automakers introduced smaller subcompact cars that included the AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. In 1973, the Energy Crisis started, which made small fuel efficient cars more desirable, the North American driver began exchanging their large cars for the smaller, imported compacts that cost less to fill up and were inexpensive to maintain; the 1977 model year marked the beginning of a downsizing of all vehicles, so that cars such as the AMC Concord and the Ford Fairmont that replaced the compacts were re-classified as mid-size, while cars inheriting the size of the Ford Pinto and Chevrolet Vega became classified as compact cars.
After the reclassification, mid-size American cars were still far larger than mid-size cars from other countries and were more similar in size to cars classified as "large cars" in Europe. It would not be until the 1980s that American cars were being downsized to international dimensions. In the 1985 model year, compact cars classified by the EPA included Ford's Escort and Tempo, the Chevrolet Cavalier, Toyota Corolla, Acura Legend, Mercedes-Benz 300, Nissan Maxima, Volvo DL, many others. Since the 1990s, most compact cars sold in the United States are imported models. In Japan, vehicles that are larger than kei cars, but with dimensions smaller than 4,700 mm long, 1,700 mm wide, 2,000 mm high and with engines at or under 2,000 cc are classified as "small size" cars. Small size cars are identified by a licence plate number beginning with "5". In the past, the small size category has received tax benefits stipulated by the Japanese government regulations, such as those in the 1951 Road Vehicle Act.
In 1955, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade