South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada that flows through the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. For the first half of the 20th century, the South Saskatchewan would freeze over during winter, creating spectacular ice breaks and dangerous conditions in Saskatoon, Medicine Hat and elsewhere. At least one bridge in Saskatoon was destroyed by ice carried by the river; the construction of the Gardiner Dam in the 1960s, lessened the power of the river by diverting a substantial portion of the South Saskatchewan's natural flow into the Qu'Appelle River. By the 1980s many permanent sandbars had formed due to the lowering of the level of the river. From the headwaters of the Bow River, the South Saskatchewan flows for 1,392 kilometres. At its mouth at Saskatchewan River Forks, it has an average discharge of 280 cubic metres per second and has a watershed of 146,100 square kilometres, 1,800 of which are in Montana in the United States and 144,300 square kilometres in Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The river originates at the confluence of the Bow and Oldman Rivers near Alberta. The waters of these two rivers, in turn, originate from winter snowpack and rainfall in the Rocky Mountains near the British Columbia and Montana border. Glacier melt contributes about 2% of the annual flow, with most of that contribution during July and August; the Red Deer River is a major tributary of the South Saskatchewan merging 16 kilometres east of the Alberta-Saskatchewan border. The Lake Diefenbaker reservoir was created with the construction of the Gardiner and Qu'Appelle River dams in Saskatchewan. Water from the South Saskatchewan flowing through the dams provides 19 percent of the hydro-electricity generated by SaskPower. Downstream from the dam the river flows north through Saskatoon and joins the North Saskatchewan River east of Prince Albert at the Saskatchewan River Forks — thus forming the Saskatchewan River. For 60 kilometres near Saskatoon, the Meewasin Valley Authority is responsible for conservation of the river environment.
Numerous lakes in the Saskatoon area were formed by oxbows of the South Saskatchewan River, most notably Moon Lake and Pike Lake. A 2009 report, produced by WWF-Canada which analysed the river flow on 10 major Canadian rivers reported that the South Saskatchewan River was the most at risk. Climate change and urban infrastructure water use, dams producing hydroelectricity, have all combined to reduce the flow of the South Saskatchewan River by 70 percent. Developers and governments have been cautioned to protect and restore the river with sustainable projects and limit water diversion. Dickson Dam regulates water supply downstream on the Red Deer River. Mary Headworks System manage water flow downstream of the Oldman River; the proposed Meridian dam 30 kilometres west of Leader and 95 kilometres north east of Medicine Hat was cancelled due to project costs outweighing the irrigation benefits. Bow River Oldman River Seven Persons Creek Red Deer River Teepee Creek Landing Creek Smith Creek Valentine Creek Pine Lake Creek Brightwater Creek Beaver Creek Fish Creek Swift Current Creek Partial list McLean Island Wilson Island Yorath Island Sections of the riverbank along the South Saskatchewan River are prone to slumping.
Since its founding, the city of Saskatoon has dealt with a number of slope failures. Controlling riverbank development was a factor in establishing the Meewasin Valley Authority in 1979. Fish species include walleye, yellow perch, northern pike, lake trout, rainbow trout, lake whitefish, lake sturgeon, quillback, longnose sucker, white sucker and shorthead redhorse. List of crossings of the South Saskatchewan River List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of Saskatchewan Partners for the Saskatchewan River Basin Fish Species of Saskatchewan South Saskatchewan River – Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
The Brazeau River is a river in western Alberta, Canada. It is a major tributary of the North Saskatchewan River; the river was named for a linguist associated with the Palliser Expedition. The river originates in the heights of the Canadian Rockies from Brazeau Lake and flows east through the Rocky Mountains foothills until it merges into the North Saskatchewan River between Drayton Valley and Rocky Mountain House at Brazeau Forks; the upper course runs eastwards from Jasper National Park into Brazeau Canyon Wildland Provincial Park. The O'Chiese First Nation is established at the confluence with Nordegg River; the total length of the river is 210 kilometres. The river, various other local geographic features, were named after Joseph Brazeau, a Missouri-born fur trader working for the Hudson's Bay Company in the area between 1852 and 1864; the Brazeau River has long been seen as a potential site for hydroelectric power generation. The earliest scheme to harness the power of the river was hatched in 1913 and involved a dam and storage on Brazeau Lake.
The potential power generation was estimated at 5,000 to 10,000 kVA, power would have been transmitted to Edmonton and Calgary, both 400 kilometres from the generator. The plan was scuttled after the discovery of a large underflow at Brazeau Lake, precluding its use as a storage facility; the 99 square kilometres Brazeau Reservoir was created on the lower course through the construction of the Brazeau Dam. Its hydroelectric power plant is Alberta's largest with a capacity of 355 MW and an annual production of about 394,000 MW⋅h of electrical energy. An unusual feature of this hydroelectric development commissioned in 1965 is a pump system capable of lifting water from the reservoir into the 20-kilometre long canal leading to the power plant so that it can operate at low reservoir water levels. Boulder Creek Four Point Creek Brazeau Lake John-John Creek Upper Longview Lake Job Creek Whisker Creek, Whisker Lakes, Job Lake, Leah Lake, Samson Lake Isaac Creek Race Creek Southesk River Southesk Lake Thistle Creek Chimney Creek Marshybank Creek Marshybank Lake Canyon Creek Moosehound Creek Cardinal River Blackstone River Elk River Nordegg River Geography of Alberta List of Alberta rivers
Elbow Falls is a small set of waterfalls along the Elbow River, west of the hamlet of Bragg Creek within Kananaskis Improvement District, Alberta. They are located along Highway 66, 20 km west of the Bragg Creek turnoff on Highway 22. In the dry season, the falls reach a height of 6 meters, while in June, during high discharges, the river fills up and the waterfall is only 3 m high. A day use area is maintained at the falls site, serves as the start/finish of a short 1 km long hiking trail. Overnight camping is available at several nearby campgrounds. After the 2013 Alberta floods, the day use area was destroyed; the Elbow River overflowed its banks and destroyed all of the picnicking area and most of the paved trails. The riverbed itself suffered major destruction, now being replaced by mounds of rock, rather than soil and trees. Elbow River Valley Map Alberta Parks Elbow Falls Provincial Recreation Area Elbow Falls High Spring Flow Hd Video
Athabasca Falls is a waterfall in Jasper National Park on the upper Athabasca River 30 kilometres south of the townsite of Jasper, Alberta and just west of the Icefields Parkway. A powerful, picturesque waterfall, Athabasca Falls is not known so much for the height of the falls, as it is known for its force due to the large quantity of water falling into the gorge. On a cold morning in the fall, when river levels tend to be at their lowest, copious amounts of water flow over the falls; the river'falls' over a layer of hard quartzite and through the softer limestone below carving the short gorge and a number of potholes. The falls can be safely viewed and photographed from various viewing platforms and walking trails around the falls. Access is from the nearby parking lot. Highway 93A takes off from the nearby Icefields Parkway, crosses the falls on the way north to the town of Jasper. White water rafting starts below the falls to travel downstream on the Athabasca River to Jasper, it is a width of 60 ft. Explore Jasper.
The Peace River is a 1,923-kilometre-long river in Canada that originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows to the northeast through northern Alberta. The Peace River joins the Athabasca River in the Peace-Athabasca Delta to form the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River; the Finlay River, the main headwater of the Peace River, is regarded as the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. The combined Finlay–Peace–Slave–Mackenzie river system is the 13th longest river system in the world; the regions along the river are the traditional home of the Danezaa people, called the Beaver by the Europeans. The fur trader Peter Pond is believed to have visited the river in 1785. In 1788 Charles Boyer of the North West Company established a fur trading post at the river's junction with the Boyer River. In 1792 and 1793, the explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled up the river to the Continental Divide. Mackenzie referred to the river as Unjegah, from a native word meaning "large river".
The decades of hostilities between the Danezaa and the Cree, ended in 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the Cree. The Treaty of the Peace was celebrated by the smoking of a ceremonial pipe; the treaty made the Peace River a border, with the Danezaa to the Cree to the South. In 1794, a fur trading post was built on the Peace River at Fort St. John; the rich soils of the Peace River valley in Alberta have been producing wheat crops since the late 19th century. The Peace River region is an important centre of oil and natural gas production. There are pulp and paper plants along the river in Alberta and British Columbia; the Peace River has two navigable sections, separated by the Vermilion Chutes, near Fort Vermilion. The first steam-powered vessel to navigate the Peace River was the Grahame, a Hudson's Bay Company vessel built at Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. Brothers of the Oblate Order of Mary Immaculate built the St. Charles to navigate the upper reaches of the River, from Fort Vermilion to Hudson's Hope.
A dozen vessels were to navigate the river. Most of the early vessels were wood-burning steamships, fueled by wood cut from the river's shore; the last cargo vessel was the Watson's Lake, retired in 1952. This river is 1,923 kilometres long, it drains an area of 302,500 square kilometres. At Peace Point, where it drains in the Slave River, it has an annual discharge of 68.2 billion cubic metres. A large man-made lake, Williston Lake, has been formed on the upper reaches by the construction of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam for hydroelectric power generation. Prior to its flooding, the confluence of the Finlay and Parsnip Rivers at Finlay Forks was distinct. A half mile east of that location were the half-mile long Finlay Rapids and a further seven miles east is the Peace Pass, which separates the Muskwa Ranges and the Hart Ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the only river cutting through the Rockies, it nowadays flows into Dinosaur Lake, a reservoir for the Peace Canyon Dam. After the dams, the river flows east into Alberta and continues north and east into the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Wood Buffalo National Park, at the western end of Lake Athabasca.
Water from the delta flows into the Slave River east of Peace Point and reaches the Arctic Ocean via the Great Slave Lake and Mackenzie River. Communities located directly on the river include: Hudson's Hope, British Columbia Taylor, British Columbia Peace River, Alberta Fort Vermilion, AlbertaMany provincial parks and wildland reserves are established on the river, such as Butler Ridge Provincial Park, Taylor Landing Provincial Park, Beatton River Provincial Park, Peace River Corridor Provincial Park in British Columbia and Dunvegan Provincial Park, Dunvegan West Wildland, Peace River Wildland Provincial Park, Greene Valley Provincial Park, Notikewin Provincial Park, Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta. A few Indian reserves are located on the river banks, among them Beaver Ranch 163, John D'Or Prairie 215, Fox Lake 162, Peace Point 222 and Devil's Gate 220. Tributaries of the Peace River include: List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of British Columbia List of longest rivers of Canada Steamboats of the Peace River "Peace River".
BC Geographical Names. "Peace Reach". BC Geographical Names. "Peace River Canyon". BC Geographical Names. "Peace Canyon Dam". BC Geographical Names. Http://pgnewspapers.pgpl.ca/fedora/repository Discover The Peace Country
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab