Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
An opinion poll, sometimes simply referred to as a poll, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions, since Jackson won the popular vote in that state and the whole country, such straw votes gradually became more popular, but they remained local, usually city-wide phenomena. In 1916, The Literary Digest embarked on a national survey, then, in 1936, its 2.3 million voters constituted a huge sample, but they were generally more affluent Americans who tended to have Republican sympathies. The Literary Digest was ignorant of this new bias, the week before election day, at the same time, George Gallup conducted a far smaller survey, in which he polled a demographically representative sample. Gallup correctly predicted Roosevelts landslide victory, the Literary Digest soon went out of business, while polling started to take off. Elmo Roper was another American pioneer in political forecasting using scientific polls and he predicted the reelection of President Franklin D.
Roosevelt three times, in 1936,1940, and 1944. Louis Harris had been in the field of opinion since 1947 when he joined the Elmo Roper firm. Looking for popular support or dissent with this question asked by appeasement politician, the Allied occupation powers helped to create survey institutes in all of the Western occupation zones of Germany in 1947 and 1948 to better steer denazification. By the 1950s, various types of polling had spread to most democracies, in long-term perspective, advertising had come under heavy pressure in the early 1930s. The Great Depression forced businesses to cut back on their advertising spending. Layoffs and reductions were common at all agencies, the New Deal furthermore aggressively promoted consumerism, and minimized the value of advertising. Historian Jackson Lears argues that By the late 1930s, George Gallup, the vice president of Young and Rubicon, and numerous other advertising experts, led the way. Moving into the 1940s, the played a leading role in the ideological mobilization of the American people for fighting the Nazis.
As part of effort, they redefined the American Way of Life in terms of a commitment to free enterprise. Advertisers, Lears concludes, played a crucial role in creating the consumer culture that dominated post-World War II American society. Opinion polls for many years were maintained through telecommunications or in person-to-person contact and techniques vary, though they are widely accepted in most areas. Over the years, technological innovations have influenced survey methods such as the availability of electronic clipboards, verbal and processed types can be conducted efficiently, contrasted with other types of surveys and complicated matrices beyond previous orthodox procedures. Opinion polling developed into popular applications through popular thought, although rates for some surveys declined
While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. Regardless of the field of study or preference for defining data, both the selection of appropriate data collection instruments and clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce the likelihood of errors occurring. A formal data collection process is necessary as it ensures that the data gathered are both defined and accurate and that subsequent decisions based on arguments embodied in the findings are valid. The process provides both a baseline from which to measure and in certain cases a target on what to improve, generally there are three types of data collection and they are,1. Surveys, Standardized paper-and-pencil or phone questionnaires that ask predetermined questions, Structured or unstructured one-on-one directed conversations with key individuals or leaders in a community. Consequences from improperly collected data include, Inability to answer questions accurately, Inability to repeat.
Distorted findings result in wasted resources and can mislead other researchers to pursue fruitless avenues of investigation and this compromises decisions for public policy. Bureau of Statistics, Guyana by Arun Sooknarine
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are designed for statistical analysis of the responses. The questionnaire was invented by the Statistical Society of London in 1838, a copy of the instrument is published in the Journal of the Statistical Society, Volume 1, Issue 1,1838, pages 5–13. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users, questionnaires are sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Thus, for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be concrete, a distinction can be made between questionnaires with questions that measure separate variables, and questionnaires with questions that are aggregated into either a scale or index. Examples of usages include assessment of intake of vitamins or toxins such as acrylamide, usually, a questionnaire consists of a number of questions that the respondent has to answer in a set format. A distinction is made between open-ended and closed-ended questions, an open-ended question asks the respondent to formulate his own answer, whereas a closed-ended question has the respondent pick an answer from a given number of options.
The response options for a closed-ended question should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive, an example of an open-ended question is a question where the testie has to complete a sentence. In general, questions should flow logically from one to the next, there typically is a flow that should be followed when constructing a questionnaire in regards to the order that the questions are asked. The order is as follows, Screens Warm-ups Transitions Skips Difficult Classification Screens are used as a method to find out early whether or not someone should complete the questionnaire. Warm-ups are simple to answer, help capture interest in the survey, transition questions are used to make different areas flow well together. Skips include questions similar to If yes, answer question 3, If no, continue to question 5. Difficult questions are towards the end because the respondent is in response mode, when completing an online questionnaire, the progress bars lets the respondent know that they are almost done so they are more willing to answer more difficult questions.
Classification, or demographic question should be at the end because typically they can feel like personal questions which will make respondents uncomfortable, Use statements which are interpreted in the same way by members of different subpopulations of the population of interest. Use statements where persons that have different opinions or traits will give different answers, think of having an open answer category after a list of possible answers. Use only one aspect of the construct you are interested in per item, Use positive statements and avoid negatives or double negatives. Do not make assumptions about the respondent, Use clear and comprehensible wording, easily understandable for all educational levels Use correct spelling and punctuation. Avoid items that contain more than one question per item, question should not be biased or even leading the participant towards an answer
International Social Survey Programme
The International Social Survey Programme is a collaboration between different nations conducting surveys covering topics which are useful for social science research. The ISSP researchers develop questions which are meaningful and relevant to all countries which can be expressed in a manner in different languages. The results of the surveys provide a cross-national and cross-cultural perspective to individual national studies, through 201558 countries have participated in the ISSP. The ISSP was founded in 1984 by research organizations from four countries, Zentrum für Umfragen, und Analysen, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, Illinois, United States. Social and Community Planning Research, United Kingdom, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Australia. ACSPRI Centre for Social Research, Australian National University, Institute of Sociology, University of Graz. The Administration of Planning and Statistics of the Ministry of Flanders, walloon Institute of Assessment and Statistics.
Department of Sociology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro. School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University, Center of Applied Research, Cyprus College. Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, dept. of Economics and Public Administration, Aalborg University. Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, University of Tampere, Centre for the Informationisation of Socio-Political Data. Quantitative Sociology Laboratory, National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies, Centre for the Study of Social Change. GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences The Social Research Informatics Center, Social Science Research Centre, University College Dublin. The B. I. and Lucille Cohen Institute for Public Opinion Research, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, University of Latvia. The Institute of Marketing and Opinion, Faculty of Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit. Institute for Social Studies, University of Warsaw, instituto de Ciências Sociais, University of Lisbon.
The Institute for Sociology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Public Opinion and Mass Communication Research Centre, University of Ljubljana. Department of Sociology, University of Umeå, swiss Information and Data Archive for the Social Sciences
Since Indias Independence in 1947, the South Asian nation has faced multiple social and economic issues. The population of India is an estimated 1.34 billion, though India ranks second in population, it ranks 33 in population density. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, had implemented a forced sterilisation programme in the early 1970s and this programme is still remembered and regretted in India, and is blamed for creating a public aversion to family planning, which hampered Government programmes for decades. One of the reasons the population has increased is that a dip in the rate of infant mortality has not been accompanied by a fall in the birth rate. In 2012, the Indian government stated 21. 9% of its population is below its official poverty limit. The World Bank, in 2011 based on 2005s PPPs International Comparison Program, estimated 23. 6% of Indian population, or about 276 million people, official figures estimate that 27. 5% of Indians lived below the national poverty line in 2004–2005.
Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India in 1971 election campaign gave the slogan garibi hatao desh bachavo, statistics conducted by UNICEF have shown that only 90% of India’s population is able to utilise proper sanitation facilities as of 2008. It is estimated one in every ten deaths in India is linked to poor sanitation. Diarrhea is the single largest killer and accounts for one in every twenty deaths, around 450,000 deaths were linked to diarrhea alone in 2006, of which 88% were deaths of children below five. Studies by UNICEF have shown that diseases resulting from poor sanitation affects children in their cognitive development, people without access to proper sanitation facilities more-often-than-not defecate in public or in rivers. One gram of faeces could potentially contain 10 million viruses, one million bacteria,1000 parasite cysts and 100 worm eggs, the Ganga river in India has a stunning 1.1 million litres of raw sewage being disposed into it every minute. The high level of contamination of the river by human waste allow diseases like cholera to spread easily, resulting in many deaths, a lack of adequate sanitation leads to significant economic losses for the country.
Recognising the importance of sanitation, the Government of India started the Central Rural Sanitation Program in 1986. This program was reviewed and, in 1999, the Total Sanitation Campaign was launched. Programmes such as Individual Household Latrines, School Sanitation and Hygiene Education, Community Sanitary Complex and this would allow the government to reallocate their resources to other aspects of development. Thus, the government set the objective of granting access to toilets to all by 2017, to meet this objective, incentives are given out to encourage participation from the rural population to construct their own sanitation amenities. In addition, the government has set out to educate its people on the importance and benefits of proper sanitation through mass communication and interpersonal communication techniques. This is done through mass and print media to reach out to an audience and through group discussions and games to better engage