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The Phasmatidae are a family of the stick insects. They belong to the superfamily Anareolatae of suborder Verophasmatodea. Like many of their relatives, the Phasmatidae are capable of regenerating limbs and reproduce by parthenogenesis. Despite their bizarre threatening appearance, they are harmless to humans; the Phasmatidae contain some of the largest insects in existence. The discovered Chan's megastick of the Clitumninae can grow to a total length of over 0.5 m. Following the Phasmid Study Group, nine subfamilies are recognized in the Phasmatidae. Other treatments differ, sometimes recognizing as few as six; the Lonchodinae were often placed in the Diapheromeridae, the other family of the Anareolatae. The Phasmatinae are expanded to include the two tribes here separated as the Clitumninae, while the Extatosomatinae may be included in the Tropidoderinae as a tribe; the Phasmid Species File lists: Cladomorphinae Clitumninae Extatosomatinae: contains the single genus Extatosoma Gray, 1833 Lonchodinae Pachymorphinae Phasmatinae Platycraninae Tropidoderinae XeroderinaeIn addition, a number of Phasmatidae taxa are here considered incertae sedis: Tribe Achriopterini Tribe Stephanacridini Genus Monoiognosis Genus Spathomorpha Consequently, numerous taxa are transferred or re-transferred to other genera, which results in 22 new or revised combinations or status of genera and species.

James Wood-Mason List of Phasmatidae genera Balderson, J. Rentz, D. C. F. and Roach, A. M. E.. in Houston, W. K. K. & Wells, A. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 23. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, Australia. Pp. 347–376. Bradley, J. C. and Galil, B. S.. The taxonomic arrangement of the Phasmatodea with keys to the subfamilies and tribes. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 79: 176-208. Gurney, A. B.. Notes on some remarkable Australasian walkingsticks, including a synopsis of the Genus Extatosoma. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 40: 373-396. Key, K. H. L.. Phasmatodea. Pp. 394–404 in CSIRO The Insects of Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, Vol. 1. Kirby, W. F.. A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. 8vo. Vol. 1. Orthoptera, Cursoria, et Gressoria. London: Longmans & Co. X 501 pp. Latreille, P. A.. Volume 3: Les Crustacés, Les Arachnides et Les Insectes, Cuvier, G. L. C. F. D.. Le Régne Animal. Paris. Rentz, D. C. F. Grasshopper Country, Chapter 16, Phasmatodea: Leaf and Stick Insects, pp. 244–257.

Media related to Phasmatidae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Phasmatidae at Wikispecies AnimalDiversity: Phasmatidae CSIRO: Phasmatidae Guide to Stick Insects


EP7 is the 7th EP by the electronic music group Autechre, released by Warp Records on June 7, 1999. It is classified as an EP by the band despite being long enough to qualify as an album; the record was released in two parts on vinyl, named EP7.1 and EP7.2. The name of this EP prompted Warp Records to give the name LP5 to the released untitled album by the band; the fractal on the cover was designed with a circuit board designer. The minisite created by Warp featured a fractal generator that would create new artwork similar to that featured throughout the liner notes. EP7 received mixed to positive reviews. Ryan Screiber of Pitchfork Media said the album's primary problem was a "lack of diversity" and that the tracks " little in the way of originality"; the original UK CD pressing includes a hidden track in the pregap. The track, which can be accessed by rewinding from the beginning of "Rpeg", is 6:44 in duration and is followed by 3:01 of silence; some CD players do not handle the trick, may skip "Rpeg" because of it.

The hidden track was not included on the US release nor on vinyl. In 2010, Pitchfork Media included it in their list of "ten unusual CD-era gimmicks". All tracks are written by Sean Booth and Rob Brown


Rapaninae is a subfamily of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Muricidae. This subfamily was known as Thaidinae until 1993; the shells of species in this subfamily do not have a varix, but strong axial sculpture is present. Genera within the subfamily Rapaninae include: Acanthais Vermeij & Kool, 1994 Agnewia Woods, 1878 Concholepas Lamarck, 1801 Cymia Mörch, 1860 Dicathais Iredale, 1936 Drupa Röding, 1798 Drupella Thiele, 1925 Drupina Dall, 1923 Mancinella Link, 1807 Nassa Röding, 1798 Neorapana Cooke, 1918 Neothais Iredale, 1912 Phycothais Tan, 2003 Pinaxia Adams & Adams, 1853 Plicopurpura Cossmann, 1903 Purpura Bruguière, 1789 Rapana Schumacher, 1817 Reishia Kuroda & Habe, 1971 Ricinella Schumacher, 1817 Semiricinula Martens, 1903 Stramonita Schumacher, 1817 Taurasia Bellardi, 1882 Thais Röding, 1798 Tribulus Adams & Adams, 1853 Vexilla Swainson, 1840Genera brought into synonymy Canrena Link, 1807: synonym of Drupa Röding, 1798 Conchopatella Herrmannsen, 1847: synonym of Concholepas Lamarck, 1801 Conchulus Rafinesque, 1815: synonym of Concholepas Lamarck, 1801 Conothais Kuroda, 1930: synonym of Pinaxia Adams & Adams, 1853 Cuma Swainson, 1840: synonym of Cymia Mörch, 1860 Cumopsis Rovereto, 1899: synonym of Cymia Mörch, 1860 Iopas Adams & Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassa Röding, 1798 Menathais Iredale, 1937: synonym of Thais H. & Adams, 1853 Microtoma Swainson, 1840: synonym of Plicopurpura Cossmann, 1903 Patellipurpura Dall, 1909: synonym of Plicopurpura Cossmann, 1903 Pentadactylus Mörch, 1852: synonym of Drupa Röding, 1798 Planithais Bayle in Fischer, 1884: synonym of Tribulus Adams & Adams, 1853 Provexillum Hedley, 1918: synonym of Vexilla Swainson, 1840 Purpura Röding, 1798: synonym of Trunculariopsis Cossmann, 1921 Purpurella Dall, 1872: synonym of Plicopurpura Cossmann, 1903 Ricinula Lamarck, 1816: synonym of Drupa Röding, 1798 Simplicotaurasia Sacco, 1890: synonym of Taurasia Bellardi, 1882 Sistrum Montfort, 1810: synonym of Drupa Röding, 1798 Miocene Gastropods and Biostratigraphy of the Kern River Area, California.


Papilio paradoxa

Papilio paradoxa, the great blue mime, is a swallowtail butterfly found in India and parts of South-East Asia. The butterfly belongs to Chilasa, of the genus Papilio, it is an excellent mimic of different species of Euploea. From Charles Thomas Bingham The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma, Butterflies Vol. 1: Papilio paradoxus Race telearchus Race telearchus, Hewitson-Male, Upperside: forewing dark brown richly shot with blue, a short oval streak or large spot and a postdiscal and subterminal complete series of spots bluish white. Hindwing rich hair-brown, with or without a subterminal series of white specks that increase in size anteriorly. Underside rich chocolate brown. Forewing: the cellular short streak faintly indicated, the postdiscal series of spots of the upperside not present, the subterminal series white, the spots much reduced in size. Hindwing: markings as on the upperside. Cilia dark brown alternated sparsely with white. Antennae black. Female. Upperside, forewing: basal half dull brown, apical half brown shot with brilliant blue.

Hindwing brown, a series of comparatively broad whitish streaks in the cell and in all the interspaces, those in the latter end in a postdiscal series of whitish spots. Cilia brown, white in the middle of the interspaces. Underside: pale dull brown markings much as on the upperside, but larger, more diffuse, with the addition on the forewing of whitish streaks in the cell and in the interspaces posteriorly. Antennae black; the second and rarer form of the female resembles the male, but is larger and paler, with the pale blue-glossed spots on the upperside of the forewing elongate and more prominent and the ground colour lighter than in the male. Expanse: 120–150 mm Habitat: Assam, Tenasserim, extending to Siam. Papilio caunus Race danisepa, Butler- Male. Upperside rich velvety brown shot with blue. Forewing: apical third of cell, four short streaks beyond in interspaces 4,5,6 and 9 and a subterminal series of spots curved inwards opposite the apex, bluish white. Hindwing: the cell, a series of streaks from the bases of interspaces 1 to 7 and an incomplete subterminal series of minute spots, white.

Underside brown without the blue gloss. Antennae, head and abdomen black. Female. Resembles the male, but the blue gloss on both forewing and hindwing is more restricted, the ground colour paler brown, somewhat of a rich golden bronze, the white markings are fuller and broader. Expanse 110–132 mm Habitat: The hills of Assam. I first came across this magnificent butterfly on the Tannjah Pass, 1000 feet, over the Dawnat mountains in Tenasserim, until I had caught and examined it, mistook it for an extraordinarily large speciment of Euploea rhadamanthus, it is sometimes, notwithstanding its disguise and preyed upon by the Pigmy Falcon, as in the nest-hole of a pair of these birds I once found the fragment of a forewing of a butterfly, identified by the late Mr. de Niceville as belonging to this form of P. caunus. The butterfly is found in northern India and Myanmar, it is found in southern China, Thailand, Kampuchea and eastern Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Never common but not known to be threatened.

Considered rare in India by William Harry Evans and Mark Alexander Wynter-Blyth. Only one subspecies of the butterfly occurs in Indian territory, P. p. telearchus, protected by law in India. This is a forest species and is found in low elevations; the typical form of the great blue mime mimics the striped blue crow in both sexes. There occurs in India a form danisepa which mimics the magpie crow. Though the great mimes are distinguished when caught, in flight they closely resemble the mimicked butterflies; the flight of the mime mimics. It is fond of settling on damp patches. Papilionidae List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Collins, N. Mark. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-603-6 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library. Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Bingham, C. T.. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma Butterflies. 1.

London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd

Caravaggio (2007 film)

Caravaggio is a 2007 Italian television movie directed by Angelo Longoni. The film is based on real life events of Baroque painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Alessio Boni as Caravaggio Elena Sofia Ricci as Costanza Colonna Jordi Mollà as Francesco Maria del Monte Claire Keim as Fillide Melandroni Paolo Briguglia as Mario Minniti Benjamin Sadler as Onorio Longhi Sarah Felberbaum as Lena Maurizio Donadoni as Ranuccio Tomassoni Maria Elena Vandone as Beatrice Cenci Luigi Diberti as Scipione Borghese Ruben Rigillo as Fabrizio Colonna Joachim Bißmeier as Cardinal Gonzaga Caravaggio on IMDb

Niall mac Cernaig Sotal

Niall mac Cernaig Sotal was a king in southern Brega of the Uí Chernaig sept of Lagore of the Síl nÁedo Sláine. He was the grandson of the high king Diarmait mac Áedo Sláine, his father Cernach Sotal had died during plague years in 664. In Niall's time there was a rivalry between the northern septs of the Síl nÁedo Sláine, including the Uí Chonaing sept of Cnogba and the Síl nDlúthaig of Fir Cúl, with the southern septs which included the Uí Chernaig. In 688 Niall defeated Congalach mac Conaing Cuirre of Uí Chonaing and his Ciannachta allies at the Battle of Imlech Pich; this battle occurred during the temporary abdication of the high king Fínsnechta Fledach of Brega and represents a struggle for control of Brega among the two septs. Finsnechta returned to the throne in 689 only to be assassinated by Congalach in 695 who assumed the kingship of Brega. Niall is listed as one of the guarantors of the Cáin Adomnáin of Saint Adomnán arranged at the Synod of Birr in 697 where he is called King of Mag Breg.

His brother Conall Grant is called king of Deiscirt Brega and Niall's son Maine mac Néill was a guarantor. These titles were added to the list of guarantors in 727 and the first use of the title King of South Brega in the Annals of Ulster is not until 751In 701 Niall was assassinated by the Uí Chonaing king of Brega, Írgalach mac Conaing Cuirre, at Drumain Ua Casan. According to the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, Niall was under Adomnán's protection and the saint cursed Írgalach as a result. Niall's known sons included: Maine mac Néill, slain in battle by Flann mac Áedo of the Síl nDlúthaig sept. Áed Laigin,slain at the Battle of Allen in the great defeat of the Ui Neill by the men of Leinster. Fogartach mac high king of Ireland. Cathal mac Néill,called King of Southern Brega by the Annals of Tigernach