Mall at Rockingham Park
The Mall at Rockingham Park is the largest shopping mall in the state of New Hampshire, with 1,024,171 square feet of floor space. The mall is located in the town of Salem, about 30 miles north of Boston; the mall is adjacent to Interstate 93 and the former Rockingham Park race track in Salem, was the state's third shopping mall to be built. The mall now hosts 144 stores, with Lord & Taylor, Macy's, JCPenney, Dick's Sporting Goods as anchors with one vacant anchor last occupied by Sears; the mall is managed by Simon Property Group. As of March 2015, the mall was Simon's highest grossing center, with annual sales of $2,105 per square foot. Like the Pheasant Lane Mall in Nashua, the Mall at Rockingham Park is located close to the Massachusetts state line and draws many customers from that state. New Hampshire has no sales tax on most goods; the success of the Mall at Rockingham Park, which opened in August 1991, caused the Methuen Mall across the line in Methuen, Massachusetts, to close in 1997.
The Mall at Rockingham Park caused the adjacent Rockingham Mall to convert into a "big box" center, as Salem could no longer support two shopping malls. In 2006, the mall's original Macy's store was closed with all Filene's converting into Macy's. In 2011, Lord & Taylor renovated and converted the former Macy's space, opening its first New Hampshire store in March, 2012. In 2015, Dick's Sporting Goods took over Sears' second floor as part of a deal with the company, it was one of 235 properties spun off from Sears Holdings into Seritage Growth Properties in 2015. Dick's opened October 2015. In November 2018, Sears closed as one of 46 stores nationwide. Cinemark Theatres expects to build a movie theater on the Seritage site; the center of the Mall at Rockingham Park is a circular walkway on both floors. In the center of this circle, there is a staircase to travel between floors. From this center, there are two major corridors at a 140° angle; the longer corridor, which goes due north of the center, leads to Dick's Sporting Goods at the end, the entrance to JCPenney partway along the corridor.
The shorter corridor leads southeast, with Macy's at the end of this corridor. The central circle connects to a food court. Route 38 surrounds most of the Mall at Rockingham Park. From Route 38, there are several entrances. Exit 1 northbound on Interstate 93 has a ramp. Between the mall and Route 38 to the east is a parking lot with two levels; the upper level provides access to all parts of the mall. A smaller parking lot on the southwest side of the mall leads to the southern half; the parking lot north of Dick's Sporting Goods has a former Sears Auto Center separate from the rest of the mall. General information - Mall website
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services. Laws allow the seller to collect funds for the tax from the consumer at the point of purchase; when a tax on goods or services is paid to a governing body directly by a consumer, it is called a use tax. Laws provide for the exemption of certain goods or services from sales and use tax. Conventional or retail sales tax is levied on the sale of a good to its final end user and is charged every time that item is sold retail. Sales to businesses that resell the goods are not charged the tax. A purchaser not an end user is issued a "resale certificate" by the taxing authority and required to provide the certificate to a seller at the point of purchase, along with a statement that the item is for resale; the tax is otherwise charged on each item sold to purchasers without such a certificate and who are under the jurisdiction of the taxing authority. Other types of sales taxes, or similar taxes Manufacturers' sales tax, a tax on sales of tangible personal property by manufacturers and producers.
Wholesale sales tax, a tax on sales of wholesale of tangible personal property when in a form packaged and labeled ready for shipment or delivery to final users and consumers. Retail sales tax, a tax on sales of retail of tangible personal property to final consumers and industrial users. Gross receipts levied on all sales of a business, they have been criticized for their "cascading" or "pyramiding" effect, in which an item is taxed more than once as it makes its way from production to final retail sale. Excise taxes, applied to a narrow range of products, such as gasoline or alcohol imposed on the producer or wholesaler rather than on the retail seller. Use tax, imposed directly on the consumer of goods purchased without sales tax items purchased from a vendor not under the jurisdiction of the taxing authority. Use taxes are imposed by states with a sales tax but are enforced only for large items such as automobiles and boats. Securities turnover excise tax, a tax on the trade of securities.
Value added tax, in which tax is charged on all sales, thus avoiding the need for a system of resale certificates. Tax cascading is avoided by applying the tax only to the difference between the price paid by the first purchaser and the price paid by each subsequent purchaser of the same item. FairTax, a proposed federal sales tax, intended to replace the US federal income tax. Turnover tax, similar to a sales tax, but applied to intermediate and capital goods as an indirect tax. Most countries in the world have sales taxes or value-added taxes at all or several of the national, county, or city government levels. Countries in Western Europe in Scandinavia, have some of the world's highest valued-added taxes. Norway and Sweden have higher VATs at 25%, Hungary has the highest at 27% although reduced rates are used in some cases, as for groceries, art and newspapers. In some jurisdictions of the United States, there are multiple levels of government which each impose a sales tax. For example, sales tax in Chicago, IL is 10.25%, consisting of 6.25% state, 1.25% city, 1.75% county and 1% regional transportation authority.
Chicago has the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority tax on food and beverage of 1%. For Baton Rouge, the tax is 10%, 5% each of state & local. In Los Angeles it is 9%, 7.25% state, 1.5% county & 0.25% city. In California, sales taxes are made up of various state and city taxes; the state tax is "imposed upon all retailers" for the "privilege of selling tangible personal property at retail". Speaking, only the retailer is responsible for the payment of the tax; when consumers purchase goods from out-of-state the consumer is required to pay a "use tax" identical to the sales tax. Use tax is levied upon the "storage, use, or other consumption in this state of tangible personal property". Consumers are responsible for declaring these purchases in the same filing as their annual state income tax, but it is rare for them to do so. An exception is out-of-state purchase of automobiles. Use tax is collected by the state as part of registering the vehicle in California; the trend has been for conventional sales taxes to be replaced by more broadly based value-added taxes.
Value -added taxes provide an estimated 20% of worldwide tax revenue and have been adopted by more than 140 countries. The United States is now one of the few countries to retain conventional sales taxes. Economists at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development studied the effects of various types of taxes on the economic growth of developed nations within the OECD and found that sales taxes are one of the least harmful taxes for growth; because the rate of a sales tax does not change based on a person's income or wealth, sales taxes are considered regressive. However, it has been suggested that any regressive effect of a sales tax could be mitigated, e.g. by excluding rent, or by exempting "necessary" items, such as food and medicines. Investopedia defines a regressive tax as " tax that takes a larger percentage from low-income people than from high-income people. A regressive tax is a tax, applied uniformly; this means that it hits lower-income individuals harder". Higher sales taxes have been shown to have many different effects on local economies.
With higher taxes, more consumers are starting to reconsider whe
A food court is an indoor plaza or common area within a facility, contiguous with the counters of multiple food vendors and provides a common area for self-serve dinner. Food courts may be found in shopping malls and parks. In various regions, it may be a standalone development. In some places of learning such as high schools and universities, food courts have come to replace or complement traditional cafeterias; the average cost of a meal per person at a U. S food court in 2004 was US$6. Food courts consist of a number of vendors at food stalls or service counters. Meals are ordered at one of the vendors and carried to a common dining area; the food may be ordered as takeout for consumption at another location, such as a home, or workplace. In this case, it may be packaged in foam food containers, though one common food tray used by all the stalls might be utilized to allow the food to be carried to the table. Food courts may have shops which sell prepared meals for consumers to take home and reheat, making the food court a daily stop for some.
Food is eaten with plastic cutlery, sporks are sometimes used to avoid the necessity of providing both forks and spoons. There are exceptions: Carrefour Laval requires its food court tenants to use solid dinnerware and cutlery which it provides. Typical North American and European food courts have fast food chains such as McDonald's and Sbarro, with a few smaller private vendors. Berkshire Hathaway is a frequent presence at food courts via their Dairy Queen and Orange Julius divisions. Cuisines and choices are varied, with larger food courts offering more global choices. Asian and African food courts are private vendors that offer local cuisine. In Singapore, food courts and hawker centres are the people's main eating choice. Common materials used in constructing food courts are tile, Formica, stainless steel, glass, all of which facilitate easy cleanup; the second-floor food court at the Paramus Park shopping mall in Paramus, New Jersey, which opened in March 1974, has been credited as the first successful shopping mall food court in the United States.
However, a food court at the Sherway Gardens shopping center in Toronto, Canada was constructed three years earlier. Built by The Rouse Company, one of the leading mall building companies of the time, it followed an unsuccessful attempt at the Plymouth Meeting Mall in 1971, which failed because it was "deemed too small and insufficiently varied." In the 1990s, food courts became a shopping mall staple. Food courts have become such a part of the culture that colleges and universities have started to incorporate food-court like settings in their cafeteria, bringing in name-brand franchises into partnership with the schools. Soon after, airports, as well as many office buildings, have opted for the food court layout in their spaces as it allows for diversity and allowing for franchises and businesses to gain a wide spectrum of consumers. Since the food court culture is being encouraged, a whole community of regular fast-food consuming has become a part of the North American society. In 2010, eating out became more common for an average American in comparison to eating at-home meals.
47% of their food budget would go towards eating out at restaurants or at food courts. Due to this, North Americans have begun to become more aware of health. With the sudden outburst of the fast-food centric, North American consumer deviating from the food court culture to a more health conscious society, many businesses are more at risk due to the inability of maintaining the same high level of revenue. With that, the food court industry has had to find a solution to keep the consumers continuing to come back. Food courts are beginning to evolve into the European inspired food halls. Many shopping centres are demanding and by transforming their food courts into food halls, businesses believe that they are able to attract the newer generation of health-conscious customers. Though food courts still exist, many food hall elements have been brought into food court settings. In order for food businesses to do well in the food court, businesses feel as though they have to keep up with the trend of fresh food and stray away from the traditional unhealthy, fast food reputation of food courts.
One of the main concerns for upcoming new food businesses is the overgrowing of competition in restaurants. And due the uncertainty for rush times and customer interests, businesses opt for going into the food court industry. With the ever-growing trends of the food industry expectations, businesses struggle to make a name for themselves in the food court setting. For several years, Business Insider names Panda Express as one of the first notorious successful food court business, noted by many other food industry insiders. One of the reasons for Panda Express' success was due to their constant change and upgrading of their menu items. Costco Wholesale has one of the largest and most successful businesses that benefit from the revenue generated by food court sales, they deviate from the movement of health conscious and pricey image that most food retailers are trying to strive for these days. While most food court businesses go for the healthy and fresh image, Costco brands their food court to be fast and fitting of the stereotypical fast food image.
By placing their food court near the exit of their store, Costco is able to generate a bit more revenue as a part of their business plan to allow customers to linger around in their store longer to purchase more
Red Robin Gourmet Burgers and Brews, or Red Robin, is an American chain of casual dining restaurants founded in September 1969 in Seattle, Washington. In 1979, the first franchised Red Robin restaurant was opened in Washington. Red Robin is now headquartered in Greenwood Village, and, as of Dec 30, 2018 operates 573 restaurants, 484 which are company owned and 89 franchised; the original Red Robin stood at the corner of Furhman and Eastlake Avenues E. in Seattle, at the southern end of the University Bridge. This building dated from 1940 and was first called Sam's Tavern; the owner, sang in a barbershop quartet and could be heard singing the song "When the Red, Red Robin". He liked the song so much that he changed the name to Sam's Red Robin. In 1969, local Seattle restaurant entrepreneur Gerry Kingen expanded it; the business dropped the "Sam's" and became Red Robin. The first restaurant was 1,200 sq ft, it was a favored hangout for University of Washington students. Kingen continued to operate the location as a tavern for a few years, but added hamburgers to the menu giving fans 28 different burgers to choose from, sales skyrocketed.
After 10 years of building the Red Robin concept Kingen decided to franchise it, which proved to be significant in the development of the chain. Through franchising, through one franchisee in particular, the chain drew its strength. Kingen's association with the company he founded ended, but the franchising system endured, creating disciples of the gourmet burger format that extended the physical presence and geographic reach of the enterprise far beyond the efforts of its creator. In 1979, Kingen sold Michael and Steve Snyder the rights to open a Red Robin in Yakima and The Snyder Group Company became Red Robin's first franchisee. In 1980, Red Robin opened a restaurant in Oregon. In 1983, Red Robin adopted. In 1985, Red Robin boasted 175 restaurants when the corporate headquarters was moved from downtown Seattle to Irvine, California after CEO Kingen sold a controlling interest in Red Robin Corp. to Skylark Corporation of Japan and where Michael Snyder had Red Robin offices. With marginal successes and poor financial performance under Skylark's management, Kingen a minority owner, in 1995 stepped back into Red Robin with Michael Snyder to nurse the company back to profitability.
In 2000, the company opened its 150th restaurant. The headquarters was moved to the Denver Tech Center. In 2000, Red Robin merged with the Snyder Group, Snyder became president, chairman and CEO of the merged company. Snyder took the company public in 2002; as of fiscal year 2015, the company has 538 restaurants with a revenue of US$1.257592 billion. The original Red Robin closed on March 21, 2010 due to prohibitive maintenance costs for the old building, it was demolished on August 28, 2014. Michael Snyder committed suicide on December 2, 2018 at the age of 68. Red Robin has added a "simplified" line of restaurants called Red Robin's Burger Works featuring quick service and with locations in Washington, D. C. Illinois and Colorado. List of casual dining restaurant chains List of hamburger restaurants Official website
Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group, Inc. is an American commercial real estate company, the largest retail real estate investment trust, the largest shopping mall operator in the US. The company operates five retail real estate platforms: regional malls, premium outlet centers, The Mills, community/lifestyle centers and international properties, it owns or has an interest in more than 325 properties comprising 241,000,000 square feet of gross leasable area in North America and Asia. The company is headquartered in Indianapolis and employs more than 5,000 people, it is publicly traded on the NYSE under the symbol SPG and is part of the S&P 100. Simon Property Group was formed in 1993 when the majority of the shopping center interests of Melvin Simon & Associates became a publicly traded company. Melvin Simon & Associates, owned by brothers Melvin Simon and Herbert Simon, was founded in 1960 in Indianapolis and had long been one of the top shopping center developers in the United States. In 1996, Simon DeBartolo Group was created when Simon Property merged with former rival DeBartolo Realty Corp.
This was shortly after DeBartolo Realty became a publicly traded company encompassing the shopping mall interests of the Edward J. DeBartolo Sr. family, another leading developer. Simon DeBartolo acquired assets in the then-fragmented industry. Notable acquisitions included The Retail Property Trust and a group of properties held by IBM's pension plan in 1997 and Corporate Property Investors in 1998. Following the CPI acquisition in 1998, the company announced it was reverting to its original name, Simon Property Group, as the DeBartolo family was resuming its private real-estate development operation, while retaining their interest in Simon. Simon continued to be a prolific acquirer of shopping centers, including a portfolio from New England Development in 1999. In 2003, Simon became a co-owner of The Kravco Company. On April 3, 2007, a partnership including Simon agreed to acquire the Mills Corporation. In June 2011, Simon entered into a partnership with Nintendo to provide complimentary 3DS Wi-Fi hotspots at nearly 200 of its malls.
This was expanded or changed to provide compatibility for laptops and mobile devices. In December 2013, Simon announced it would form a REIT of its smaller malls and community shopping centers called Washington Prime Group; the spin-off was created in May 2014 and was headed by Mark Ordan, the final CEO of the Simon-bought Mills Corporation. The regional malls in WPG were still managed by Simon and flagged as Simon Properties on websites and inside their malls until early 2016, while Washington Prime managed the "strip centers" of the portfolio in-house. In September 2014, WPG announced to acquire Glimcher Realty Trust and its properties, in which Washington Prime Group would be renamed WP Glimcher when the deal was made; the deal was completed in January 2015. As part of the deal, Simon acquired Jersey Gardens in Elizabeth, New Jersey and University Park Village in Fort Worth, while WP Glimcher acquired Brunswick Square in East Brunswick, New Jersey from Simon. On November 29 of 2009, Financial Times reported that Simon may have attempted to acquire its failing rival General Growth Properties, operating under Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
Should GGP have been acquired in its entirety, such deal would be worth up to $30 billion at the time. Simon hired property investment firm Cohen & Steers, J. P. Morgan, as well as the Lazard investment bank and the Wachtell Lipton Rosen & Katz law firm to explore the possibility of acquiring GGP. On February 16, 2010, Simon announced that it placed a bid on February 8 to acquire General Growth Properties in a deal worth $10 billion. However, the bid was rejected by General Growth twice during the week. On February 19, 2010, one GGP shareholder filed suit against the company's board of directors for rejecting Simon's bid, accusing chairman John Bucksbaum and six other board members of breaching their fiduciary duty to GGP's investors; the General Growth board favored an investment offer from Brookfield Asset Management worth $2.6 billion. Simon's next step, on April 14, 2010, was to announce a $2.5 billion equity investment offer which equaled the price per share of Brookfield's offer. Simon claimed that the deal was more favorable to GGP and its equity holders than Brookfield's offer, stating that it would eliminate the dilutive warrants that GGP would issue to Brookfield, Pershing Square and Fairholme Capital.
Simon's offer included a co-investment commitment by Paulson & Co worth $1 billion. Simon Property Group had not ruled out a full takeover of General Growth, claiming that their investment offer would give them more time to work out their differences concerning antitrust issues. On May 7, 2010, Simon Property Group decided to withdraw its acquisition and recapitalization proposals for General Growth Properties. Instead, General Growth were acquired several years by competitor Brookfield Property Partners, making Brookfield the number 2 mall operator in the USA behind Simon. On December 8, 2009, Simon Property Group was offered the sale of Prime Retail's Prime Outlets portfolio for $2.24 billion, which included centers at Will
Surface runoff is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface. This might occur because soil is saturated to full capacity, because rain arrives more than soil can absorb it, or because impervious areas send their runoff to surrounding soil that cannot absorb all of it. Surface runoff is a major component of the water cycle, it is the primary agent in soil erosion by water. Runoff that occurs on the ground surface before reaching a channel is called a nonpoint source. If a nonpoint source contains man-made contaminants, or natural forms of pollution the runoff is called nonpoint source pollution. A land area which produces runoff that drains to a common point is called a drainage basin; when runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up soil contaminants including petroleum, pesticides, or fertilizers that become discharge or nonpoint source pollution. In addition to causing water erosion and pollution, surface runoff in urban areas is a primary cause of urban flooding which can result in property damage and mold in basements, street flooding.
Surface runoff glaciers. Snow and glacier melt occur only in areas cold enough for these to form permanently. Snowmelt will peak in the spring and glacier melt in the summer, leading to pronounced flow maxima in rivers affected by them; the determining factor of the rate of melting of snow or glaciers is both air temperature and the duration of sunlight. In high mountain regions, streams rise on sunny days and fall on cloudy ones for this reason. In areas where there is no snow, runoff will come from rainfall. However, not all rainfall will produce runoff. On the ancient soils of Australia and Southern Africa, proteoid roots with their dense networks of root hairs can absorb so much rainwater as to prevent runoff when substantial amounts of rain fall. In these regions on less infertile cracking clay soils, high amounts of rainfall and potential evaporation are needed to generate any surface runoff, leading to specialised adaptations to variable streams; this occurs when the rate of rainfall on a surface exceeds the rate at which water can infiltrate the ground, any depression storage has been filled.
This is called flooding Hortonian overland flow, or unsaturated overland flow. This more occurs in arid and semi-arid regions, where rainfall intensities are high and the soil infiltration capacity is reduced because of surface sealing, or in paved areas; this occurs in city areas where pavements prevent water from flooding. When the soil is saturated and the depression storage filled, rain continues to fall, the rainfall will produce surface runoff; the level of antecedent soil moisture is one factor affecting the time. This runoff is called saturated overland flow or Dunne runoff. Soil retains a degree of moisture after a rainfall; this residual water moisture affects the soil's infiltration capacity. During the next rainfall event, the infiltration capacity will cause the soil to be saturated at a different rate; the higher the level of antecedent soil moisture, the more the soil becomes saturated. Once the soil is saturated, runoff occurs. After water infiltrates the soil on an up-slope portion of a hill, the water may flow laterally through the soil, exfiltrate closer to a channel.
This is called throughflow. As it flows, the amount of runoff may be reduced in a number of possible ways: a small portion of it may evapotranspire. Any remaining surface water flows into a receiving water body such as a river, estuary or ocean. Urbanization increases surface runoff by creating more impervious surfaces such as pavement and buildings that do not allow percolation of the water down through the soil to the aquifer, it is instead forced directly into streams or storm water runoff drains, where erosion and siltation can be major problems when flooding is not. Increased runoff reduces groundwater recharge, thus lowering the water table and making droughts worse for agricultural farmers and others who depend on the water wells; when anthropogenic contaminants are dissolved or suspended in runoff, the human impact is expanded to create water pollution. This pollutant load can reach various receiving waters such as streams, lakes and oceans with resultant water chemistry changes to these water systems and their related ecosystems.
A 2008 report by the United States National Research Council identified urban stormwater as a leading source of water quality problems in the U. S; as humans continue to alter the climate through the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, precipitation patterns are expected to change as the atmospheric capacity for water vapor increases. This will have direct consequences on runoff amounts. Surface runoff can cause erosion of the Earth's surface. There are four main types of soil erosion by water: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion and gully erosion. Splash erosion is the result of mechanical collision of raindrops with the soil surface: soil particles which are dislodged by the impact move with the surface runoff. Sheet erosion is the overland transport of sediment by runoff without a well d