Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips; the term is restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded; the most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds have simultaneous velarization, the process may be more called labio-velarization. In phonology, labialization may refer to a type of assimilation process. Labialization is the most widespread secondary articulation in the world's languages, it is phonemically contrastive in Northwest Caucasian and Salishan language families, among others. This contrast is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European, the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. American English has three degrees of labialization: tight rounded, slight rounded, unrounded, which in vowels is sometimes called'spread'; these secondary articulations are not universal. For example, French shares the English slight rounding of /ʃ/, /ʒ/ while Russian does not have slight rounding in its postalveolar fricatives.
A few languages, including Arrernte and Mba, have contrastive labialized forms for all of their consonants. Out of 706 language inventories surveyed by Ruhlen, labialization occurred most with velar and uvular segments and least with dental and alveolar segments. With non-dorsal consonants, labialization may include velarization as well. Labialization is not restricted to lip-rounding; the following articulations have either been described as labialization, or been found as allophonic realizations of prototypical labialization: Labiodental frication, found in Abkhaz Complete bilabial closure, found in Abkhaz and Ubykh "Labialization" without noticeable rounding of the lips, found in the Iroquoian languages. It may be. Rounding without velarization, found in Shona and in the Bzyb dialect of Abkhaz. Eastern Arrernte has labialization at all manners of articulation. Marshallese has labialization at all places of articulation except for coronal obstruents. In North America, languages from a number of families have sounds that sound labialized without participation of the lips.
See Tillamook language for an example. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, labialization of velar consonants is indicated with a raised w modifier, as in /kʷ/. There are diacritics to indicate greater or lesser degrees of rounding; these are used with vowels, but may occur with consonants. For example, in the Athabaskan language Hupa, voiceless velar fricatives distinguish three degrees of labialization, transcribed either /x/, /x̹/, /xʷ/ or /x/, /x̜ʷ/, /xʷ/; the extensions to the IPA has two additional symbols for degrees of rounding: Spread and open-rounded. It has a symbol for labiodentalized sounds. If precision is desired, the Abkhaz and Ubykh articulations may be transcribed with the appropriate fricative or trill raised as a diacritic:. For simple labialization, Ladefoged & Maddieson resurrected an old IPA symbol, which would be placed above a letter with a descender such as ɡ. However, their chief example is Shona sv and zv, which they transcribe /s̫/ and /z̫/ but which seem to be whistled sibilants, without being labialized.
Another possibility is to use the IPA diacritic for rounding, distinguishing for example the labialization in English soon and swoon. The open rounding of English /ʃ/ is unvelarized. Labialization refers to a specific type of assimilatory process where a given sound become labialized due to the influence of neighboring labial sounds. For example, /k/ may become /kʷ/ in the environment of /o/, or /a/ may become /o/ in the environment of /p/ or /kʷ/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages as well as some Australian languages rounding has shifted from the vowels to the consonants, producing a wide range of labialized consonants and leaving in some cases only two phonemic vowels; this appears to have been the case in Eastern Arrernte, for example. The labial vowel sounds still remain, but only as allophones next to the now-labial consonant sounds. Labialized voiceless alveolar stop labialized voiced alveolar stop labialized voiceless velar stop labialized voiced velar stop ( labialized voiceless uvular stop ( labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop labialized voiced uvular stop ( labialized glottal stop ( labialized voiceless bilabial stop ( labialized voiced bilabial stop ( labialized prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive (in Tamamb
In linguistics articulatory phonetics, tongue shape describes the shape that the tongue assumes when it makes a sound. Because the sibilant sounds have such a high perceptual prominence, tongue shape is important. For non-sibilant sounds, the relevant variations in tongue shape can be adequately described by the concept of secondary articulation, in particular palatalization and pharyngealization. Only one secondary articulation can occur for a given sound. In addition, the acoustic quality of velarization and pharyngealization is similar so no language contrasts the two; the following varieties of tongue shapes are defined for sibilants, from sharpest and highest-pitched to dullest and lowest-pitched: Grooved like: with a groove running down the centerline of the tongue. The groove channels a high-velocity jet of air into the teeth, which results in a high-pitched, piercing "hissing" sound; because of the prominence of the sounds, they are the most common and most stable of sibilants cross-linguistically.
They are denoted with a s or z, as in soon or zone. Grooved palatalized like: Combination of grooved shape with palatalization, the raising/bowing of the middle of the tongue. Alveolo-palatal like, or "flat" palatalized: with a convex, V-shaped tongue and palatalized. Palato-alveolar like, or "domed:" with a "domed" tongue and moderately palatalized; such sounds occur in English and are denoted with sh, ch, g, j, or si, as in shin, chin and vision. Retroflex like: with a flat or concave tongue and no palatalization; such sounds occur in a large number of varieties, some of which go by other names such as "flat postalveolar" or "apico-alveolar." The subapical palatal, or "true retroflex," sounds are the dullest and lowest-pitched of all the sibilants, they have the greatest amount of concavity of the tongue. The last three types of sounds are known as "hushing" sounds because of their quality, as opposed to the "hissing" grooved sounds. Palatalization is an inherent part of the definition of the above varieties and cannot be varied independently.
Ladefoged, Peter. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation. Cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are rare, but they do not represent a exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives, they are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, in Umotína, Hawaiian Creole English and as paralinguistic sounds elsewhere. They are relatively common in disordered speech, the diacritic is provided for in the extensions to the IPA. Linguolabial consonants are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet by adding the "seagull" diacritic, U+033C ̼ COMBINING SEAGULL BELOW, to the corresponding alveolar consonant, or with the apical diacritic, U+033A ̺ COMBINING INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW, on the corresponding bilabial consonant.
Linguolabials are produced by constricting the airflow between the upper lip. They are attested in a number of manners of articulation including stops and fricatives, can be produced with the tip of the tongue, blade of the tongue, or the bottom of the tongue. Acoustically they are more similar to alveolars than bilabials. Linguolabials can be distinguished from bilabials and alveolars acoustically by formant transitions and nasal resonances. In Vanuatu, some of the Santo–Malekula languages have shifted from labial to dental consonants via an intermediate linguolabial stage, which remains in other Santo and Malekula languages. In Nese, for example, labials have become linguolabial before nonrounded vowels. Place of articulation List of phonetics topics Ladefoged, Peter; the Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Maddieson, Ian. "Linguo-labials". In Harlow, Ray. VICAL 1: Oceanic Languages: Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Part Two.
Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Pp. 349–375. Olson, Kenneth. "The voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko". Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society. 45: 519–530
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are a type of front vowel. Rounded front vowels are centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation; this is one reason. The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: close front unrounded vowel close front compressed vowel near-close front unrounded vowel near-close front compressed vowel close-mid front unrounded vowel close-mid front compressed vowel open-mid front unrounded vowel open-mid front compressed vowel near-open front unrounded vowel open front unrounded vowel open front rounded vowel There are front vowels without dedicated symbols in the IPA: close front protruded vowel near-close front protruded vowel close-mid front protruded vowel mid front unrounded vowel or mid front compressed vowel or mid front protruded vowel or open-mid front protruded vowel As above, other front vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨i̞⟩, ⟨e̝⟩ or ⟨ɪ̟⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel.
In articulation, front retracted vowels. In this conception, front vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, and, mid-central vowels. Raised or retracted vowels may be fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to next to /j/ or /ħ/. In the history of many languages, for example French and Japanese, front vowels have altered preceding velar or alveolar consonants, bringing their place of articulation towards palatal or postalveolar; this change can be allophonic variation. This historical palatalization is reflected in the orthographies of several European languages, including the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ of all Romance languages, the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic, the ⟨κ⟩, ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ in Greek. English without as much regularity. However, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has altered the spelling after the pronunciation Back vowel List of phonetics topics
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel; when a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, back vowels tend to be rounded. However, some languages, such as French and German, distinguish rounded and unrounded front vowels of the same height, Vietnamese distinguishes rounded and unrounded back vowels of the same height. Alekano has only unrounded vowels. In the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels. There are diacritics, U+0339 ̹ COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW and U+031C ̜ COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW, to indicate greater and lesser degrees of rounding, respectively. There are two types of vowel rounding: compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together and the lips protrude like a tube, with their inner surface visible.
In compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are drawn together horizontally and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the lips form the opening, whereas in compressed vowels it is the margins of the lips which form the opening. Observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, a contrast between the two types has been found to be phonemic in only one instance. There are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the corners spread and, by the same definitions, unrounded.
The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩. The distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio-palatalized consonants as in Twi "Twi" and adwuma "work", whereas and labialized consonants are protruded. In Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/; the distinction applies marginally to other consonants. In Southern Teke, the sole language reported to have a phonemic /ɱ/, the labiodental sound is "accompanied by strong protrusion of both lips", whereas the found as an allophone of /m/ before /f, v/ in languages such as English is not protruded, as the lip contacts the teeth along its upper or outer edge. In at least one account of speech acquisition, a child's pronunciation of clown involves a lateral with the upper teeth contacting the upper-outer edge of the lip, but in crown, a non-lateral is pronounced with the teeth contacting the inner surface of the protruded lower lip.
Some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all. An example is /ɒ/, which in English has little if any rounding of the lips; the "throaty" sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue found in non-rhotic /ɜː/. It is possible to mimic the acoustic effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so-called "cheek rounding", inherent in back protruded vowels; the technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like. It is not clear; the central and the back have not been reported to occur in any language. The lip position of unrounded vowels may be classified into two groups: neutral. Front vowels are pronounced with the lips spread, the spreading becomes more significant as the height of the vowel increases. Open vowels are neutral, i.e. neither rounded nor spread, because the open jaw allows for limited rounding or spreading of the lips. This is reflected in the IPA's definition of the cardinal, unrounded yet not spread either.
Protruded rounding is the vocalic equivalent of consonantal labialization. Thus, rounded vowels and labialized consonants affect one another by phonetic assimilation: Rounded vowels labialize consonants, labialized consonants round vowels. In many languages, such effects are minor phonetic detail. For example, in Standard Chinese, the vowel /ɔ/ is pronounced after labial consonants, an allophonic effect, so important that it is encoded in pinyin transliteration: alveolar /tu̯ɔ˥˥/'many' vs. labial /pu̯ɔ˥˥/'wave'. In Vietnamese, the opposite assimilation takes place: velar codas /k/ and /ŋ/ are pronounced as labialized and or labial-velar and, after the rounded vowels /u/ and /o/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages of the Caucasus and the Sepik languages of Papua New Guinea rounded vowels have become unrounded, with the rounding being taken up by the consonant, thus and are phonemically /kwɨ/ and /kwə/. In the extinct Ubykh, were phonemically /kʷə/ and /kʷa/. A few ancient Indo-European languages like Latin had labiovelar consonants.
It is rare for accents of English to differentiate vowels only by their roundedness. Minimal pairs like this can be found in some British dialects (such as the Cardiff dialect, Geordie and P
The Aryepiglottic folds are triangular folds of mucous membrane enclosing ligamentous and muscular fibres. They are located at the entrance of the larynx, extending from the lateral borders of the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilages, hence the name'aryepiglottic', they form the upper borders of the quadrangular membrane. The folds are triangular in shape, being narrow in front, wide behind, sloping obliquely downward and backward, they are bound, by the epiglottis. Within the posterior part of each aryepiglottic fold exists a cuneiform cartilage which forms whitish prominence, the cuneiform tubercle; the aryepiglottic folds are shortened in laryngomalacia. Under certain circumstances, the aryepiglottic folds take part in phonation, for instance in the singing technique of vocal growl, such as practiced by Louis Armstrong and other jazz singers, it has been proven that the approximation of the aryepiglottic folds during vocalization may establish sustained co-oscillations, at low frequencies, producing the growl or growling effect.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1079 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:31:17-0104 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Atlas image: rsa3p10 at the University of Michigan Health System lesson11 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman