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2020 Delaware Democratic primary

The 2020 Delaware Democratic primary will take place on Tuesday, April 28, 2020, as one of several northeastern states in the "Acela primary" voting on the same date in the Democratic Party presidential primaries for the 2020 presidential election. The Delaware primary is a closed primary, with the state awarding 28 delegates, of which 17 are pledged delegates allocated on the basis of the results of the primary. Delaware joins several northeastern states in holding primaries on the same date dubbed the "Acela primary" in reference to the namesake Amtrak service. Voting is expected to take place throughout the state from 7:00 a.m. until 8:00 p.m. In the closed primary, candidates must meet a threshold of 15 percent at the city and county or statewide level in order to be considered viable; the 17 pledged delegates to the 2020 Democratic National Convention will be allocated proportionally on the basis of the results of the primary. Of the 17 pledged delegates, between 1 and 6 are allocated to each of the state's 3 congressional districts and Wilmington and another 2 are allocated to party leaders and elected officials, in addition to 4 at-large pledged delegates.

These delegate totals do not account for pledged delegate bonuses or penalties from timing or clustering. On Saturday, May 9, 2020, delegate selection caucuses will be held in Delaware, following representative district-level caucuses in March where delegate selection caucus delegates will be chosen. National convention subdivision-level delegates will be chosen during this process, as well as the 4 pledged at-large and 2 PLEO delegates to send to the Democratic National Convention; the 17 pledged delegates Delaware sends to the national convention will be joined by 11 unpledged PLEO delegates. The Green Papers delegate allocation summary Delaware Democratic Party delegate selection plan

Akha language

Akha is the language spoken by the Akha people of southern China, eastern Burma, northern Laos, northern Thailand. Western scholars group Akha and Honi into the Hani languages, treating all three as separate mutually unintelligible, but related, languages; the Hani languages are, in turn, classified in the Hanoish branch of Loloish. Alternatively, Chinese linguists consider all Hani languages, including Akha, to be dialects of a single language in accordance with China's official classification of ethnic groups, which groups all speakers of Hani languages into one ethnicity. Speakers of Akha live in remote mountainous areas where it has developed into a wide-ranging dialect continuum. Dialects from villages separated by as little as ten kilometers may show marked differences; the isolated nature of Akha communities has resulted in several villages with divergent dialects. Dialects from extreme ends of the continuum and the more divergent dialects are mutually unintelligible; the Akha dialect spoken in Alu village, 55 kilometers northwest of Chiang Rai city in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand is described below.

Katsura conducted his study during the late 1960s. With a population of 400 it was, at the time, one of the largest Akha villages in Northern Thailand and was still growing as a result of cross-border migration from Burma; the Akha in Alu communicated with outsiders using either Lahu Na or Shan. The Alu dialect has 24 consonants depending on how the syllabic nasal is analyzed; the /m̩/, realized variously as or, can be analyzed as a separate single consonant or as sequences of /ʔm/ and /hm/. Katsura listed the / m / component of the syllabic consonant with the vowels. *Akha /ʔ/ is described as glottal "tension" rather than a true stop Any consonant may begin a syllable, but native Akha syllables which don't end in a vowel may only end in either -m or -ɔŋ. A few loan words have been noted that end in - - aj. In the case of a nasal coda, some vowels become nasalized. Alu Akha distinguishes ten vowel qualities, contrasting rounded and unrounded back vowels at three heights while only the mid front vowels contrast roundness.

Three vowels, /u/, /ɔ/ and /ɯ/, show marked nasalization when followed by a nasal consonant becoming /ũ/, /ɔ̃/ and /ɯ̃/, respectively. The table below lists the Akha varieties surveyed in Kingsada and Kato, with autonyms and informant birth places given as well. All locations are in Phongsaly Province, northern Laos. Akha Chicho, spoken in Ban Pasang village, Muang Sing district, Luang Namtha Province, is documented in Hayashi. Hayashi reports. In Jinghong City and Menghai County, the two major Hani subgroups are Jiuwei 鸠为 and Jizuo 吉坐; the Jizuo 吉坐 are the largest Hani ethnic subgroup in Jinghong. The Jiuwei claim to have migrated from Mojiang; the Jiuwei live in various villages in Jinghong, including: Mengbozhai 勐波寨, Menghan Town 勐罕寨, Jinghong City Agupu 阿古普 in Leiwu 类吴, Mengsong Township 勐宋, Jinghong City Napazhai 那帕寨 in Damenglong 大勐笼, Jinghong City Baiya village 拜牙村 in Menghun 勐混, Menghai County Babingzhai 坝丙寨, Xidingshan 西定山, Menghai CountyThere are ethnic Hani that are locally called Aini 爱尼 living in 7 villages on Nanlin Mountain 南林山 of southwestern Jinghong, namely Manbage 曼八阁, Manjinglong 曼景龙, Manjingnan 曼景囡, Mangudu 曼固独, Manbaqi 曼把奇, Manbasan 曼巴伞, Manjingmai 曼景卖.

Akha comparative vocabulary list Hansson, Inga-Lill. "Akha". In Graham Thurgood and Randy J. LaPolla; the Sino-Tibetan Languages. Routledge Language Family Series. London &New York: Routledge. Pp. 236–252. Lewis, Paul. "Akha phonology". Anthropological Linguistics. 10: 8–18. JSTOR 30029167. Lewis, Paul. "Tone in the Akha language". Anthropological Linguistics. 15: 183–188. JSTOR 30029534. Nishida Tatsuo 西田 龍雄. アカ語の音素体系: タイ国北部における山地民アカ族の言語の記述的研究. 音声科学研究 Studia phonologica. 4: 1–36. Word lists for language varieties of LaosKingsadā, Thō̜ngphet, Tadahiko Shintani. 1999. Basic Vocabularies of the Languages Spoken in Phongxaly, Lao P. D. R. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Shintani, Ryuichi Kosaka, Takashi Kato. 2001. Linguistic Survey of Phongxaly, Lao P. D. R. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Kato, Takashi. 2008. Linguistic Survey of Tibeto-Burman languages in Lao P. D. R. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.

Hayashi, Norihiko. 2016. A Phonological Sketch of Akha Buli: A Lolo-Burmese language of Muang Sing, Laos. 神戸市外国語大学外国学研究 92: 67-98. Hayashi, Norihiko. 2018. A Phonological Sketch of Akha Chicho: A Lolo-Burmese language of Luang Namtha, Laos. Proceedings of the 51st International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics. Kyoto: Kyoto University. ELAR archive of Archaic Akha language documentation materials


Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm phylum. Most of the species—and the best-known—are those in the subclass Eucestoda, their bodies consist of many similar units, known as proglottids, which are packages of eggs which are shed into the environment to infect other organisms. Species of the other subclass, are fish parasites. All cestodes are parasitic; the adults live in the digestive tracts of vertebrates, while the larvae live in the bodies of other animals, either vertebrates or invertebrates. For example, Diphyllobothrium has at least two intermediate hosts, a crustacean and one or more freshwater fish; some cestodes are host-specific. Some six thousand species have been described; the adult tapeworm has a scolex, or head, a short neck, a strobila, or segmented body formed of proglottids. Tapeworms anchor themselves to the inside of the intestine of their host using their scolex, which has hooks, suckers, or both, they absorb nutrients directly from the host's gut. The neck continually produces each one containing a reproductive tract.

All tapeworms are hermaphrodites, with each individual having both male and female reproductive organs. Humans are subject to infection by several species of tapeworms if they eat undercooked meat such as pork and fish, or if they live in, or eat food prepared in, conditions of poor hygiene; the unproven concept of using tapeworms as a slimming aid has been touted since around 1900. All 6000 species of Cestoda are parasites intestinal. T. Saginata, the beef tapeworm, can grow up to 20 m. Species with small hosts tend to be small. For example and lemming tapeworms are only 13–240 mm in length, those parasitizing shrews only 0.8–60 mm. Cestodes have no gut or mouth and absorb nutrients from the host's alimentary tract through their specialised neodermal cuticle, or tegument, through which gas exchange takes place; the tegument protects the parasite from the host's digestive enzymes and allows it to transfer molecules back to the host. The body form of adult eucestodes is simple, with a scolex, or grasping head, adapted for attachment to the definitive host, a short neck, a strobila, or segmented trunk formed of proglottids, which makes up the worm's body.

Members of the subclass Cestodaria, the Amphilinidea and Gyrocotylidea, are wormlike but not divided into proglottids. Amphilinids have a muscular proboscis at the front end; the Cestodaria have 10 larval hooks. The scolex, which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host, is minute in comparison with the proglottids, it is a four-sided knob, armed with suckers or hooks or both. In some species, the scolex is dominated by bothria, or "sucking grooves" that function like suction cups. Cyclophyllid cestodes can be identified by the presence of four suckers on their scolices. Other species have ruffled or leaflike scolices, there may be other structures to aid attachment. In the larval stage the scolex is shaped and is known as the protoscolex. Circular and longitudinal muscles lie under the neodermis, beneath which further longitudinal, dorso-ventral and transverse muscles surround the central parenchyma. Protonephridial cells drain into the parenchyma. There are four longitudinal collection canals, two dorso-lateral and two ventro-lateral, running along the length of the worm, with a transverse canal linking the ventral ones at the posterior of each segment.

When the proglottids begin to detach, these canals open to the exterior through the terminal segment. The main nerve centre of a cestode is a cerebral ganglion in its scolex. Nerves emanate from the ganglion to supply the general body muscular and sensory endings, with two lateral nerve cords running the length of the strobila; the cirrus and vagina are innervated, sensory endings around the genital pore are more plentiful than in other areas. Sensory function includes both chemoreception. Once anchored to the host's intestinal wall, tapeworms absorb nutrients through their surface as their food flows past them. Cestodes are unable to synthesise lipids, which they use for reproduction, are therefore dependent on their hosts; the tapeworm body is composed of a series of segments called proglottids. These are produced from the neck by mitotic growth, followed by transverse constriction; the segments become more mature as they are displaced backwards by newer segments. Each proglottid contains an independent reproductive tract, like some other flatworms, cestodes excrete waste through flame cells located in the proglottids.

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Reserve Defence Forces Representative Association

The Reserve Defence Forces Representative Association is the representative body for all ranks of the Reserve Defence Forces in Ireland. RDFRA was founded in 1992 and is responsible for representing and furthering the interests of active service members of the Irish Reserve Defence Forces, made up of the Army Reserve and Naval Service Reserve. Membership is open to all other ranked personnel of the Reserve. Funding comes from government subvention and annual membership deductions; the RDFRA National Office is located in Clarke Barracks at the Defence Forces Training Centre in the Curragh Camp, County Kildare. Permanent Defence Force Other Ranks Representative Association Representative Association of Commissioned Officers Ombudsman for the Defence Forces RDFRA website

Urodynamic testing

Urodynamic testing or urodynamics is a study that assesses how the bladder and urethra are performing their job of storing and releasing urine. Urodynamic tests can help explain symptoms such as: incontinence frequent urination sudden, strong urges to urinate but nothing comes out problems starting a urine stream painful urination problems emptying the bladder recurrent urinary tract infectionsUrodynamic tests are performed in Urology, Gynecology, OB/GYN, Internal medicine, Primary care offices. Urodynamics will provide the physician with the information necessary to diagnose the cause and nature of a patient's incontinence, thus giving the best treatment options available. Urodynamics is conducted by urologists or urogynecologists; the tests are most arranged for men with enlarged prostate glands, for women with incontinence that has either failed conservative treatment or requires surgery. The most important group in whom these tests are performed are those with a neuropathy such as spinal injury.

In some of these patients, the micturition reflex can be out of control and the detrusor pressures generated can be life-threatening. Symptoms reported by the patient are an unreliable guide to the underlying dysfunction of the lower urinary tract; the purpose of urodynamics is to provide objective confirmation of the pathology that a patient's symptoms would suggest. For example, a patient complaining of urinary urgency, with increased frequency of urination can have overactive bladder syndrome; the cause of this might be detrusor overactivity, in which the bladder muscle contracts unexpectedly during bladder filling. Urodynamics can be used to confirm the presence of detrusor overactivity, which may help guide treatment. An overactive detrusor can be associated with urge incontinence; the American Urogynecologic Society does not recommend that urodynamics are part of initial diagnosis for uncomplicated overactive bladder. These tests may be as simple as urinating behind a curtain while a doctor listens, but are more extensive in western medicine.

A typical urodynamic test takes about 30 minutes to perform. It involves the use of a small catheter used to fill the record measurements. What is done depends on what the presenting problem is; the urine volume is measured. High volumes may be associated with urinary tract infections. A volume of greater than 50 ml in children has been described as constituting post-void residual urine. High levels can be associated with overflow incontinence; the urine is sent for microscopy and culture to check for infection. Uroflowmetry: Free uroflowmetry measures how fast the patient can empty his/her bladder. Pressure uroflowmetry again measures the rate of voiding, but with simultaneous assessment of bladder and rectal pressures, it helps demonstrate the reasons for difficulty in voiding, for example bladder muscle weakness or obstruction of the bladder outflow. Multichannel cystometry: measures the pressure in the rectum and in the bladder, using two pressure catheters, to deduce the presence of contractions of the bladder wall, during bladder filling, or during other provocative maneuvers.

The strength of the urethra can be tested during this phase, using a cough or Valsalva maneuver, to confirm genuine stress incontinence. Urethral pressure profilometry: measures strength of sphincter contraction. Electromyography measurement of electrical activity in the bladder neck. Assessing the "tightness" along the length of the urethra. Fluoroscopy of the bladder and bladder neck during voiding. Males with benign prostate hyperplasia are influenced by voiding position: in the sitting position, the PVR, Qmax and TQ were shown to improve. Apart from the possibilities in the management of this condition, it shows that measurements of urodynamics should be performed in a standardized position, else false-positive or negative findings may be found. National Institute of Health Doug Small's urodynamic pages