Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bordeaux
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bordeaux is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The episcopal seat is located in Aquitaine, it was established under the Concordat of 1802 by combining the ancient Diocese of Bordeaux with the greater part of the abolished Diocese of Bazas. The metropolitan diocese has a senior position to four suffragan dioceses in the archdiocese: Agen; the metropolitan diocese itself comprises Aquitaine. Constituted by the same Concordat metropolitan to the suffragan Bishoprics of Angoulême, Poitiers and La Rochelle, the see of Bordeaux received in 1822, as additional suffragans, those of Agen, withdrawn from the metropolitan of Toulouse, the newly re-established Périgueux and Luçon. In 1850 were added the three Bishoprics of Fort-de-France and Basse-Terre, Saint-Denis de la Réunion detached. Since 2002 the province of Bordeaux has been modified following the abolition of the province of Auch and the creation of that of Poitiers. According to old Limousin legends which date back to the beginning of the eleventh century, Bordeaux was evangelized in the first century by St. Martial, who replaced a temple to the unknown god, which he destroyed, with one dedicated to St. Stephen.
The same legends represent St. Martial as having brought to the Soulac coast St. Veronica, still venerated in the church of Notre-Dame de Fin des Terres at Soulac; the first Bishop of Bordeaux known to history, Orientalis, is mentioned at the Council of Arles. By the close of the fourth century Christianity had made such progress in Bordeaux that a synod was held there, summoned by the Emperor Maximus, for the purpose of adopting measures against the Priscillianists, whose heresy had caused popular disturbances; this was during the episcopate of Delphinus of Bordeaux, who attended the Councils of Saragossa in 380, maintained correspondence with St. Ambrose and with St. Paulinus of Nola. At the beginning of the 5th century a mysterious figure, who according to St. Gregory of Tours came from the East, appeared in Bordeaux: Severinus, in whose favour Bishop Amand abdicated the see from 410 to 420, resuming it after Seurin's death and occupying it until 432. In the sixth century Bordeaux had an illustrious bishop in the person of Leontius II, a man of great influence who used his wealth in building churches and clearing lands and whom the poet Fortunatus calls patriae caput.
During this Merovingian period the cathedral church, founded in the fourth century, occupied the same site that it does today, tight against the ramparts of the ancient city. The Faubourg Saint-Seurin outside the city was a great centre of popular devotion, with its three large basilicas of St Stephen, St Seurin, St Martin surrounding a large necropolis from which a certain number of sarcophagi are still preserved; the cemetery of St Seurin was full of tombs of the Merovingian period around which the popular imagination was to create legends. In the high noon of the Middle Ages it used to be told how Christ had consecrated this cemetery and that Charlemagne, having fought the Saracens near Bordeaux, had visited it and laid Roland's wonderful horn Olivant/Oliphant on the altar of Saint Seurin. Dessus l'autel de Saint Seurin le baron, Il met l'oliphant plein d'or et de mangonstranslation: On the altar of Saint Seurin the baron, it put the oliphant full of gold and of gold coins Song of Roland Many tombs passed for those of Charlemagne's gallant knights and others were honored as the resting-places of Veronica and Benedicta.
At the other extremity of the city, Benedictines drained and filled in the marshes of L'Eau-Bourde and founded there the monastery of Sainte-Croix. While thus surrounded by evidence of Christian conquest, the academic Bordeaux of the Merovingian period continued to cherish the memory of its former school of eloquence, whose chief glories had been the poet Ausonius and St Paulinus, a rhetorician at Bordeaux and died Bishop of Nola. During the whole 8th century and part of the 9th, no bishops are mentioned for Bordeaux among Vatican and local records. Frotharius was archbishop in 870. In the late tenth century, ecclesiastical power was once again concentrated in the hands of the archbishop of Bordeaux when Gombald, brother of William II of Gascony and bishop of all the Gascon sees became archbishop. In 1027 the duke of Gascony, Sancho VI, the duke of Aquitaine, William V, joined together to select Geoffrey II, an Aquitanian Frank, as archbishop; this represented a new ecumenical rôle for the archbishop spanning both regions.
The reigns of William VIII and William IX, were noted for the splendid development of Romanesque architecture in Bordeaux. Parts of the churches of Sainte-Croix and Saint-Seurin belong to that time, the Cathedral of Saint-André was begun in 1096. In the Middle Ages, a struggle between the metropolitan sees of Bordeaux and Bourges was brought about by the claims of the
Hundred Years' War (1415–53)
The Lancastrian War was the third and final phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War. It lasted from 1415, when King Henry V of England invaded Normandy, to 1453, when the English lost Bordeaux, it followed a long period of peace from the end of the Caroline War in 1389. The phase was named after the House of Lancaster, the ruling house of the Kingdom of England, to which Henry V belonged; the first half of this phase of the war was dominated by the Kingdom of England. Initial English successes, notably at the famous Battle of Agincourt, coupled with divisions among the French ruling class, allowed the English to gain control of large parts of France. In 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed, by which the English king married the French princess Catherine and was made regent of the kingdom and heir to the throne of France. A victory on paper was thus achieved with their claims now having legal standing; some of the French nobility refused to recognize the agreement, so military subjugation was still necessary to enforce its provisions.
King Henry V and, after his death, his brother John, Duke of Bedford, brought the English to the height of their power in France, with an English king crowned in Paris. The second half of this phase of the war was dominated by the Kingdom of France. With charismatic leaders such as Joan of Arc and La Hire, with England losing its main allies, the French forces counterattacked. Charles VII of France was crowned in Notre-Dame de Reims in 1429, from a slow but steady reconquest of English-held French territories ensued; the English would be expelled from France and lose all of their continental territories, except the Pale of Calais. The Battle of Castillon was the final action of the Hundred Years' War, but France and England remained formally at war until the Treaty of Picquigny in 1475. English, British monarchs would continue to nominally claim the French throne until 1801, though they would never again pursue it. Henry V of England asserted a claim of inheritance through the female line, with female agency and inheritance recognized in English law but prohibited in France by the Salic law of the Salian Franks.
He thus would succeed to the claim of his great-grandfather, Edward III of England, through his mother, to the French throne - the claim that the court of France rejected in favour of a more distant but male-line successor, Philip VI. On his accession in 1413, Henry V pacified the realm by conciliating the remaining enemies of the House of Lancaster, suppressing the heresy of the Lollards. In 1415, Henry V invaded captured Harfleur. Decimated by diseases, Henry's army marched to Calais to withdraw from the French campaign. French forces harassed the English, but refrained from making an open battle while amassing their numbers; the French gave battle at Agincourt, which proved to be the third great English victory of the Hundred Years War, an overwhelming disaster for the French. The Armagnac and Burgundian factions of the French court began negotiations to unite against the foreign enemy. Notable leaders of the Armagnac faction, such as Charles, Duke of Orléans, John I, Duke of Bourbon, Arthur de Richemont, became prisoners in England.
The Burgundians, under John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, had conserved their forces, not having fought at Agincourt, but the duke's younger brothers—Anthony, Duke of Brabant and Philip II, Count of Nevers—died at that battle. At a meeting between the Dauphin Charles and John the Fearless, the Duke of Burgundy was assassinated by the Dauphin's followers, forcing the duke's son and successor into an alliance with the English. Henry V made a formal alliance with Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, who had taken Paris, after the Armagnac assassination of John of Burgundy in 1419, they forced the mad king Charles VI to sign the Treaty of Troyes, by which Henry would marry Charles' daughter Catherine of Valois and Henry and his heirs would inherit the throne of France, disinheriting the Dauphin Charles. Henry formally entered Paris that year and the agreement was ratified by the French Estates-General. Earlier that year an English army under the command of the Earl of Salisbury and destroyed a Franco-Scottish force at Fresnay 20 miles north of Le Mans.
According to a chronicler, the allies lost 3000 men, their camp and its contents including the Scottish treasury. In 1421, an English army of 10,000 was defeated by a Franco-Scottish army of 6000 at the Battle of Baugé. During the battle Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, brother of Henry V, was killed. On his deathbed, Henry V detailed his plans for the war after his death. Henry bade his followers to continue the war until the Treaty of Troyes had been recognized in all of France. There would be no treaty with the Dauphin unless Normandy would be confirmed as an English possession. Bedford adhered to his brother's will, the Burgundian alliance was preserved as long as he lived. After Henry's early death in 1422 simultaneously with that of his father-in-law, his baby son was crowned King Henry VI of England and II of France; the Armagnacs remained loyal to Charles VI's son, the dauphin Charles. The war thus continued in central France. In 1423, the Earl of Salisbury defeated another Franco-Scottish force at Cravant on the banks of the Yonne river.
He led the crossing of the river assaulting a strong enemy position, a
France in the Middle Ages
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia. Up to the 12th century, the period saw the elaboration and extension of the seigneurial economic system. From the 13th century on, the state regained control of a number of these lost powers; the crises of the 13th and 14th centuries led to the convening of an advisory assembly, the Estates General, to an effective end to serfdom. From the 12th and 13th centuries on, France was at the center of a vibrant cultural production that extended across much of western Europe, including the transition from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture and Gothic art. From the Middle Ages onward, French rulers believed their kingdoms had natural borders: the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhine; this was used as a pretext for repeated invasions. The belief, had little basis in reality for not all of these territories were part of the Kingdom and the authority of the King within his kingdom would be quite fluctuant.
The lands that composed the Kingdom of France showed great geographical diversity. While there were great differences between the northern and southern parts of the kingdom there were important differences depending on the distance of mountains: the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Massif Central. France had important rivers that were used as waterways: the Loire, the Rhone, the Seine as well as the Garonne; these rivers were settled earlier than the rest and important cities were founded on their banks but they were separated by large forests and other rough terrains. Before the Romans conquered Gaul, the Gauls lived in villages organised in wider tribes; the Romans referred to the smallest of these groups as the widest ones as civitates. These pagi and civitates were taken as a basis for the imperial administration and would survive up to the middle-ages when their capitals became centres of bishoprics; these religious provinces would survive until the French revolution. During the Roman Empire, southern Gaul was more populated and because of this more episcopal sees were present there at first while in northern France they shrank in size because of the barbarian invasions and became fortified to resist the invaders.
Discussion of the size of France in the Middle Ages is complicated by distinctions between lands held by the king and lands held in homage by another lord. The notion of res publica inherited from the Roman province of Gaul was not maintained by the Frankish kingdom and the Carolingian Empire, by the early years of the Direct Capetians, the French kingdom was more or less a fiction; the "domaine royal" of the Capetians was limited to the regions around Paris and Sens. The great majority of French territory was part of Aquitaine, the Duchy of Normandy, the Duchy of Brittany, the Comté of Champagne, the Duchy of Burgundy, the County of Flanders and other territories. In principle, the lords of these lands owed homage to the French king for their possession, but in reality the king in Paris had little control over these lands, this was to be confounded by the uniting of Normandy and England under the Plantagenet dynasty in the 12th century. Philip II Augustus undertook a massive French expansion in the 13th century, but most of these acquisitions were lost both by the royal system of "apanage" and through losses in the Hundred Years' War.
Only in the 15th century would Charles VII and Louis XI gain control of most of modern-day France. The weather in France and Europe in the Middle Ages was milder than during the periods precedin
Bouliac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean at Bordeaux; the name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the Aquitanian name meaning "stony river". The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret, the Ratera-Saboredo cirque 42°36′26″N 0°57′56″E), or the slopes of Pic Aneto; the Uelh deth Garona at 1,862 metres above sea level has been traditionally considered as the source of the Garonne. From this point a brook runs for 2.5 kilometres until the bed of the main upper Garonne valley. The river runs for another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont de Rei, 40.5 kilometres in total. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the head of the upper Garonne valley, its upper lake at 2,600 metres above sea level is the origin of the Ruda-Garona river, running for 16 kilometres until the confluence with the Beret-Garona brook, another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont del Rei, 54 kilometres in total.
At the confluence, the Ruda-Garona carries 2.6 cubic metres per second of water. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque has been pointed by many researchers as the origin of the Garonne; the third thesis holds that the river rises on the slopes of Pic Aneto at 2,300 metres above sea level and flows by way of a sinkhole known as the Forau de Aigualluts through the limestone of the Tuca Blanca de Pomèro and a resurgence in the Val dera Artiga above the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees. This underground route was suggested by the geologist Ramond de Carbonnières in 1787, but there was no confirmation until 1931, when caver Norbert Casteret poured fluorescein dye into the flow and noted its emergence a few hours 4 kilometres away at Uelhs deth Joèu in the Artiga de Lin on the other side of the mountain. From Aigualluts to the confluence with the main river at the bed of the upper Garonne valley at 800 metres above sea level, the Joèu has run for 12.4 kilometres, carrying 2.16 cubic metres per second of water, while the main river is carrying 17.7 cubic metres per second.
Despite the lack of universal agreement upon definition for determining a stream's source, the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution agree that a stream's source should be considered as the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the "most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs", the source of the Garonne, according to the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution convention upon determining a stream's source; the Garonne follows the Aran Valley northwards into France, flowing via Toulouse and Agen towards Bordeaux, where it meets the Gironde estuary. The Gironde flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Along its course, the Garonne is joined by three other major rivers: the Ariège, the Tarn, the Lot. Just after Bordeaux, the Garonne meets the Dordogne at the Bec d'Ambès, forming the Gironde estuary, which after 100 kilometres empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
Other tributaries include the Gers. The Garonne is one of the few rivers in the world. Surfers and jet skiers could ride the tidal bore at least as far as the village of Cambes, 120 kilometres or 75 miles from the Atlantic, further upstream to Cadillac, although the tidal bore appears and disappears in response to changes in the channel bathymetry. In 2010 and 2012, some detailed field studies were conducted in the Garonne's Arcins channel between Arcins Island and the right bank close to Lastrene township. A striking feature of the field data sets was the large and rapid fluctuations in turbulent velocities and turbulent stresses during the tidal bore and flood flow; the European sea sturgeon known as the Atlantic sturgeon or common sturgeon, is now a Critically Endangered species status. This species of sturgeon that can reach a length of 6 m and weigh 400 kg and can reach an age of 100 year Previously found on most coasts of Europe, it has now become so rare that they ONLY breed in the Garonne river basin in France.
Conservation projects are under way to save this fish from extinction with species reintroduction from aquaculture with the first releases being made in 1995. Aran Valley: Vielha, Bossòst Haute-Garonne: Saint-Gaudens, Toulouse Tarn-et-Garonne: Castelsarrasin Lot-et-Garonne: Agen, Aiguillon Gironde: Langon, Bordeaux Following the flow of the river: The Garonne plays an important role in inland shipping; the river not only allows seagoing vessels to reach the port of Bordeaux but forms part of the Canal des Deux Mers, linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. From the ocean, ships pass through the Gironde estuary up to the mouth of the Garonne. Ships continue on the tidal river Garonne up to the Pont de Pierre in Bordeaux. Inland vessels continue upstream to Castets-en-Dor
The Western Schism called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 three, men claimed to be the true pope, having excommunicated one another. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance. For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office; the affair is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, although this term is reserved for the more enduring East–West Schism of 1054 between the Western Churches answering to the See of Rome and the Orthodox Churches of the East. The schism in the Western Roman Church resulted from the return of the papacy to Rome under Gregory XI on January 17, 1377, ending the Avignon Papacy, which had developed a reputation for corruption that estranged major parts of Western Christendom; this reputation can be attributed to perceptions of predominant French influence and to the papal curia's efforts to extend its powers of patronage and increase its revenues.
After Pope Gregory XI died in 1378, the Romans rioted to ensure the election of a Roman for pope. On April 8, 1378 the cardinals elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidate presented himself. Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, the Archbishop of Bari, was elected. Urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious and prone to violent outbursts of temper. Many of the cardinals who had elected him soon regretted their decision: the majority removed themselves from Rome to Anagni, where though Urban was still reigning, they elected Robert of Geneva as a rival pope on September 20 of the same year. Robert reestablished a papal court in Avignon; the second election threw the Church into turmoil. There had been rival antipope claimants to the papacy before, but most of them had been appointed by various rival factions; the conflicts escalated from a church problem to a diplomatic crisis that divided Europe. Secular leaders had to choose which claimant they would recognize: Avignon: France, Castile and León, Burgundy, Naples and Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion in Wales recognized the Avignon claimant.
In the Iberian Peninsula there were the Fernandine Wars and the 1383–1385 Crisis in Portugal, during which dynastic opponents supported rival claimants to the papal office. Sustained by such national and factional rivalries throughout Catholic Christianity, the schism continued after the deaths of both the Pope and the initial antipope claimant; when Pope Boniface died in 1404, the eight cardinals of the Roman conclave offered to refrain from electing a new pope if Benedict would resign. In the intense partisanship, characteristic of the Middle Ages, the schism engendered a fanatical hatred noted by Johan Huizinga: when the town of Bruges went over to the "obedience" of Avignon, a great number of people left to follow their trade in a city of Urbanist allegiance. Efforts were made to end the Schism through diplomacy; the French crown tried to coerce antipope Benedict XIII, whom it nominally supported, into resigning. None of these remedies worked; the suggestion that a church council should resolve the Schism, first made in 1378, was not adopted at first because canon law required that a pope call a council.
Theologians like Pierre d'Ailly and Jean Gerson, as well as canon lawyers like Francesco Zabarella, adopted arguments that equity permitted the Church to act for its own welfare in defiance of the letter of the law. The cardinals of both factions secured an agreement that Benedict and Pope Gregory XII would meet at Savona, they balked at the last moment, both groups of cardinals abandoned their preferred leaders. A church council was held at Pisa in 1409 under the auspices of the cardinals to try solving the dispute. At the fifteenth session, 5 June 1409, the Council of Pisa attempted to depose both Pope and antipope as schismatical, heretical and scandalous, but it added to the problem by electing a second antipope, Alexander V, he reigned from June 26, 1409, to his death in 1410, when he was succeeded by antipope John XXIII, who won some but not universal support. A council was convened by Pisan antipope John XXIII in 1414 at Constance to resolve the issue; this was endorsed by Pope Gregory XII.
The council, advised by the theologian Jean Gerson, secured the resignations of John XXIII and Pope Gregory XII, who resigned in 1415, while excommunicating the second antipope, Benedict XIII, who refused to step down. The Council elected Pope Martin V in 1417 ending the schism. Nonetheless, the Crown of Aragon did not recognize Pope Martin V and continued to recognize Benedict XIII. Archbishops loyal to Benedict XIII subsequently elected Antipope Benedict XIV (Bernard G
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. A person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion; the first persons honored as saints were the martyrs. Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ; the Roman Rite's Canon of the Mass contains only the names of martyrs, along with that of the Blessed Virgin Mary and, since 1962, that of St. Joseph her spouse. By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly. Examples of such people are Saint Hilarion and Saint Ephrem the Syrian in the East, Saint Martin of Tours and Saint Hilary of Poitiers in the West.
Their names were inserted in the diptychs, the lists of saints explicitly venerated in the liturgy, their tombs were honoured in like manner as those of the martyrs. Since the witness of their lives was not as unequivocal as that of the martyrs, they were venerated publicly only with the approval by the local bishop; this process is referred to as "local canonization". This approval was required for veneration of a reputed martyr. In his history of the Donatist heresy, Saint Optatus recounts that at Carthage a Catholic matron, named Lucilla, incurred the censures of the Church for having kissed the relics of a reputed martyr whose claims to martyrdom had not been juridically proved, and Saint Cyprian recommended that the utmost diligence be observed in investigating the claims of those who were said to have died for the faith. All the circumstances accompanying the martyrdom were to be inquired into. Evidence was sought from the court records of the trials or from people, present at the trials.
Saint Augustine of Hippo tells of the procedure, followed in his day for the recognition of a martyr. The bishop of the diocese in which the martyrdom took place set up a canonical process for conducting the inquiry with the utmost severity; the acts of the process were sent either to the metropolitan or primate, who examined the cause, after consultation with the suffragan bishops, declared whether the deceased was worthy of the name of'martyr' and public veneration. Acts of formal recognition, such as the erection of an altar over the saint's tomb or transferring the saint's relics to a church, were preceded by formal inquiries into the sanctity of the person's life and the miracles attributed to that person's intercession; such acts of recognition of a saint were authoritative, in the strict sense, only for the diocese or ecclesiastical province for which they were issued, but with the spread of the fame of a saint, were accepted elsewhere also. The Church of England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, canonized Charles I as a saint, in the Convocations of Canterbury and York of 1660.
In the Roman Catholic Church, both Latin and constituent Eastern churches, the act of canonization is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonization lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that they are worthy to be recognized as a saint. The Church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that they may be publicly invoked and mentioned in the liturgy of the Church, including in the Litany of the Saints. In the Roman Catholic Church, canonization is a decree that allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite. For permission to venerate locally, only beatification is needed. For several centuries the Bishops, or in some places only the Primates and Patriarchs, could grant martyrs and confessors public ecclesiastical honor. Only acceptance of the cultus by the Pope made the cultus universal, because he alone can rule the universal Catholic Church.
Abuses, crept into this discipline, due as well to indiscretions of popular fervor as to the negligence of some bishops in inquiring into the lives of those whom they permitted to be honoured as saints. In the Medieval West, the Apostolic See was asked to intervene in the question of canonizations so as to ensure more authoritative decisions; the canonization of Saint Udalric, Bishop of Augsburg by Pope John XV in 993 was the first undoubted example of Papal canonization of a saint from outside of Rome. Thereafter, recourse to the judgment of the Pope was had more frequently. Toward the end of the eleventh century the Popes judged it necessary to restrict episcopal authority regarding canonization, therefore decreed that the virtues and miracles of persons proposed for public veneration should be examined in councils, more in general councils. Pope Urban II, Pope Calixtus II, Pope Eugene III conformed to this discipline. Hugh de Boves, Archbishop of Rouen, canonized Walter of Pontoise, or St. Gaultier, in 1153, the final saint in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: "The last case of canonization by a metropolitan is said to have been that of St. Gaultier, or Gaucher, bbot of Pontoise, by the Archbishop of Rouen.
A decree of