Elihu Vedder was an American symbolist painter, book illustrator, poet, born in New York City. He is best known for his fifty-five illustrations for Edward FitzGerald's translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Elihu Vedder was born February 26, 1836 in New York City, the son of Dr. Elihu Vedder Sr. and Elizabeth Vedder. His parents were cousins, his father, a dentist, decided to try his luck in Cuba, this had a profound impact on Elihu Jr.'s childhood. The remainder of his childhood was spent between his maternal grandfather Alexander Vedder's house in Schenectady and a boarding school, his mother supported his goals to be an artist while his father reluctantly assented, convinced that his son should try a different occupation. His brother, Dr. Alexander Madison Vedder, was a Navy surgeon who witnessed the transformation of Japan into a modern culture while he was stationed there. Vedder trained in New York City with Tompkins H. Matteson in Paris with François-Édouard Picot, he completed his studies in Italy - where he was influenced not only by Italian Renaissance work but by the modern Macchiaioli painters and the living Italian landscape.
He first visited Italy from 1858 until 1860, becoming emotionally attached to fellow painter Giovanni Costa. Their idyllic trips through the Italian countryside were cut short because Vedder's father cut off his financial allowance. Penniless, Vedder returned to the United States during the American Civil War and made a small living undertaking commercial illustrations, he was involved in the bohemian'Pfaff's' coffee house group and painted some of his most memorable paintings notable for their visionary nature, romantic imagery and Oriental influences. Paintings of this time include'The Roc's Egg','The Fisherman and the Genii' and one of his most famous works,'Lair of the Sea Serpent.' In the United States, Vedder sought out and befriended Walt Whitman, Herman Melville and William Morris Hunt. Vedder became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1865. At the end of the Civil War, Vedder left America to live in Italy, he married Caroline Rosekrans on July 13, 1869 in New York.
Elihu Vedder and his wife had only two of whom survived. His daughter Anita Herriman Vedder played a vital role in handling the business of her father, notorious for his general aloofness towards details. Elihu's son Enoch Rosekrans Vedder was a promising architect who married jewelry designer Angela Reston. Enoch died while visiting his parents in Italy on April 2, 1916. Elihu had a home in Rome and - after the financial success of his 1884 Rubaiyat work - on the Isle of Capri a haven for male aesthetes. Vedder visited England many times, was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites, was a friend of Simeon Solomon, he was influenced by the work of English and Irish mystics such as William Blake and William Butler Yeats. In 1890 Vedder helped establish the In Arte Libertas group in Italy. Tiffany commissioned him to design glassware and statuettes for the company, he decorated the hallway of the Reading Room of the Washington Library of Congress, his mural paintings can still be seen there. Vedder returned to the United States, but lived only in Italy from 1906 until his death on January 29, 1923.
He is buried in Rome. There are no known living descendants of Elihu Vedder. In 2008, the Smithsonian American Art Museum organized an exhibition of Vedder's Rubaiyat illustrations that toured several museums, including the Phoenix Art Museum. Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Vedder, Elihu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Soria, Regina. Elihu Vedder: American Visionary Artist in Rome. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0-8386-6906-9. Taylor, Joshua C.. Perceptions and Evocations: The Art of Elihu Vedder. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 0-87474-902-6. Vedder, Elihu; the Digressions of V. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Vedder, Elihu. "Reminiscences Of An American Painter I: Art Education Fifty Years Ago". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XIX: 12459–12470. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Vedder, Elihu. "Reminiscences Of An American Painter II: Florentine Years In Retrospect". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XIX: 12559–12570. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Vedder, Elihu. "Reminiscences Of An American Painter III: New York In War Time".
The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XIX: 12684–12694. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Vedder, Elihu. "Reminiscences Of An American Painter Last Article: Paris and Rome". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XIX: 12815–12824. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Vedder, Elihu. Miscellaneous Moods in Verse: One Hundred and One Poems with Illustrations. Boston: Porter E. Sargent. Vedder, Elihu. Doubt and Other Things. Boston: Porter E. Sargent. Www. ElihuVedder.org 80 works online at Elihu Vedder virtual Gallery Artcyclopedia: Elihu Vedder Online Smithsonian Archives of American Art: The Elihu Vedder Papers
Lehigh University is a private research university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It was established in 1865 by businessman Asa Packer, its undergraduate programs have been coeducational since the 1971–72 academic year. As of 2019, the university had 1,942 graduate students. Lehigh has four colleges: the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Education; the College of Arts and Sciences is the largest, which consists of 35% of the university's students. The university offers a variety of degrees, including Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, Master of Engineering, Master of Education, Doctor of Philosophy. Lehigh has produced Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Fellows, members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences, National Medal of Science winners. On April 5, 1986, a 19-year-old Lehigh freshman was murdered in her dorm room.
The backlash against unreported crimes on numerous campuses across the country led to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. The Clery Act requires that colleges reveal information regarding crime on their campuses.20 years after the federal Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act took effect, thought leaders on campus safety came to Lehigh to discuss critical safety issues for colleges and universities. The event, "Proceeding in Partnership: The Future of Campus Safety," was held on the Lehigh campus in September 2011, was co-sponsored by Security on Campus, founded by Connie and Howard Clery following the death of their daughter, Jeanne Clery; the conference represented the first cooperative effort between Lehigh and the organization since Jeanne Clery's death. Located in the Lehigh Valley, the university is a 70-mile drive from Philadelphia, an 85-mile drive from New York City. Lehigh encompasses 2,350 acres, including 180 acres of recreational and playing fields and 150 buildings comprising four million square feet of floor space.
It is organized into three contiguous campuses on and around South Mountain, including: the Asa Packer Campus, built into the northern slope of the mountain, is Lehigh's original and predominant campus. In May 2012, Lehigh became the recipient of a gift of 755 acres of property in nearby Upper Saucon Township from the Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation; the gift from the estate of the long-time benefactor allowed the university to expand its footprint to now comprise 2,350 acres across all its campuses, to consider its long-term potential uses. U. S. News & World Report ranked Lehigh tied for 53rd among national universities in its 2019 edition of "Best Colleges"; the Economist ranked Lehigh 7th among national universities in its 2015 ranking of non-vocational U. S. colleges ranked by alumni earnings above expectation. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012; the Wall Street Journal in June 2010 ranked Lehigh as number 12 in the nation for return on investment when comparing the average career earnings of a graduate to the cost of an education.
Lehigh has appeared in several international university rankings. The university ranked 301–350 overall in the 2013–2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 401–500 overall in the 2012 edition of the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 551-600 overall in the 2013 QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report classifies Lehigh's selectivity as "Most Selective." For the Class of 2022, Lehigh received 15,623 applications and accepted 3,418. Per Lehigh's school newspaper, 2022 marked the most selective year with a 19% acceptance rate for regular decision applicants. Lehigh's average class size is 27 students; the undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. Lehigh University offers undergraduate enrollment in all colleges but the College of Education: the P. C. Rossin School of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Arts and Sciences. Students are able to take courses or major/minor in a subject outside of their respective college.
The university operates on a semester system. Graduates of Lehigh's engineering programs invented the escalator and founded Packard Motor Car Company and the companies that built the locks and lockgates of the Panama Canal. Other notable alumni include Lee Iacocca. Tau Beta Pi, the renowned engineering honor society, was founded at Lehigh. In 2012, BusinessWeek ranked Lehigh's College of Business and Economics 31st in the nation among undergraduate business programs. Lehigh's finance program is strong, ranked as 7th overall undergraduate finance program in the nation by BusinessWeek; the accounting program is strong, ranked as the 21st best undergraduate program in the nation by BusinessWeek. Additionally, US News & World Report ranked Lehigh's part-time MBA 20th in the nation in 2018 rankings. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012. Based in Maginnes Hall, Lehigh offers a variety of visual arts programs. In particular, it has many music programs, including a marching ba
Greenwich Village referred to by locals as "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan, New York City, within Lower Manhattan. Broadly, Greenwich Village is bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village contains several subsections, including the West Village west of Seventh Avenue and the Meatpacking District in the northwest corner of Greenwich Village. In the 20th century, Greenwich Village was known as an artists' haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement, the East Coast birthplace of both the Beat and'60s counterculture movements. Groenwijck, one of the Dutch names for the village, was Anglicized to Greenwich. Greenwich Village contains Washington Square Park, as well as two of New York's private colleges, New York University and the New School. Greenwich Village is part of Manhattan Community District 2, is patrolled by the 6th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Greenwich Village has undergone extensive commercialization. The neighborhood is bordered by Broadway to the east, the North River to the west, Houston Street to the south, 14th Street to the north, centered on Washington Square Park and New York University; the neighborhoods surrounding it are the East Village and NoHo to the east, SoHo and Hudson Square to the south, Chelsea and Union Square to the north. The East Village was considered part of the Lower East Side and has never been considered a part of Greenwich Village; the western part of Greenwich Village is known as the West Village. The Far West Village is another sub-neighborhood of Greenwich Village, bordered on its west by the Hudson River and on its east by Hudson Street. Into the early 20th century, Greenwich Village was distinguished from the upper-class neighborhood of Washington Square—based on the major landmark of Washington Square Park or Empire Ward in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica's 1956 article on "New York" states that the southern border of the Village is Spring Street, reflecting an earlier understanding.
The newer district of SoHo has since encroached on this border. As Greenwich Village was once a rural, isolated hamlet to the north of the 17th century European settlement on Manhattan Island, its street layout is more organic than the planned grid pattern of the 19th century grid plan. Greenwich Village was allowed to keep the 18th century street pattern of what is now called the West Village: areas that were built up when the plan was implemented, west of what is now Greenwich Avenue and Sixth Avenue, resulted in a neighborhood whose streets are different, in layout, from the ordered structure of the newer parts of Manhattan. Many of the neighborhood's streets some curve at odd angles; this is regarded as adding to both the historic character and charm of the neighborhood. In addition, as the meandering Greenwich Street used to be on the Hudson River shoreline, much of the neighborhood west of Greenwich Street is on landfill, but still follows the older street grid; when Sixth and Seventh Avenues were built in the early 20th century, they were built diagonally to the existing street plan, many older, smaller streets had to be demolished.
Unlike the streets of most of Manhattan above Houston Street, streets in the Village are named rather than numbered. While some of the named streets are now numbered, they still do not always conform to the usual grid pattern when they enter the neighborhood. For example, West 4th Street runs east-west across most of Manhattan, but runs north-south in Greenwich Village, causing it to intersect with West 10th, 11th, 12th Streets before ending at West 13th Street. A large section of Greenwich Village, made up of more than 50 northern and western blocks in the area up to 14th Street, is part of a Historic District established by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; the District's convoluted borders run no farther south than 4th Street or St. Luke's Place, no farther east than Washington Square East or University Place. Redevelopment in that area is restricted, developers must preserve the main façade and aesthetics of the buildings during renovation. Most of the buildings of Greenwich Village are mid-rise apartments, 19th century row houses, the occasional one-family walk-up, a sharp contrast to the high-rise landscape in Midtown and Downtown Manhattan.
Politically, Greenwich Village is in New York's 10th congressional district. It is in the New York State Senate's 25th district, the New York State Assembly's 66th district, the New York City Council's 3rd district. In the 16th century, Native Americans referred to its farthest northwest corner, by the cove on the Hudson River at present-day Gansevoort Street, as Sapokanikan; the land was cleared and turned into pasture by Dutch and freed African settlers in the 1630s, who named their settlement Noortwyck. In the 1630s, Governor Wouter van Twiller farmed tobacco on 200 acres (0.81 k
Fitz James O'Brien
Fitz James O'Brien was an Irish American Civil War soldier and poet cited as an early writer of science fiction. O'Brien was born Michael O'Brien in Cork and was young when the family moved to Limerick, Ireland, he attended the University of Dublin and is believed to have been a soldier in the British army at one time. On leaving college, he went to London and in the course of four years spent his inheritance of £8,000, meanwhile editing a periodical in aid of the World's Fair of 1851. About 1852 he emigrated to the United States, in the process changing his name to Fitz James, thenceforth he devoted his attention to literature. While he was in college he had shown an aptitude for writing verse, two of his poems—Loch Ine and Irish Castles—were published in The Ballads of Ireland, his earliest writings in the United States were contributed to the Lantern, edited by John Brougham. Subsequently, he wrote for the Home Journal, the New York Times, the American Whig Review, his first important literary connection was with Harper's Magazine, beginning in February 1853, with The Two Skulls, he contributed more than sixty articles in prose and verse to that periodical.
He wrote for the New York Saturday Press, Putnam's Magazine, Vanity Fair, the Atlantic Monthly. To the latter he sent "The Diamond Lens" and "The Wonder Smith". "The Diamond Lens" is his most famous short story, tells the story of a scientist who invents a powerful microscope and discovers a beautiful female in a microscopic world inside a drop of water. It was one of the favourite stories of H. P. Lovecraft. "The Wonder Smith" is an early predecessor of robot rebellion, where toys possessed by evil spirits are transformed into living automata who turn against their creators. His 1858 short story "From Hand to Mouth" has been referred to as "the single most striking example of surrealistic fiction to pre-date Alice in Wonderland". "What Was It? A Mystery" is one of the earliest known examples of invisibility in fiction, he was employed in writing plays. For James W. Wallack he made A Gentleman from Ireland, he wrote and adapted other pieces for the theatres, but they had a shorter existence. In New York he at once associated with the brilliant set of contemporary Bohemians, among whom he was ranked as the most able.
At the weekly dinners that were given by John Brougham, or at the nightly suppers at Pfaff's on Broadway, he was the soul of the entertainment. When the American Civil War began in 1861, O'Brien joined the 7th regiment of the New York National Guard, hoping to be sent to the front, he was stationed at Camp Cameron outside Washington, D. C. for six weeks. When his regiment returned to New York he received an appointment on the staff of General Frederick W. Lander, he was wounded in a skirmish on 26 February 1862, lingered until April, when he died of tetanus at Cumberland, Maryland. His friend, William Winter, collected The Poems and Stories of Fitz James O'Brien, to which are added personal recollections by old associates that survived him. Mr. Winter wrote a chapter on O'Brien in his book Brown Heath and Blue Bells. "The Diamond Lens" "From Hand to Mouth" "The Wondersmith" "What Was It? A Mystery" "How I Overcame My Gravity" The Poems and Stories of Fitz James O'Brien Collected Stories Edited with an introduction by Edward J. O'Brien Initial text from Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography Works by Fitz James O'Brien at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Fitz James O'Brien at Internet Archive Works by Fitz James O'Brien at LibriVox Bibliography of O'Brien's supernatural stories "The Lost Room" at Manybooks The Vault at Pfaff's.
Bleecker Street is a west–east street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is most famous today as a Greenwich Village nightclub district; the street connects a neighborhood today popular for music venues and comedy, but, once a major center for American bohemia. The street is named after the family name of Anthony Lispenard Bleecker, a banker, the father of Anthony Bleecker, a 19th-century writer, through whose family farm the street ran. Bleecker Street connects Abingdon Square to the East Village. Bleecker Street is named by and after the Bleecker family because the street ran through the farm of the family. In 1808, Anthony Lispenard Bleecker and his wife deeded to the city a major portion of the land on which Bleecker Street sits. Bleecker Street extended from Bowery to Broadway, along the north side of the Bleecker farm as far west as Sixth Avenue. In 1829 it was joined with Herring Street. LeRoy Place is the former name of a block of Bleecker Street between Greene Streets; this was.
The effect was accomplished by making the central houses taller and closer to the street, while the other houses on the side were set back. The central buildings had bigger, raised entrances and lantern-like roof projections; the houses were built on both sides of Bleecker Street. To set his project apart from the rest of the area, Pearson convinced the city to rename this block of the street after the prominent international trader Jacob LeRoy. Bleecker Street is served by the 4, 6, <6>, B, D, F, M trains at Bleecker Street/Broadway – Lafayette Street station. The 1 and 2 trains serve the Christopher Street – Sheridan Square station one block north of Bleecker Street. Traffic on the street is one-way. In early December 2007, a bicycle lane was marked on the street. Bayard–Condict Building Bleecker Street Cinemas, closed in 1991 Lynn Redgrave Theater known as Bleecker Street Theater Our Lady of Pompeii Church, Carmine Street Washington Square Park Federal architecture-style row houses at 7 to 13 and 21 to 25 Bleecker Street.
21 Bleecker Street's entrance now bears the lettering of the Florence Night Mission though the Mission first began at 29 Bleecker Street, described by the New York Times in 1883 as "a row of houses of the lowest character". Bleecker Sitting Area won a Village Award; the Bitter End at 147 Bleecker Street Cafe Au Go Go was in the basement of the New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre at 152 Bleecker Street Poisson Rouge at 158 Bleecker Street The Village Gate was at 160 Bleecker Street John's of Bleecker Street, famous pizzeria established in 1929 Kesté rated Neapolitan style pizzeria established in 2009 Quartino Bottega Organica, or "Quartino" for short, at 11 Bleecker Street Music venue Cafe Wha?, where Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Bruce Springsteen, Kool & the Gang, Bill Cosby, Richard Pryor, many others began their careers The CBGB club, which closed in 2006, was located at the east end of Bleecker Street, on Bowery Bleecker Bob's record shop started at 149 Bleecker street James Agee lived at 172 Bleecker Street, above Cafe Espanol Mykel Board Robert De Niro grew up on Bleecker Street Robert Frank Mariska Hargitay Alicia Keys Cookie Mueller lived at 285 Bleecker Street, above Ottomanelli's John Belushi lived at 376 Bleecker Street Evelyn Reilly, lives at 21 Bleecker Street Craig Rodwell lived at 350 Bleecker Street, from which he organized New York's first gay pride parade.
James Roosevelt at 58 Bleecker Street Edward Thebaud Mark Van Doren Dave Winer Literature Valenti Angelo's 1949 novel The Bells of Bleecker Street is set in the Italian American community in that neighborhood. Nobel laureate Derek Walcott wrote a poem about Bleecker Street entitled "Bleecker Street, Summer". In Marvel Comics, 177A Bleecker Street is the location of Doctor Strange's Sanctum Sanctorum. Film and television The Kate & Allie television show from the 1980s depicted two single mothers living on Bleecker in a basement apartment; the original Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles movie is set on Bleecker Street according to the set designers. In one instance, it is mentioned that April's apartment is located on Bleecker. Much of the film No Reservations, starring Catherine Zeta-Jones and Aaron Eckhart, is set in a restaurant on the corner of Bleecker and Charles Streets; the name of their fictitious restaurant is 22 Bleecker. In The WB series What I Like About You and Valerie live in an apartment on Bleecker Street.
The Matthews family in Girl Meets World live near Bleecker Street and frequent the Bleecker subway station. New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre at 152 Bleecker Street In the Friends episode "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry", an adult-video store "on Bleecker" is mentioned. Music Menotti wrote an opera The Saint of Bleecker Street Japanese pop star Ayumi Hamasaki visited Bleecker Street during recording of her understood album; the pictures were published in Hamasaki's famous "Deji Deji Diary", published in each issue of ViVi Magazine. Iggy Pop discusses dying on Bleecker Street in his song "Punk Rocker"; the Simon & Garfunkel album Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. contains a song called "Bleecker Street". In the sea shanty "New York Girls", 44 Bleecker Street is referenced as a house of ill repute. "Growing Old on Bleeker Street" is a song featured on the debut album, Living Room, of pop trio AJR. Joni Mitchell references Blee
Charles Farrar Browne
Charles Farrar Browne was an American humor writer, better known under his nom de plume, Artemus Ward. He is considered to be America's first stand-up comedian, his birth name was Brown but he added the "e" after he became famous. Browne was born in Maine, he began his career as occasional contributor to the daily and weekly journals. In 1858, he published in The Plain Dealer the first of the "Artemus Ward" series, which, in a collected form, achieved great popularity in both America and England. Brownes' companion at the Plain Dealer George Hoyt wrote "his desk was a rickety table, whittled and gashed until it looked as if it had been the victim of lightning, his chair was a fit companion thereto, a wabbling, unsteady affair, sometimes with four and sometimes with three legs. But Browne saw neither the table, nor the chair, nor any person who might be near, nothing, in fact, but the funny pictures which were tumbling out of his brain; when writing, his gaunt form looked ridiculous enough. One leg hung over the arm of his chair like a great hook, while he would write away, sometimes laughing to himself, slapping the table in the excess of his mirth."In 1860, he became editor of Vanity Fair, a humorous New York weekly, which proved a failure.
About the same time, he began to appear as a lecturer and, by his droll and eccentric humor, attracted large audiences. In 1863, Browne came as Artemus Ward to San Francisco to perform. Browne was an expert at publicity and by the time of his arrival, his manager had been there for weeks advertising with notices in the local papers and talking with prominent citizens for endorsements. On November 13, 1863, he performed to a packed crowd at Platt's Music Hall. Ward played the part of Artemus as an illiterate rube but with "Yankee common sense." Writer Brett Harte was in the audience that night and he described it in the Golden Era as capturing American speech, "humor that belongs to the country of boundless prairies, limitless rivers, stupendous cataracts--that fun which overlies the surface of our national life, met in the stage, rail-car and flat-boat, which bursts out over camp-fires and around bar-room stoves."Artemus Ward" was the favorite author of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln. Before presenting "The Emancipation Proclamation" to his Cabinet, Lincoln read to them the latest episode, "Outrage in Utiky" known as High-Handed Outrage at Utica.
Browne was known as a member of the New York Bohemian set which included leader Henry Clapp Jr. Walt Whitman, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, actress Adah Isaacs Menken. Ward met Mark Twain when Ward performed in Virginia City and the two became friends. In his correspondences with Twain, Browne called him "My Dearest Love." Legend has it that, following Ward's stage performance, he, Mark Twain, Dan De Quille were taking a drunken rooftop tour of Virginia City until a town constable threatened to blast all three of them with a shotgun loaded with rock salt. Browne urged him to journey to New York. In 1866, Ward visited England, where he became exceedingly popular both as a lecturer and as a contributor to Punch. In the spring of the following year, Ward's health gave way and he died of tuberculosis at Southampton on March 6, 1867. After being buried at Kensal Green Cemetery, Ward's remains were removed to the United States on May 20, 1868, he is buried at Elm Vale Cemetery in Maine. A Visit to Brigham Young Women's Rights One of Mr Ward's Business Letters On "Forts" Fourth of July Oration High-Handed Outrage at Utica Artemus Ward and the Prince of Wales Interview with Lincoln Letters to his Wife Artemus Ward His Book Artemus Ward His Panorama Artemus Ward among the Mormons Artemus Ward in London Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Ward, Artemus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by Artemus Ward at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Artemus Ward at Internet Archive Works by Charles Farrar Browne at Open Library Works by Charles Farrar Browne at LibriVox Photos from the Maine Historical Society 3 short radio episodes of Ward's writing from California Legacy Project. Seitz, Don Caros. Artemus Ward: a biography and bibliography
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York