The Peugeot 201 is a car produced by Peugeot between 1929 and 1937. The car was manufactured at the company's Sochaux plant near the Swiss frontier, is today celebrated in the adjacent Peugeot museum. Although Peugeot had produced a petrol/gasoline-powered motor vehicle as early as 1886, the Peugeot 201 may reasonably be seen as the company's first volume model; the Peugeot 201 was presented at the 1929 Paris Motor Show with the backdrop of the Wall Street Crash. While many European manufacturers did not survive the ensuing depression, the 201's image as an inexpensive car helped Peugeot to survive the economic crisis with its finances intact and its status as a major auto producer confirmed. During the 1930s Peugeot offered several variants of the 201, the engine capacity grew, it was powered by a 1122 cc engine developing 23 horsepower at 3500 rpm. This was followed by an engine of 1307 cc, a 1465 cc unit of 35 hp; the Peugeot 201C, launched in 1931, is claimed as the first volume produced car equipped with independent front suspension, a concept adopted by the competition.
The simpler beam front axle version remained available, but the independent system improved road holding and reduced steering column vibration. In the early decades of the twentieth century, car manufacturers paid little attention to the naming of their vehicles; the 201's predecessor, the Type 190, is so named because it was the 190th distinct design developed by Peugeot. However, at the time few customers would have been aware of the name "Type 190". In the company's own brochures, the car now known as the Type 190 was called "La 5CV Peugeot". For Peugeot, a new naming scheme was introduced when the Type 190 was replaced by Peugeot 201; the 201 was the first Peugeot to carry a name comprising three numerals with a central zero, a naming scheme continued with the 301 and 401. Peugeot took effective steps to protect all such automobile names, to the discomfiture of Porsche in the 1960s as they prepared to launch their iconic new 901 model. Curiously, having a Ferrari 308 was not a problem. Between 1931 and 1933 the company produced 1,676 commercial versions of the 201, aimed at small shopkeepers and other businessmen.
A wide range of body types was produced including a flatbed truck, a "bakers' van" and light vans with and without side windows behind the B-pillar. Auto passion, nbr 37, juillet 1990 Rétro hebdo, nbr 28, septembre 1997 Rétroviseur ISSN 0992-5007, nbr 58
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Peugeot Type 2
The Peugeot Type 2 is the first petrol/gasoline-powered motor vehicle produced between 1890 and 1891 by the French auto-maker Peugeot at their Valentigney plant. The car was presented just two years after Armand Peugeot had split away from the Peugeot family business in order to concentrate on cars, with a separate Peugeot Automobiles business. In 1889 Peugeot attended that year's Paris Universal Exhibition, where he was demonstrating four of his Peugeot Type 1 prototypes, which were powered by steam engines; the Type 1 received a tepid reception, Peugeot was aware of the limitations arising from the vibration profile and sheer weight of a steam engine in this type of car-sized powered vehicle. The visit to the exhibition was not wasted, however, as he came across the revolutionary invention of Gottlieb Daimler, a reciprocating combustion engine powered by petrol/gasoline; as soon as the exhibition was over Daimler arranged for his engine to be assembled in France by Panhard et Levassor of Paris and came to an agreement with Peugeot for its use in a new quadricycle.
Peugeot was able to negotiate with the widow of Edouard Sarazin. Sarazin's acquisition, before he died, of the rights to manufacture the Daimler combustion engine in France, made his widow, Louise, a key figure in the early life of the motor industry in France, which would be the world's top auto producing nation till out-produced by the United States in 1906. A year after Armand Peugeot's eventful visit top Paris, the Peugeot Type 2 appeared, to be followed by the Type 3, which events together marked the inauguration of the Peugeot automobile business; the Peugeot Type 2 was powered by a two-cylinder four stroke V-format petrol/gasoline engine, assembled under licence from Daimler. The engine was mounted underneath the seat and ahead of the rear axle to which it was linked by a chain-drive. 2 hp of power was provided from the 565 cc unit. A maximum speed of 18 km/h was recorded. Cooling being as now a challenge in a combustion engine, the Type 2's engine incorporated tubes filled with water, adumbrating the radiator that would be an essential feature of many combustion engines in the ensuing centuries.
A wheelbase of 1400mm supported a vehicle length of 2300 mm. The width and height were 1350 mm and 1450 mm. A rudimentary suspension system pointed the way ahead regarding what would become another mainstream feature of the motor car; the main Peugeot business was, at this time, expanding its bicycle production, the Type 2’s light weight may have incorporated lessons learned from cycle production. Four Type 2s were produced. Three were quadricycles, they all had space for two on the bench above the engine. Wolfgang Schmarbeck: Alle Peugeot Automobile 1890–1990. Motorbuch-Verlag. Stuttgart 1990. ISBN 3-613-01351-7. Picture
The Peugeot 202 is a supermini developed and designed by the French car manufacturer Peugeot. Production of the car ran between 1938 and 1942 and after a brief production run of 20 in early 1945, restarted in mid-1946, it was sold until 1949, by when it had been replaced by the 203. Production started in January 1938, the car was formally launched on 2 March 1938 with a dinner and presentation for the specialist press in the fashionable Bois de Boulogne district of Paris; the previous autumn, at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, Peugeot had staged a massive "referendum" among visitors to the show stand to find out what customers expected from the new small car under development. It is not clear whether there would still have been time to incorporate any of the suggestions of the public in the car as launched, but the participative nature of the exercise generated positive pre-launch publicity for the 202; the steel bodied 202 was recognisable as a Peugeot from the way that the headlights were set, as on the older 302, close together, in a protected location behind the front grille.
Most customers chose the four-door berline version which by 1948 came with a steel-panel sliding sun roof included in the price. However the boot/trunk was small and could be accessed only from within the car, there being no outside boot lid; the two-seater two-door cabriolet "décapotable" did have a separate boot lid but cost 30% more than the berline. Priced closely to the berline was a structurally similar four-door four-seater "berline découvrable", which featured a full fold away hood: this type of body would become difficult to provide using the monocoque body structure becoming mainstream and which would be a feature of the Peugeot 203. Both the Peugeot 202 and the Peugeot 203 had frontal suicide doors. Between 1947 and 1949 the manufacturer produced 3,015 timber bodied "hatch" conversions: this model cost 55% more than the berline, anticipated future Peugeot policy by using a longer chassis than that used on other 202 versions; the extensive use of timber took the company back to a technology that it had abandoned in 1931 when production of the Type 190 ended, according to the manufacturer was above all a response to shortage of sheet steel in post-war France.
There were only two models offered in France in this class offering so wide a range of body types. With the body removed, an eye catching aspect of the 202's chassis was the positioning of the battery, located below and ahead of the radiator; this arrangement, which made inspection or replacement of the battery exceptionally easy, was made possible by the "streamlined" sloping front grill, shared with the manufacturer's larger models introduced during the late 1930s, such as the Peugeot 402 and its derivative, the 302. The 202 was powered by a 1133 cc water-cooled engine giving a maximum of 30 PS at 4000 rpm and a top speed of 100 km/h. Fuel-feed came via overhead valves, at a time when the most obvious competitor, the introduced Renault Juvaquatre, was still powered by a side-valve power unit. Power was transferred to the rear wheels by means of a three-speed manual transmission featuring synchromesh on the top two ratios. Back in 1931 the 202's predecessor, the Peugeot 201, had been the first mass market volume model to feature independent front suspension.
Independent front suspension held to improve both the road holding and the ride of the car, was again incorporated on the new 202, meaning that this was a feature across the entire Peugeot range: the same claim could not be made for the range on offer from rival Renault. As on the contemporary Citroën Traction elaborate "Pilote" style wheels, featuring alternating holes and structural metal support sections round the outside of the inner hub, were replaced by simpler pressed disc wheels when, following a heroic reconstruction effort at the Sochaux plant, production could be resumed in 1946 following the war. Small improvements continued to be implemented until the point where production ended. Hydraulic brakes were a new feature for 1946. Shortly after this the dashboard was redesigned to incorporate a glove box. For 1948 the wheels were embellished with chrome plated hub caps and the car received redesigned hydraulic shock absorbers. A final fling, exhibited in October 1948 for the 1949 model year, was the Peugeot 202 "Affaires", a reduced specification version, with the heater removed and thinner tires fitted.
The 202 Affaires lost the sliding-steel-panel sunroof which by now had become a standard fitting on the regular 202 Berline. The list price was 320,000 Francs which represented a saving of more than 6% on the list price for the standard car; the bargain basement marketing may have helped clear accumulated component inventory, but the cabriolet version was delisted shortly after the October 1948 Motor Show closed: by now commentators and potential customers were focused on the Peugeot 203, formally launched in 1948, by which time it had been the subject of extensive pre-launch promotion and publicity by Peugeot for more than a year. 104,126 were built
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. In automotive design, a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one that places the engine in the front, with the rear wheels of vehicle being driven. In contrast to the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the engine is pushed back far enough that its center of mass is to the rear of the front axle; this aids in weight distribution and reduces the moment of inertia, improving the vehicle's handling. The mechanical layout of an FMR is the same as an FR car; some models of the same vehicle can be classified as either FR or FMR depending on the length of the installed engine and its centre of mass in relation to the front axle. FMR cars are characterized by a long hood and front wheels that are pushed forward to the corners of the vehicle, close to the front bumper.
Grand tourers have FMR layouts, as a rear engine would not leave much space for the rear seats. FMR should not be confused with a "front midships" location of the engine, referring to the engine being located behind the front axle centerline, in which case a car meeting the above FMR center of mass definition could be classified as a FR layout instead; the v35 Nissan Skyline / Infiniti G35 / Nissan 350Z are FM cars. FMR layout came standard in most pre–World War II, front-engine / rear-wheel-drive cars
Peugeot Type 3
The Peugeot Type 3 was an early French automobile. It was their second car with an internal combustion engine; the earliest Peugeot models from 1889 were steam-powered tricycles, built in collaboration with Léon Serpollet. In 1890, Armand Peugeot met with car technology innovators Gottlieb Daimler and Émile Levassor and became convinced that reliable, lightweight vehicles would have to be powered by petrol and have four wheels; the Type 2 was the first such model. Peugeot's one-time partner, continued with steam technology under the brand name Gardner-Serpollet until Serpollet's death in 1907; the engine was a German design by Daimler but was licensed for production in France by Panhard et Levassor and sold to Peugeot. It was a 15° V-twin and produced 2 bhp, sufficient for a top speed of 18 kilometres per hour. Armand Peugeot decided to show the quality of the Type 3 by running a demonstration model alongside the cyclists in the inaugural Paris–Brest–Paris cycle race in September 1891, thus gaining official confirmation of progress from the race marshals and time-keepers.
His chief engineer Louis Rigoulot and rising workshop foreman Auguste Doriot proved the robustness of the design, as this demonstration car ran for 2,045 kilometres, from Peugeot's factory in Valentigney to Paris, over the race course, back to Valentigney, at an average speed of 14.7 km/h, without major malfunctions. This was the longest run to that time by a petrol-powered vehicle and about four times as far as the previous record set by Léon Serpollet from Paris to Lyon; the demonstrator became the first Peugeot sold to the public. A lightened Type 3 was entered into the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race in June 1895, finishing second and maintaining an average speed of 21.7 kilometres per hour. In 1894 Costruzioni Meccaniche di Saronno of Varese, began assembling Peugeot Type 3 cars under a Peugeot license. Peugeot's A Century of Models - 1891: Type 3 quadricycle at the Wayback Machine Peugeot Car Models From 1889 - 1909 at the Wayback Machine Histomobile's Peugeot Type 3 at the Wayback Machine
Lion-Peugeot is a independent French auto-maker. It is the name under which in 1906 Robert Peugeot and his two brothers, independently of the established Peugeot car business, began to produce automobiles at Beaulieu near Valentigney. In 1910 the two family auto-makers Automobiles Peugeot and Lion-Peugeot merged to form the business Société des Automobiles et Cycles Peugeot, but the merged business continued to use the Lion-Peugeot name for smaller models inherited from the independent business until 1916. To understand why there were two Peugeot automobile businesses it is necessary to refer to a family disagreement that culminated, in 1896, in Armand Peugeot leaving the family business, called, at that stage, "Les Fils de Peugeot Frères". Eugène and Armand Peugeot, who were related to each other as second cousins, had taken over control of the successful Peugeot metal-working business specialising in certain types of industrial and domestic components and tools; the Peugeot company was an early participant in the automobile manufacturing business, their first petrol/gasoline car being produced in 1890 and gaining national publicity in 1891 through participation in the Paris–Brest–Paris cycle marathon.
Participation in the auto-business required investment on a scale that would commit the company to a major change of direction, away from products with which it had a proven track record. The company had been producing bicycles since 1882 which in the 1890s may well have been seen as a safer investment than powered motor vehicles. Eugène Peugeot opposed the necessary scale of investment in automobile making, 1896 his cousin split away, to form Automobiles Peugeot; the cousins signed an agreement that gave Armand’s business the sole right to manufacture Peugeot automobiles, the corollary of, that the residual Peugeot business, under Eugène, would stay out of the powered vehicle business. Despite the agreement between the Peugeot cousins, the residual business under Eugène Peugeot continued to produce bicycles and quadricycles, some with motors and some without. Relations with Armand evidently were not cordial. By 1905 control over the residual Peugeot business had passed to the three sons of Eugène, Robert Peugeot, Pierre Peugeot and Jules Peugeot.
Relations between the new Peugeot generation and their cousin Armand, whose "Automobiles Peugeot" business was enjoying great success, became less confrontational with Eugène no longer so active in the business. An agreement was entered into to regularise relations between the two companies; the company controlled by Eugène agreed to pay a million francs annually to Armand Peugeot, in return Armand agreed to the company manufacturing cars independently of his own "Automobiles Peugeot" business. These cars started to be sold in 1906, badged as "Lion-Peugeots": the first of them was the Lion-Peugeot Type VA. During the ensuing decade Lion-Peugeot automobiles were produced and sold in reasonable quantities with several models breaking through the 1,000 units threshold. While the Peugeot Bébé, launched in 1904 by "Peugeot-Automobiles" before the reconciliation, continued its own successful career, new model investment by the "Peugeot-Automobiles" now concentrated on mid-range and larger cars, leaving the "Lion-Peugeot" business to build a Peugeot presence in the small car sector.
This pattern was sustained during the remaining years of peace after the two businesses merged in 1910, until the termination of the "Lion-Peugeot" brand in 1916, by which time war-time economic conditions had for the time being put an end to passenger car manufacturing in France. Robert Peugeot and his brothers evidently felt none of their father's hostility to Armand, it seems to have been the death of Eugène in 1907 that opened the way for the reunification of the two Peugeot automobile businesses. Armand's own only son had died in 1896, his lack of a direct male heir may have encouraged him to respond positively to his junior kinsmens' promptings; the merger of the two businesses took place formally in 1910, although in terms of the way the model ranges came together, the merger took place progressively over several years. In 1916, demand for passenger cars having collapsed, the plant that had produced the Lion-Peugeots was closed, after the war small models again became integrated into the Peugeot range.
However, the first decade after the war saw France impoverished, it would be some years before automobile production would again become a profitable activity for Peugeot which had, prudently as matters turned out, retained a solid presence in the bicycle business. NotesHarald H. Linz, Halwart Schrader: Die große Automobil-Enzyklopädie, BLV, München 1986, ISBN 3-405-12974-5 Wolfgang Schmarbeck: Alle Peugeot Automobile 1890–1990, Motorbuch-Verlag. Stuttgart 1990. ISBN 3-613-01351-7