A phaeton was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Drawn by one or two horses, a phaeton featured a minimal lightly sprung body atop four extravagantly large wheels. With open seating, it was both fast and dangerous, giving rise to its name, drawn from the mythical Phaëton, son of Helios, who nearly set the earth on fire while attempting to drive the chariot of the sun. With the advent of the automobile, the term was adapted to open touring cars known as phaetons; the most impressive phaeton was the English four-wheeled high flyer. The mail and spider phaetons were more conservatively constructed; the mail phaeton was used chiefly to carry passengers with luggage and was named for its construction, using "mail" springs designed for use on mail coaches. The spider phaeton, of American origin and made for gentlemen drivers, was a high and constructed carriage with a covered seat in front and a footman's seat behind. Fashionable phaetons used at horse shows included the Stanhope having a high seat and closed back, the Tilbury, a two-wheeled carriage with an elaborate spring suspension system, with or without a top.
A variation of this type of a carriage is called a Victoria, with a retractable cover over the rear passenger compartment. Each June from 1978 to 2011, during the official Queen's Birthday celebrations, Queen Elizabeth II traveled to and from Trooping the Colour on Horse Guards Parade in an ivory-mounted phaeton carriage made in 1842 for her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria. In her years, Queen Victoria enjoyed travelling in a phaeton drawn by a single white donkey, or mule, when on her holidays in Cimiez a small village on the outskirts of Nice, in the south of France. There is a print of the monarch enjoying her morning excursions on page 490 of the Illustrated London News of 10 April 1897. In addition, there is a photograph in the Royal Collection, dated 1898. There are other photographs, using a black donkey, taken at Windsor Castle. Bolshevik revolutionaries used a phaeton to escape after carrying out the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery. Valerie, Lady Meux would startle London Society by driving herself in a high phaeton drawn by zebras.
In the 1995 film Sense and Sensibility, the character Mr. Willoughby drives a yellow phaeton. While the phaeton seems to exhibit his reckless and dashing character, in the novel on which the film is based, the original character drives a curricle. In the 2012 Bengali film Bhooter Bhabishyat, Raibahadur Darpo Narayan Chowdhury refers to phaetons in reference to Sir Donald Ramsay and to his own aristocratic status. In Turn: Washington's Spies, season 3 episode 1 Benedict Arnold is riding in a phaeton spider, he states to Peggy Shippen "Do you like it? It's a Phaeton Spider". Then goes on to say "I had it fit with a Collinge axle for a smoother ride"; the Keystone Cops drove phaetons, either Model Model As. In Frances Burney's novel, young gentlemen race their phaetons on the public highways of Clifton, near Bristol, not without incident. In Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Mr Collins says of Lady Catherine De Bourgh's daughter, "she is amiable, condescends to drive by my humble abode in her little phaeton and ponies."
In Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Mr. Huntingdon drives a "light phaeton" that comes "bowling merrily up the lawn"; the sporty character of the carriage reflects Huntingdon's devil-may-care attitude. She references a phaeton in Agnes Grey, "the useful pony phaeton was sold." In the 1928 American children's book Freddy Goes to Florida by Walter R. Brooks, Hank the farm horse draws an old phaeton that carries the animals and their treasure back from Florida to the Bean Farm. In Absalom, Absalom! by William Faulkner, Sutpen's wife Ellen had a phaeton that caused her daughter to become distressed when it arrived in place of their normal carriage. In the short story "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Roger Button, Benjamin's father, owns a phaeton, his primary mode of transportation until Benjamin buys the first automobile in Baltimore. In Susannah Kells' novel Fallen Angels, a phaeton is the transportation of choice for the main character, who crashes the carriage in a perfect example of its dangerous and fickle reputation.
The character Mr. Spenlow from the novel David Copperfield dies of a heart attack while driving his phaeton home. Henry James, in his short story "An International Episode" has Lord Lambeth driven through town in "a little basket-phaeton" by his companion Bessie Aldon. "His companion went into seventeen shops — he amused himself with counting them — and accumulated, at the bottom of the phaeton, a pile of bundles that hardly left the young Englishman a place for his feet. As she had no groom nor footman, he sat in the phaeton to hold the ponies." Georgette Heyer, the Regency romance novelist wrote about sporting gentlemen driving their phaetons. Some of her heroines were notable whips, such as Hero from Friday's Child who gets into a scrape by agreeing to participate in a'Lady's Race' in her phaeton. Carriage Phaeton automobile body style Volkswagen Phaeton MNC - Spider Phaeton. Museu Nacional dos Coches, Portugal
The Volkswagen Phaeton FAY-tən is a Full-size luxury sedan/saloon manufactured by the German automobile manufacturer Volkswagen, described by Volkswagen as their "premium class" vehicle. Introduced at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show, the Phaeton was marketed worldwide. Sales in North America ended in 2006 and global sales ended in 2016; the name Phaeton derives from Phaëton, the son of Phoebus in Greek mythology, by way of the phaeton auto body style and the type of horse-drawn carriage that preceded it. Production ended in March 2016 and an all-electric second generation was slated to be produced. Starting in April 2017, the Gläserne Manufaktur Dresden assembles VW e-Golf instead; the Phaeton was conceived by Ferdinand Piëch chairman of Volkswagen Group. Piëch wanted Volkswagen engineers to create a car that would surpass the German prestige market leaders, Mercedes-Benz and BMW; the decision to release the Phaeton was, in part, a response to Mercedes' decision to compete directly with Volkswagen in the European marketplace with the low cost A-Class.
It was intended to support the Volkswagen brand image. Although the Volkswagen Group has a direct competitor in the full sized luxury segment, the Audi A8, the Phaeton was intended to be more of a comfort oriented limousine, like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class and Lexus LS, while the Audi A8 and BMW 7 Series are more sport oriented. Initial development of the Phaeton, given the internal project code VW611, began with Piëch giving his engineers a list of ten parameters the car needed to fulfill. Most of these specifications were not made known to the public, but a number of them were told to automotive reporters. One of them was that the Phaeton should be capable of being driven all day at 300 km/h with an exterior temperature of 50 °C whilst maintaining the interior temperature at 22 °C. Piëch requested this though the Phaeton's top speed was electronically limited to 250 km/h. Another requirement was. At the 1999 International Motor Show Germany, Volkswagen presented the Concept D, a hatchback prototype of the Phaeton, with similar design, V10 TDI engine, air suspension and all wheel drive.
The Phaeton's platform, the Volkswagen Group D1 platform, was shared with the Bentley Continental GT and Bentley Continental Flying Spur. Certain systems, such as the automatic transmission and some engines, are shared with the Audi A8. Compared to the Audi A8L 4.2 litre FSI quattro, the Phaeton is 545 lb heavier but is still competitive with the lighter A8 in most driving tests, due to the Phaeton's increased engine power and a shorter axle ratio. However, the weight gives the Phaeton worse acceleration and poorer fuel economy compared to the A8; the Phaeton had the longest wheelbase in the Volkswagen passenger car line. Development of the vehicle led to over one hundred individual patents specific to the Phaeton. Distinctive features include a draftless four zone climate system, standard Torsen based 4motion four-wheel drive. For high ride comfort, it introduced Adaptive Air Suspension with Continuous Damping Control -; the same suspension system, with firmer settings, was introduced in the technically similar Audi A8 in November 2002.
First Volkswagen with radar adaptive cruise control: automatic distance regulator. The Phaeton Lounge was a concept car based on a lengthened version of the Phaeton with seating for four in the rear compartment, it features a W12 engine, a reinforced chassis, six speed Tiptronic automatic transmission, individual climate control for each passenger and rear wine coolers, a minibar, multi color mood lighting, a cigar humidor, two 17 inch monitors, DVD changer in the trunk, second DVD player in the rear cabin, a Bluetooth enabled computer with a broadband connection. The vehicle was unveiled in 2005 Middle East International Motor Show; the Phaeton was hand assembled in an eco friendly factory with a glass exterior, the Transparent Factory in Dresden, Germany. This factory had a capacity of producing 20,000 vehicles a year, was planned to expand to 35,000 vehicles a year, it assembled Bentley Continental Flying Spur vehicles destined for the European market until October 2006, when all assembly of the Bentley products was transferred to Crewe, England.
The Phaeton body was fabricated and painted at the Volkswagen works at Zwickau and the completed bodies were transported 100 km by special road transport vehicles to the main factory. Most Phaeton engines, the W12 being the notable exception, were built at the VW/Porsche/Audi engine plant in Győr, Hungary. Sales of the Phaeton fell far short of expectations, its biggest market was China, followed by South Korea. In 2002, the manufacturer stated the annual capacity of the new Phaeton plant at Dresden was 20,000; the domestic market was the Phaeton's strongest, with 19,314 Phaetons delivered in Germany alone by January 2009. Production decreased to 10,190 cars in 2012 and 5,812 in 2013. In Phaeton's production run that lasted 15 years, 84,253 units were built. In Canada, 93 Phaetons were sold in 2004, in the first eight months of 2005, only 21 found owners. In the United States market, 1,433 Phaetons were sold in 2004, 820 were sold in 2005, leading the company to announce that sales in the North American market would end after the 2006 model year.
The W12 engined models have depreciated and sell for a small fraction of their o
A phaeton is a style of open automobile without any fixed weather protection, popular from the 1900s until the 1930s. It is an automotive equivalent of the horse-drawn lightweight phaeton carriage. A popular style in the US from the mid–1920s and continuing into the first half of the 1930s was the dual cowl phaeton, with a cowl separating the rear passengers from the driver and front passenger. Phaetons fell from favour when closed cars and convertible body styles became available during the 1930s; the term "phaeton" became so and loosely applied that any vehicle with two axles and a row or rows of seats across the body could be called a phaeton. Convertibles and pillarless hardtops were marketed as "phaetons" after actual phaetons were phased out; the term phaeton had described a light, open four-wheeled carriage. When automobiles arrived it was applied to a light two-seater with minimal coachwork; the term was interchangeable with spyder, derived from a light form of phaeton carriage known as a spider.
Meant to denote a faster and lighter vehicle than a touring car, the two terms became interchangeable. A detachable folding or rigid roof could be added before a drive in preparation for inclement weather, side curtains or screens could be installed once the roof was in place; this was temporary and partial relief rather than the more permanent, watertight protection offered by a convertible. As a result, a phaeton was weather-ready convertible. Since the body was open, it was easy to add or remove an extra row of seating where space had been left in the original construction. A phaeton differs from a convertible in having no winding or sliding windows in the doors or the body, no permanent roof, whether rigid or folding. There were double phaetons, with two rows of seats, triple phaetons, or closed phaetons. After 1912, American use of the term began to be most associated with the "triple phaeton" body configurations that had room for three rows of seats, whether all three were installed or not.
This led to the term "phaeton" becoming similar to, interchangeable with, the term "touring car". A specific use of the term "phaeton" is with the dual cowl phaeton, a body style in which the rear passengers were separated from the driver and the front passengers by a cowl or bulkhead with its own folding windshield; the phaeton and the touring car were popular up to the 1930s, after which they were replaced by the convertible, which had a retractable roof, but included side windows so that the car could be enclosed. The Willys-Overland Jeepster was the last true phaeton produced by a major US automaker, was introduced ten years after the previous phaeton to be offered by an American manufacturer. In 1952, a year after Willys last offered the Jeepster, Chrysler built three Imperial Parade Phaetons for ceremonial use, one by New York City, one by Los Angeles, one intended for the White House but used for events throughout the United States; these were dual-cowl phaetons custom-built on Chrysler Corporation's stretched Imperial Crown Limousine chassis.
In the late 1930s, Buick included a "convertible phaeton" body style, a four-door convertible, as the doors had windows in them and the car could be closed. During the 1956 model year, Mercury marketed the four-door hardtop versions of its Montclair and Monterey models as "phaetons."In 2004, Volkswagen introduced a vehicle with the name Phaeton, which has a typical four-door sedan body style
Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic seabirds. They are the sole living representatives of the order Phaethontiformes. For many years they were considered part of the Pelecaniformes, but genetics indicates they are most related to the Eurypygiformes. There are three species in Phaethon; the scientific names are derived from Ancient Greek phaethon, "sun". They have predominantly white plumage with small feeble legs and feet. Tropicbirds were traditionally grouped in the order Pelecaniformes, which contained the pelicans and shags, darters and boobies and frigatebirds. More this grouping has been found to be massively paraphyletic and split again. Microscopic analysis of eggshell structure by Konstantin Mikhailov in 1995 found that the eggshells of tropicbirds lacked the covering of thick microglobular material of other Pelecaniformes. Jarvis, et al.'s 2014 paper "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds" aligns the tropicbirds most with the sunbittern and the kagu of the Eurypygiformes, with these two clades forming the sister group of the "core water birds", the Aequornithes, the Metaves hypothesis abandoned.
Order Phaethontiformes Family †Prophaethontidae Harrison & Walker 1976 Genus †Prophaethon Andrews 1899 †Prophaethon shrubsolei Andrews 1899 Genus †Lithoptila Bourdon, Bouya & Iarochène 2005 †Lithoptila abdounensis Bourdon, Bouya & Iarochène 2005 Family Phaethontidae Brandt 1840 Genus †Proplegadis Harrison & Walker 1971 †Proplegadis fisheri Harrison & Walker 1971 Genus †Phaethusavis Bourdon, Amaghzaz & Bouya 2008 †Phaethusavis pelagicus Bourdon, Amaghzaz & Bouya 2008 Genus †Heliadornis Olson 1985 †H. ashbyi Olson 1985 †H. minor Kessler 2009 †H. paratethydicus Mlíkovský 1997 Genus Phaethon Linnaeus 1758 Red-billed tropicbird P. aethereus Red-tailed tropicbird, P. rubricauda White-tailed tropicbird, P. lepturus The red-billed tropicbird is basal within the genus. The split between the red-billed tropicbird and the other two tropicbirds is hypothesized to have taken place about six million years ago, with the split between the red-tailed and white-tailed tropicbird taking place about four million years ago.
Phaethusavis and Heliadornis are prehistoric genera of tropicbirds described from fossils. Tropicbirds range in size from 76 cm to 94 cm to 112 cm in wingspan, their plumage is predominantly white, with elongated central tail feathers. The three species have different combinations of black markings on the face and wings, their bills are large and decurved. Their heads are large and their necks are short and thick, they have totipalmate feet. The legs of a tropicbird are located far back on their body, making walking impossible, so that they can only move on land by pushing themselves forward with their feet; the tropicbirds' call is a loud, shrill, but grating whistle, or crackle. These are given in a rapid series when they are in a display flight at the colony. In old literature they were referred to as boatswain birds due their loud whistling calls. Tropicbirds catch their prey by hovering and plunge-diving only into the surface-layer of the waters, they eat fish flying fish, squid. Tropicbirds tend to avoid multi-species feeding flocks, unlike the frigatebirds, which have similar diets.
Tropicbirds are solitary or in pairs away from breeding colonies. There they engage in spectacular courtship displays. For several minutes, groups of 2–20 birds and fly around one another in large, vertical circles, while swinging the tail streamers from side to side. If the female likes the presentation, she will mate with the male in his prospective nest-site. Disputes will occur between males trying to protect their mates and nesting areas. Tropicbirds nest in holes or crevices on the bare ground; the female lays one white egg, spotted brown, incubates for 40–46 days. The incubation is performed by both parents, but the female, while the male brings food to feed the female; the chick hatches with grey down. It will stay alone in the nest while both parents search for food, they will feed the chick twice every three days until fledging, about 12–13 weeks after hatching; the young are not able to fly initially. Tropicbird chicks have slower growth than nearshore birds, they tend to accumulate fat deposits while young.
That, along with one-egg clutches, appears to be an adaptation to a pelagic lifestyle where food is gathered in large amounts, but may be hard to find. Boland, C. R. J.. B.. "Assortative mating by tail streamer length in red-tailed tropicbirds Phaethon rubricauda breeding in the Coral Sea". Ibis. 146: 687–690. Doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.2004.00310.x. Oiseaux.net: Red-billed Tropicbird. Retrieved 4-SEP-2006. Spear, Larry B.. "At-sea behaviour and habitat use by tropicbirds in the eastern Pacific". Ibis. 147: 391–407. Doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.2005.00418.x. Tropicbird Identification by Don Roberson Tropicbird Photos by Brian Patteson Tropicbird videos on the Internet Bird Collection
The Fall of Phaeton (Rubens)
The Fall of Phaeton is a painting by the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens, featuring the ancient Greek myth of Phaeton, a recurring theme in visual arts. Rubens chose to depict the myth at the height of its action, with the thunderbolts hurled by Zeus to the right; the thunderbolts provide the light contrast to facilitate the display of horror on the faces of Phaeton, the horses and other figures while preserving the darkness of the event. The butterfly winged female figures represent the hours and seasons, who react in terror as the night and day cycle becomes disrupted; the great astrological circle that arches the heavens is disrupted. The assemblage of bodies form a diagonal oval in the center, separating dark and light sides of the canvas; the bodies are arranged so as to assist the viewer’s travel continually around that oval. Rubens painted The Fall of Phaeton in Rome and the painting was reworked around 1606/1608, it has been housed in the National Gallery of Art since 5 January 1990. Rubens painted other Greek mythological subjects, such as The Fall of Icarus, Perseus Freeing Andromeda, The Judgement of Paris
Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived; some ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but, according to the Suda, it was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete and there are fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together because his popularity grew as theirs declined—he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer and Menander. Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances; this new approach led him to pioneer developments that writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he became "the most tragic of poets", focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way unknown.
He was "the creator of...that cage, the theatre of Shakespeare's Othello, Racine's Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg," in which "...imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates", yet he was the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw. Unique among writers of Ancient Athens, Euripides demonstrated sympathy towards the underrepresented members of society, his male contemporaries were shocked by the'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were offered to other artists.
Traditional accounts of the author's life are found in many commentaries and include details such as these: He was born on Salamis Island around 480 BC, with parents Cleito and Mnesarchus, a retailer who lived in a village near Athens. Upon the receipt of an oracle saying that his son was fated to win "crowns of victory", Mnesarchus insisted that the boy should train for a career in athletics. In fact the boy was destined for a career on the stage, where however he was to win only five victories, one of, after his death, he served for a short time as both torch-bearer at the rites of Apollo Zosterius. His education was not confined to athletics: he studied painting and philosophy under the masters Prodicus and Anaxagoras, he had two disastrous marriages and both his wives—Melite and Choerine —were unfaithful. He became a recluse. "There he built an impressive library and pursued daily communion with the sea and sky". He retired to the "rustic court" of King Archelaus in Macedonia, where he died in 406 BC.
However, as mentioned in the introduction, biographical details such as these should be regarded with scepticism. They are derived entirely from three unreliable sources: folklore, employed by the ancients to lend colour to the lives of celebrated authors; this biography is divided into three sections corresponding to the three kinds of sources. Euripides was the youngest in a set of three great tragedians who were contemporaries: his first play was staged thirteen years after Sophocles' debut and only three years after Aeschylus's masterpiece, the Oresteia; the identity of the threesome is neatly underscored by a patriotic account of their roles during Greece's great victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis—Aeschylus fought there, Sophocles was just old enough to celebrate the victory in a boys' chorus and Euripides was born on the day of the battle. The apocryphal account that he composed his works in a cave on Salamis island was a late tradition and it symbolizes the isolation of an intellectual, rather ahead of his time.
Much of his life and his whole career coincided with the struggle between Athens and Sparta for hegemony in Greece but he didn't live to see the final defeat of his city. It is said that he died in Macedonia after being attacked by the Molossian hounds of King Archelaus and that his cenotaph near Piraeus was struck by lightning—signs of his unique powers, whether for good or ill. In an account by Plutarch, the catastrophic failure of the Sicilian expedition led Athenians to trade renditions of Euripides' lyrics to their enemies in return for food and drink. Plutarch is the source for the story that the victorious Spartan generals, having planned the demolition of Athens and the enslavement of its people, grew merciful after being entertained at a banquet by lyrics from Euripides' play Electra: "they felt that it would be a barbarous act to annihilate a ci
Phaethon was the son of the Oceanid Clymene and the solar deity Helios in Greek mythology. His name was used by the Ancient Greek as an alternative name for the planet Jupiter, the motions and cycles of which were personified in poetry and myth. Phaethon was said to be the son of the solar deity Helios. Alternatively, less common genealogies make him a son of Clymenus by Oceanid Merope, of Helios and Rhodos or of Helios and Prote. Phaethon, challenged by Epaphus and his playmates, sought assurance from his mother that his father was the sun god Helios, she told him to turn to his father for confirmation. He asked his father for some proof; when the god promised to grant him whatever he wanted, he insisted on being allowed to drive the sun chariot for a day. According to some accounts Helios tried to dissuade Phaethon, telling him that Zeus was not strong enough to steer these horses, but reluctantly kept his promise. Placed in charge of the chariot, Phaethon was unable to control the horses. In some versions, the Earth first froze when the horses climbed too high, but when the chariot scorched the Earth by swinging too near, Zeus decided to prevent disaster by striking it down with a thunderbolt.
Phaethon was killed in the process. Phaethon was the good friend or lover of Cycnus, who profoundly mourned his death and was turned into a swan. Phaethon's seven sisters, the Heliades mourned his loss, keeping vigil where Phaethon fell to Earth until the gods turned the sisters into poplar trees, their tears into amber. In Plato's Timaeus, Critias tells the story of Atlantis as recounted to Solon by an Egyptian priest, who prefaced the story by saying:"There have been, will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes. There is a story that you have preserved, that once upon a time, the son of Helios, having yoked the steeds in his father's chariot, because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father, burnt up all, upon the earth, was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt. Now this has the form of a myth, but signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the heavens around the earth, a great conflagration of things upon the earth, which recurs after long intervals."
In the version of the myth told by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, Phaethon ascends into heaven, the home of his suspected father. His mother Clymene had boasted that his father was the Phoebus. Phaethon went to his father who swore by the river Styx to give Phaethon anything he would ask for in order to prove his divine sonship. Phaethon wanted to drive the chariot of the sun for a day. Phoebus tried to talk him out of it by telling him that not Jupiter would dare to drive it, as the chariot was fiery hot and the horses breathed out flames, he said:"The first part of the track is steep, one that my fresh horses at dawn can hardly climb. In mid-heaven it is highest, where to look down on earth and sea alarms me, makes my heart tremble with awesome fear; the last part of the track needs sure control. Tethys herself, who receives me in her submissive waves, is accustomed to fear that I might dive headlong. Moreover the rushing sky is turning, drags along the remote stars, whirls them in rapid orbits. I move the opposite way, its momentum does not overcome me as it does all other things, I ride contrary to its swift rotation.
Suppose you are given the chariot. What will you do? Will you be able to counter the turning poles so that the swiftness of the skies does not carry you away? You conceive in imagination that there are groves there and cities of the gods and temples with rich gifts; the way runs through ambush, apparitions of wild beasts! If you keep your course, do not steer awry, you must still avoid the horns of Taurus the Bull, Sagittarius the Haemonian Archer, raging Leo and the Lion's jaw, Scorpio's cruel pincers sweeping out to encircle you from one side, Cancer's crab-claws reaching out from the other. You will not rule those proud horses, breathing out through mouth and nostrils the fires burning in their chests, they scarcely tolerate my control when their fierce spirits are hot, their necks resist the reins. Beware my boy, that I am not the source of a gift fatal to you, while something can still be done to set right your request!" Phaethon was adamant. When the day came, the fierce horses that drew the chariot felt that it was empty because of the lack of the sun-god's weight and went out of control.
Terrified, Phaethon dropped the reins. The horses veered from their course, scorching the earth, burning the vegetation, bringing the blood of the Ethiopians to the surface of their skin and so turning it black, changing much of Africa into desert, drying up rivers and lakes and shrinking the sea. Earth cried out to Jupiter, forced to intervene by striking Phaethon with a lightning bolt. Like a falling star, Phaethon plunged blazing into the river Eridanos; the epitaph on his tomb was: Here Phaethon lies who in the sun-god's chariot fared. And though he failed, more he dared. Phoebus, stricken with grief at his son's death, at first refused to resume his work of driving his chariot, but at the appeal of the other gods, including Jupiter, returned to his task. According to Clement of Alexandria in his Stromata, "...in the time of Crotopus occurred the burning of Phaethon, the deluges of