Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat
The Champion Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to thoroughbreds aged three years or older. It is run at Ascot over a distance of 1 mile and 2 furlongs, it is scheduled to take place as part of British Champions Day each year in October; the event was established in 1877, it was held at Newmarket. The inaugural running was won by Springfield. By the end of the century it had been won by five Classic winners; the present system of race grading was introduced in 1971, the Champion Stakes was classed at the highest level, Group 1. The race was included in the Breeders' Cup Challenge series in 2009 and 2010; the winner earned an automatic invitation to compete in the Breeders' Cup Turf. The Champion Stakes was transferred to Ascot in 2011, it became. It now serves as the middle-distance final of the British Champions Series. With an increased prize fund of £1,300,000, the Champion Stakes was Britain's richest horse race in 2011; the status was reclaimed by The Derby in 2012. Dam of two winners: Kind- Frankel Noble Mission Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Paris-Turf: "1978".
"1979". "1980". "1981". "1982". "1983". "1984". "1985". "1986". "1987". Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018
Prix du Jockey Club
The Prix du Jockey Club, sometimes referred to as the French Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in France open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Chantilly over a distance of 2,100 metres each year in early June; the format of the race was inspired by the English Derby, it was named in homage to the Jockey Club based at Newmarket in England. It was established in 1836, it was restricted to horses born and bred in France, its distance was 2,500 metres, this was cut to 2,400 metres in 1843. It was switched to Versailles during the Revolution of 1848, it was cancelled due to the Franco-Prussian War in 1871; the race was abandoned in 1915, for three years thereafter it was replaced by the Prix des Trois Ans. This took place at Moulins in 1916, Chantilly in 1917 and Maisons-Laffitte in 1918; the first two runnings after World War I were held at Longchamp. A substitute race called the Prix de Chantilly was run at Auteuil over 2,600 metres in 1940; the Prix du Jockey Club was staged at Longchamp in 1941 and 1942, at Le Tremblay over 2,300 metres in 1943 and 1944.
It returned to Longchamp for the following three years, on the second occasion it was opened to foreign participants. The present system of race grading was introduced in 1971, the Prix du Jockey Club was classed at the highest level, Group 1; the first foreign-trained horse to win was Assert in 1982. The distance was shortened to 2,100 metres in 2005. Nine winners of the Prix du Jockey Club have subsequently won the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe; the first was Ksar in 1921, the most recent was Dalakhani in 2003. 1 The 1843 and 1856 races finished as dead-heats, but each was decided by a run-off.2 The 1882, 1886 and 1908 races were dead-heats and have joint winners. List of French flat horse races France Galop / Racing Post: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 galop.courses-france.com: 1836–1859, 1860–1889, 1890–1919, 1920–1949, 1950–1979, 1980–present prixdujockeyclub.com – Official website.
France-galop.com – A Brief History: Prix du Jockey Club. Galopp-sieger.de – Prix du Jockey Club. Horseracingintfed.com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Prix du Jockey Club. Pedigreequery.com – Prix du Jockey Club – Chantilly. Tbheritage.com – Prix du Jockey Club
Pharis was a French Thoroughbred racehorse, "considered one of the greatest French-bred runners of the century," according to Thoroughbred Heritage. Named for the Spartan town of Pharis, he was owned and bred by leading French horseman, Marcel Boussac. Pharis was sired by Pharos who sired "one of the greatest racehorses of the Twentieth Century," Nearco, from Carissima by Clarissimus. Conditioned by English trainer Albert Swann, Pharis was sent to the track at age three. Ridden by English jockey Charlie Elliott, Pharis won all three races entered including the most prestigious race in France, the Grand Prix de Paris, his 1939 performances were such that a match race was being organized against Blue Peter, winner of England's 2,000 Guineas and Epsom Derby. However, on 3 September World War II broke out and Pharis would never race again. Pharis stood at stud at his owner's Haras de Fresnay-le-Buffard in Neuvy-au-Houlme in Orne where he notably sired Ardan in 1940 and whose 1944 performances would be the basis for Pharis earning that year's Leading sire in France title.
However, following the German occupation of France the Nazis seized some of the best racehorses in the country including Pharis, shipped to Germany to be used for breeding at the German National Stud. Following the end of the War in 1945, Pharis was recovered by his owner and returned to stud duty at Haras de Fresnay-le-Buffard. Pharis was a important and influential sire, producing at least 37 stakeswinners with 56 conditions race wins. In addition to Ardan, who won the 1944 Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, other offspring of Pharis include Palencia, Philius and Corejada. Sons, Ardan and Cortil were exported to the US. Pharis died on 27 February 1957. List of leading Thoroughbred racehorses Pharis at Pedigreepost.com Thoroughbred Heritage profile of Pharis
A stud animal is a registered animal retained for breeding. The terms for the male of a given animal species imply that the animal is intact—that is, not castrated—and therefore capable of siring offspring. A specialized vocabulary exists for de-sexed animals and those animals used in grading up to a purebred status. Stud females are used to breed further stud animals, but stud males may be used in crossbreeding programs. Both sexes of stud animals are used in artificial breeding programs. A stud farm, in animal husbandry, is an establishment for selective breeding using stud animals; this results in artificial selection. A stud fee is a price paid by the owner of a female animal, such as a horse or a dog, to the owner of a male animal for the right to breed to it. Service fees can range from a small amount for a local male animal of unknown breeding to several hundred thousand dollars for the right to breed a champion Thoroughbred race horse such as Storm Cat, who has earned stud fees of up to US$500,000.
Many owners of high-quality stallions offer a live foal guarantee with a breeding defined as a guarantee that once the mare leaves the stud farm confirmed to be in foal by a veterinarian, she will give birth to a foal that stands and nurses, or else the stud farm will re-breed the mare for no stud fee the following season. Most stud fees do not include the costs of boarding the female animal at the location of the stud animal, or of the cost and shipping semen if artificial insemination is used in lieu of live cover. Any veterinary expenses or medications are an additional cost to the owner of the female animal. Cattle Horse breeding Sheep Stallion
George Lambton was a British thoroughbred racehorse trainer. He was British flat racing Champion Trainer in the 1911 and 1912 seasons; the Honourable George Lambton was born in London on 23 December 1860, the fifth son of George Lambton, 2nd Earl of Durham and his wife, daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn. He was educated at Winchester and Eton, admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge on 11 June 1879, his entry in Alumni Cantabrigienses states "At Eton he was rather too near Ascot, at Cambridge rather too near Newmarket." He became a second lieutenant in the 2nd Derbyshire Militia in 1880 a lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion Sherwood Foresters. As an amateur jockey he won the Grand Steeple-Chase de Paris on Parasang in 1888. After a fall at Sandown Park Racecourse in 1892 he decided to take up training and in 1893 he was appointed trainer to the 16th Earl of Derby at Bedford Lodge stables in Newmarket, Suffolk, he trained Canterbury Pilgrim to win the 1896 Epsom Oaks for Lord Derby and the 1906 Epsom Oaks with Keystone II.
Lord Derby was succeeded by his son, the 17th Earl of Derby. George Lambton trained the winners of ten British Classic Races for the Earl including The Derby with Sansovino in 1924 and Hyperion in 1933, he trained the 1000 Guineas winner Diadem for Lord d'Abernon in 1917. In 1926 Lambton was replaced by Frank Butters as Lord Derby's trainer but remained as his racing manager and resumed training for the Earl in 1931. In 1933 however he was replaced by Colledge Leader, he became a public trainer and remained one until his retirement in 1945, dying a few days on 23 July. Lambton was the author of Horses I Have Known, he lived at Newmarket. George Lambton Avenue and George Lambton Playing Fields, both in the town, are named for him. Lambton married Cicely Margaret Horner on 7 December 1908 in London, they had four children: Flying Officer John Lambton, Royal Air Force officer, killed in action during World War II. Ann Katharine Swynford Lambton, historian of Persian studies. Captain Edward "Teddy" George Lambton, British Army officer and racehorse trainer.
Sybil Frances Mary Diadem Lambton, married Major William Jessop. Died from a fall in a point-to-point, his two daughters' middle names of Swynford and Diadem, were taken from the names of the winners of the 1910 St. Leger Stakes and the 1917 1,000 Guineas Stakes, respectively. 1,000 Guineas - - Canyon, Ferry, Tranquil 2,000 Guineas - - Colorado Oaks - - Canterbury Pilgrim, Keystone II Derby - - Sansovino, Hyperion St. Leger - - Swynford, Tranquil, Hyperion Wright, Howard; the Encyclopedia of Flat Racing. Robert Hale. P. 162. ISBN 0-7090-2639-0. George Lambton at the National Horseracing Museum website George Lambton in the National Portrait Gallery
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona