Alzey is a Verband-free town – one belonging to no Verbandsgemeinde – in the Alzey-Worms district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the fourth-largest town in Rhenish Hesse, after Mainz and Bingen. Alzey is one of the Nibelungenstädte – towns associated with the Nibelungenlied – because it is represented in this work by the character Volker von Alzey. Hence, Alzey is known as Volkerstadt. Alzey lies in Rhenish Hesse on the western edge of the northern part of the Upper Rhine Plain, it is surrounded by the northern part of the Alzey Hills, which meets the Rhenish Hesse Hills towards the south and the North Palatine Uplands towards the east. The town is found some 22 km northwest of Worms. Through Alzey, in places underground, flows the river Selz, a left-bank tributary to the Rhine. Yearly precipitation in Alzey amounts to 586 mm, rather low, falling into the lowest fourth of the precipitation chart for all Germany. At 18% of the German Weather Service's weather stations lower figures are recorded.
The driest month is February. The most rainfall comes in June. In that month, precipitation is. Precipitation varies moderately. At 41% of the weather stations, lower seasonal swings are recorded; the earliest traces of settlement in the Alzey area go back as far as the Neolithic. Alzey was founded as a vicus in the Roman province of Germania Superior in the lands surrounding Mogontiacum; the name of Alzey is first mentioned on a Nymphenstein, dedicated on 22 November 223 by the Vicani Altiaienses. The name Altiaia could well originate as the name of an older, pre-Roman Celtic settlement of about 400 BC, although the name's exact origins have not been passed down to the present day. Over the ruins of the Roman village, destroyed about 350, a fort, Castra Alteium, was built about 390. In 406 and 407, the Burgundians, together with the Vandals, crossed the Rhine and settled in Mainz and Worms as Roman confederates; the area was secured for them by treaty. In 436, the Burgundian kingdom was destroyed by the Western Roman magister militum Flavius Aëtius with help from Hunnish troops.
These events were worked into the Nibelungenlied and form the origin of the legendary figure Volker von Alzey, the gleeman in the Nibelungenlied. After 450, Alzey passed to the Alamanni and the Franks. After Clovis I's death in 511, the Frankish Empire fell apart into separate smaller kingdoms, Alzey became part of Austrasia, whose capital was at Metz. Following the unification of the Frankish kingdoms in the mid-8th century, Alzey was assigned by the 843 Treaty of Verdun to the Kingdom of the East Franks, a forerunner of the German Empire. In 897, Alzey was first mentioned as an Imperial fief. In 1156, Alzey belonged to the Electorate of the Palatinate, Konrad von Staufen attained the rank of Count Palatine in the Imperial castle, completed in 1118. In 1277, Alzey attained the rank of town from Rudolf von Habsburg. In 1620, Count Spinola sided with the Catholic Emperor in the Thirty Years' War against the Protestant Electorate of the Palatinate and conquered Alzey. In 1689, the town and the castle, under the French troops' scorched-earth policy, were burnt down in the Nine Years' War, when Louis XIV's armies had to leave areas conquered earlier.
In 1798, areas west of the Rhine, among them those that until this time had been parts of the Electorate of the Palatinate, were annexed to France. Alzey belonged until 1814 to the Department of Mont-Tonnerre. In 1816, Alzey was attached to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. In 1909, the winemaking school was founded, its first head was Georg Scheu. On Kristallnacht, the Alzey synagogue was destroyed and the fittings were burnt in front of the building; the ruin was removed in the 1950s. A rescued Torah scroll can nowadays be found in the museum. On 8 January 1945, in World War II, the town narrowly missed being destroyed when 36 Boeing B-17 bombers had been sent to take out a railway bridge in Alzey. Owing to bad weather and a landmark misinterpretation – the crew mistook the top of the old watchtower for the church steeple – the bombers ended up dropping their load on the Wartberg, a nearby hill, giving rise to the legend of the Wartbergturm – the old tower – as Alzey's saviour. Since 1947, Alzey has no longer been Hessian, but rather it became the seat of Alzey District in the newly formed state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Since the merger of the old Alzey and Worms Districts in 1969, Alzey has been the seat of the new Alzey-Worms District and the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde of Alzey-Land, although as a Verband-free town, it does not belong to the Verbandsgemeinde. On 22 April 1972, the autonomous centres of Weinheim and Dautenheim were amalgamated with Alzey; the outlying centre of Schafhausen had been a Stadtteil of Alzey since the Middle Ages. On 31 January 2008, the townsfolk's religious affiliations broke down thus: 8,927 Evangelical 3,684 Catholic 2,996 none or no affiliation established in public law 1,322 other affiliations established in public law 6,809 other 988 no data sundry 50 Alzey Free Religious-Humanist Association 4 Old Catholic 2 Jewish 1 Mainz Free Religious-Humanist Association The town's Jewish congregation is dated to the 14th century. In 1349, during the Black Death, the town's Jews were murdered in the cause of a blood libel. A few years after, the community renewed and a document from 1377 depicted a Jew named Yitschak of Alzey who sued
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany, or SPD, is a social-democratic political party in Germany. Led by Andrea Nahles since 2018, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union; the Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 14 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents; the SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and initiated the founding of the Progressive Alliance international for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013 after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.
The General German Workers' Association founded in 1863 and the Social Democratic Workers' Party founded in 1869 merged in 1875 under the name Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. From 1878 to 1890, any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles was banned under the Anti-Socialist Laws, but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists the party adopted its current name. In the years leading up to World War I, the party remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to be moderate in everyday politics. By 1912, the party claimed the most votes of any German party. Despite the agreement of the Second International to oppose World War I, the Social Democrats voted in favor of war in 1914. In response to this and the Bolshevik Revolution, members of the left-wing and of the far-left of the SPD formed alternative parties, first the Spartacus League the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany while the more conservative faction was known as the Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany.
After 1918, the SPD played an important role in the political system of the Weimar Republic, although it took part in coalition governments only in few years. Adolf Hitler prohibited the party in 1933 under the Enabling Act and party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile. In exile, the party used the name Sopade; the Social Democrats had been the only party to vote against the Enabling Act while the Communist Party was blocked from voting. In 1945, the Allied occupants in the Western zones allowed four parties to be established, which led to the Christian Democratic Union, the Free Democratic Party, the Communist Party and the SPD being established. In the Soviet zone of occupation, the Soviets forced the Social Democrats to form a common party with the Communists. In the Western zones, the Communist Party was banned by West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court in 1956. Since 1949, the SPD has been one of the two major parties in the Federal Republic of Germany, with the other being the Christian Democratic Union.
From 1969 to 1982 and 1998 to 2005, the Chancellors of Germany were Social Democrats whereas the other years the Chancellors were Christian Democrats. Shortly before the reunification of Germany in 1990, the East German Social Democratic Party merged into the West German SPD; the SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the Social Democrats underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which "called for the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership" and the Godesberg Program of 1959 which aimed to broaden its voter base and move its political position toward the centre. After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher the SPD re-established itself as a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. However, with the Godesberg Program the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within liberal capitalism.
The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, seen as a vision of a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, freedom and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy; the coordinated social market economy should be strengthened and its output should be distributed fairly. The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population; the SPD tries to protect the society's poor with a welfare state. Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that does not place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits. In social policy, the Social Democrats stand for political rights in an open society. In foreign policy, the party aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means, thus European integration is one of the main priorities of the party; the SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for people.
They support a common European economic and financial policy and to prevent speculative bubbles as well as environmentally sustainable growth. The SPD is composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way mod
The Oberliga Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar the Oberliga Südwest, is the highest regional football league for the Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland states of Germany, organized by the Southwestern Regional Football Association. It is the fifth tier of the German football league system, it is one of fourteen Oberligas in German football, the fifth tier of the German football league system. Until the introduction of the 3. Liga in 2008 it was the fourth tier of the league system, until the introduction of the Regionalligas in 1994 the third tier. From January 1946 up until the creation of the Bundesliga in 1963, the Oberliga Südwest was one of the five highest divisions in Germany; the current league originates from 1978. The Oberliga Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar is one of fourteen Oberligas in Germany; the league is a combination of the regional Football Federations Rhine County and Southwest, the next league up is Regionalliga Südwest. It was formed in 1978 out of the top teams of the Amateurligas Saarland and Südwest.
Until 2008, when the 3. Liga was introduced, the Oberliga was the fourth tier of the league system. From 2012 onwards, the league became a feeder league to the new Regionalliga Südwest, together with the Hessenliga and the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg; the previous league the Oberliga Südwest was set below at, the Regionalliga West, from on only accommodate clubs from Northrhine-Westphalia. At the end of the 2011–12 season the league was renamed from Oberliga Südwest to Oberliga Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar, with Oddset being the official name sponsor of the league. Nominally 18 teams compete for the Oberliga Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar title. Teams play each other twice, once away. At the end of the season the champion used to be promoted into either the Regionalliga Süd or the Regionalliga Nord the Regionalliga West, depending on their geographical location. From 2008, the league winner was promoted to the Regionalliga West. In the 2007–08 season, the teams finishing from 2nd to 4th were be promoted. If the team that wins the league or is on a promotion spot at the end of the season fails to have the correct license the team who finishes next would be promoted instead of them.
Teams promoted to the new Regionalliga in 2008: 1. FSV Mainz 05 II 1. FC Kaiserslautern II VfR Wormatia Worms Eintracht Trier The winner of the Oberliga Südwest was directly promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga Süd. After introduction of the unified 2nd Bundesliga in 1981, the champion had to take part in a promotion play-off. With the introduction of the Regionalliga in 1994 the league winners were again directly promoted. However, this league was demoted to fourth tier of German football after 2008; the bottom three clubs of the Oberliga will be relegated to the Verbandsliga of their Football Association. These are: Verbandsliga Südwest Saarlandliga RheinlandligaIn turn, the Verbandsliga champions will gain entry to the Oberliga. In more recent history the runners-up of the three Verbandsligas were given the opportunity to compete in a promotion round for one more spot in the Oberliga in the following season; the league champions: Source: "Oberliga SW". Das deutsche Fussball-Archiv. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
The complete list of clubs and placings in the league while operating as the tier five Oberliga Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar and feeding the Regionalliga Südwest: Deutschlands Fußball in Zahlen, An annual publication with tables and results from the Bundesliga to Verbandsliga/Landesliga, publisher: DSFS Kicker Almanach, The yearbook on German football from Bundesliga to Oberliga, since 1937, published by the Kicker Sports Magazine Süddeutschlands Fussballgeschichte in Tabellenform 1897-1988 History of Southern German football in tables, publisher & author: Ludolf Hyll Die Deutsche Liga-Chronik 1945-2005 History of German football from 1945 to 2005 in tables, publisher: DSFS, published: 2006 Das deutsche Fussball Archiv Historic German league tables Weltfussball.de Round-by-round results and tables of the Oberliga Südwest from 1994 onwards The Southwest Football Association
Nine Years' War
The Nine Years' War —often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg—was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain and Savoy. It was fought in India, it is sometimes considered the first global war. The conflict encompassed the Williamite war in Ireland and Jacobite risings in Scotland, where William III and James II struggled for control of England and Ireland, a campaign in colonial North America between French and English settlers and their respective Indigenous allies, today called King William's War by Americans. Louis XIV of France had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories. Using a combination of aggression and quasi-legal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions; the Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for twenty years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions—notably his Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685— led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance.
Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims. Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French king faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions; the main fighting took place around France's borders in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, the Duchy of Savoy and Catalonia. The fighting favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696 his country was in the grip of an economic crisis; the Maritime Powers were financially exhausted, when Savoy defected from the Alliance, all parties were keen to negotiate a settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace but was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired a Barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their borders.
With the ailing and childless Charles II of Spain approaching his end, a new conflict over the inheritance of the Spanish Empire embroiled Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the years following the Franco-Dutch War Louis XIV of France – now at the height of his powers – sought to impose religious unity in France, to solidify and expand his frontiers. Louis XIV had won his personal glory by conquering new territory, but he was no longer willing to pursue an open-ended militarist policy of the kind he had undertaken in 1672, instead relied upon France's clear military superiority to achieve specific strategic objectives along his borders. Proclaimed the'Sun King', a more mature Louis – conscious he had failed to achieve decisive results against the Dutch – had turned from conquest to security, using threats rather than open war to intimidate his neighbours into submission. Louis XIV, along with his chief advisor Louvois, his foreign minister Colbert de Croissy, his technical expert, developed France's defensive strategy.
Vauban had advocated a system of impregnable fortresses along the frontier that would keep France's enemies out. To construct a proper system, the King needed to acquire more land from his neighbours to form a solid forward line; this rationalisation of the frontier would make it far more defensible while defining it more in a political sense, yet it created the paradox that while Louis's ultimate goals were defensive, he pursued them by hostile means. The King grabbed the necessary territory through what is known as the Réunions: a strategy that combined legalism and aggression; the Treaty of Nijmegen and the earlier Treaty of Westphalia provided Louis XIV with the justification for the Reunions. These treaties had awarded France territorial gains, but because of the vagaries of the language they were notoriously imprecise and self-contradictory, never specified exact boundary lines; this imprecision led to differing interpretations of the text resulting in long-standing disputes over the frontier zones – one gained a town or area and its'dependencies', but it was unclear what these dependencies were.
The machinery needed to determine these territorial ambiguities was in place through the medium of the Parlements at Metz, Besançon, a superior court at Breisach, dealing with Lorraine, Franche-Comté, Alsace. Unsurprisingly, these courts found in Louis XIV's favour. By 1680 the disputed County of Montbéliard had been separated from the Duchy of Württemberg, by August, Louis XIV had secured the whole of Alsace with the exception of Strasbourg; the Chamber of Reunion of Metz soon laid claims to land around the Three Bishoprics of Metz and Verdun, most of the Spanish Duchy of Luxembourg. The fortress of Luxembourg itself was subsequently blockaded with the intention of it becoming part of Louis XIV's defensible frontier. On 30 September 1681, French troops seized Strasbourg and its outpost, Kehl, on the right bank of the Rhine, a bridge which Holy Roman Empire troops had exploited during the latter stages of the Dutch War. B
Bundesautobahn 61 is an autobahn in Germany that connects the border to the Netherlands near Venlo in the northwest to the interchange with A 6 near Hockenheim. In 1965, this required a redesign of the Hockenheimring; the autobahn runs parallel to the A 3 on the opposite side of the Rhine. Between Mönchengladbach and Bergheim in the north and Worms and Speyer in the south, it cuts through the landscapes of Eifel and Hunsrück, avoiding areas of dense population while still in proximity to Cologne, Bonn and Bingen; the A 61, built in the 1970s, is the most western connection from the Netherlands and Belgium to southern Germany so many trucks and tourists from these countries frequent the A 61. Between Kreuz Mönchengladbach and Wanlo, the speed limit is 120 km/h; the section between the junctions Wanlo and Jackerath was upgraded to three lanes in 2005. The speed limit there is 130 km/h, paid for by RWE Power that in return received permission to close a section of A 44 for their Garzweiler surface mining operation.
By 2017, the A 44 will be restored and the Wanlo-Jackerath-section of the A 61 will be closed instead. Between Dreieck Erfttal and Kreuz Bliesheim the A 1 and A 61 run concurrently; the motorway has a variable speed limit here. Since 4 April 2012, the A 61 continues into the Netherlands as A74; this short motorway connects the A 61 at the border with the Dutch A 73. All traffic had to go through the city of Venlo. Part of the A61 motorway near the village of Gelsdorf had been designed for use as a runway to service travel to the nearby Government bunker facility and in an emergency a section would have been dedicated for use as an airport with spacious aircraft parking spaces at both ends disguised as roadside car parks. Bundesautobahn 61 – detailed route plan
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Grand Duchy of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine was a grand duchy in western Germany that existed from 1806 to the end of the German Empire in 1918. The grand duchy formed on the basis of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1806 as the Grand Duchy of Hesse. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, it changed its name in 1816 to distinguish itself from the Electorate of Hesse, which had formed from neighboring Hesse-Kassel. Colloquially, the grand duchy continued to be known by its former name of Hesse-Darmstadt, it joined the German Empire in 1871 and became a republic after German defeat in World War I in 1918. Hesse-Darmstadt was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine during the Napoleonic Wars. Expanding during the mediatizations, Hesse-Darmstadt became an amalgamation of smaller German states, such as the Electorate of Cologne; the legal patchwork of the state culminated in a decree issued on 1 October 1806 by Louis I. The old territorial estates were abolished, which altered Hesse-Darmstadt "from a mosaic of patrimonial fragments into a centralized, absolute monarchy."
The Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt had received in 1803, was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna. However, Hesse-Darmstadt was compensated with some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz; the neighboring Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel had backed Prussia against Napoleon and was absorbed into the Kingdom of Westphalia. At the Congress of Vienna, Hesse-Kassel was reestablished as the Electorate of Hesse. To distinguish the two Hessian states, the grand duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in 1816. In 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main remained outside. In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire; the last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig, was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, the state was renamed the People's State of Hesse. After World War II, the majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area and the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau to form the new state of Hesse.
Excluded were the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen-Darmstadt on the left bank of the Rhine, which became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate state. Wimpfen—an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt—became part of Baden-Württemberg, in the district of Sinsheim. After a plebiscite on 29 April 1951, Bad Wimpfen was transferred from Sinsheim district to Heilbronn District; this change to Heilbronn was carried out on 1 May 1952. Because of the disjointed nature of the state, it did not develop its own state railway to begin with, but set up joint railway projects with its neighbouring states: These were the: Main-Neckar Railway with Frankfurt and Baden Main-Weser Railway with Frankfurt and Kurhessen Frankfurt-Offenbach Local Railway with the Free City of FrankfurtIn addition the state encouraged numerous other projects by the owned Hessian Ludwig Railway Company. In 1876 the state founded its own company, the Grand Duchy of Hesse State Railways, which continued to expand the network until it was merged into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Company in 1897.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces: Starkenburg: Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main. Rhenish Hesse: Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna. Upper Hesse: North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt. List of rulers of Hesse Line of succession to the former Hessian throne Hessenlager Constitution of Hesse Das Großherzogtum Hessen 1806–1918 Großherzogtum Hessen 1910