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Phenols

In organic chemistry, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, C6H5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. Phenols are synthesized industrially and produced by plants and microorganisms, with variation between and within species. Phenols have distinct properties and are distinguished from other alcohols, they have higher acidities. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids. Loss of a hydrogen cation from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion, the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides, although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book. Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring in the same molecule.

The simplest examples are each having two hydroxy groups on a benzene ring. Phenols are reactive species toward oxidation. Oxidative cleavage, for instance cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene to the monomethylester of 2,4 hexadienedioic acid with oxygen, copper chloride in pyridine Oxidative de-aromatization to quinones known as the Teuber reaction. Oxidizing reagents are Fremy's oxone. In reaction depicted below 3,4,5-trimethylphenol reacts with singlet oxygen generated from oxone/sodium carbonate in an acetonitrile/water mixture to a para-peroxyquinole; this hydroperoxide is reduced to the quinole with sodium thiosulfate. Phenols are oxidized to hydroquinones in the Elbs persulfate oxidation Phenols are susceptible to Electrophilic aromatic substitutions. Illustrative of a large-scale electrophilic aromatic substitution is the production of bisphenol A, produced on a scale 1 million tons; this compound is synthesized by the condensation of acetone. Phenols undergo esterfication. Phenol esters are active esters.

Reaction of naphtols and hydrazines and sodium bisulfite in the Bucherer carbazole synthesis Several laboratory methods for the synthesis of phenols: by an ester rearrangement in the Fries rearrangement by a rearrangement of N-phenylhydroxylamines in the Bamberger rearrangement by dealkylation of phenolic ethers by reduction of quinones by replacement of an aromatic amine by an hydroxyl group with water and sodium bisulfide in the Bucherer reaction by thermal decomposition of aryl diazonium salts, the salts are converted to phenol by oligomerization with formaldehyde + base catalyzed reaction with epichlorohydrin to epoxy resin components by reaction with acetone/ketones to e.g. bisphenol A, an important monomer for resins, e.g. polycarbonate, epoxy resins by the oxidation of aryl silanes—an aromatic variation of the Fleming-Tamao oxidation by the addition of benzene and propene in H3PO4 to form cumene O2 is added with H2SO4 to form phenol There are various classification schemes. A used scheme is based on the number of carbons and was devised by Jeffrey Harborne and Simmonds in 1964 and published in 1980: The majority of these compounds are soluble molecules but the smaller molecules can be volatile.

Phenols chemically interact with many other substances. Stacking, a chemical property of molecules with aromaticity, is seen occurring between phenolic molecules; when studied in mass spectrometry, phenols form adduct ions with halogens. They can interact with the food matrices or with different forms of silica

Jimmy C. Newman

Jimmy Yves Newman, better known as Jimmy C. Newman, was an American country music and cajun singer-songwriter and long-time star of the Grand Ole Opry. Newman was born near Louisiana; as a child, he listened more to Gene Autry than to the Cajun music of the area, but had a number of Cajun songs in his repertoire when, as a teenager, he joined Chuck Guillory’s Rhythm Boys. He recorded a few unsuccessful sides for J. D. "Jay" Millers Feature Records in the 1940s, but Miller persuaded Fred Rose in Nashville, Tennessee to give the young singer an opportunity. In 1953, he was signed to Dot Records and the following year recorded "Cry, Cry Darling", which reached No. 4 on the country chart. His recording success led the Louisiana Hayride in Shreveport, Louisiana, to hire him as a regular performer, his next four records all reached Top 10 status, in 1956 he was invited to become a member of the Grand Ole Opry. That following year he released his biggest hit, "A Fallen Star", which spent two weeks at No. 2 and entered the top 25 of the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart.

As an established artist, he began to integrate his Cajun influences into his music and recorded "Alligator Man", a top 25 record and continued to be his theme song at the Opry. In 1963, he released another top 10 hit, "The D. J. Cried", his final hits came in 1965 and 1966 with "Artificial Rose" and "Back Pocket Money". When his commercial popularity declined he returned to Cajun music, forming his Cajun Country band and taking the high energy fiddle- and accordion-based music of his native Louisiana to fans around the world. In 1976, his recording of the Cajun French song, "Lâche pas la patate" earned gold record status in Canada. In 1991, Newman and Cajun Country earned a Grammy Award nomination for Alligator Man. Entertainer Dolly Parton has long credited Newman with enabling her first appearance on the Grand Ole Opry, in 1959, describing how when she appeared at the Opry unannounced at age 13, asking to sing, Newman relinquished one of his two allotted slots to allow Parton to perform. In 2000, he was inducted into the North American Country Music Association’s International Hall of Fame and in 2004 was inducted into the Cajun Hall of Fame.

He is honored in the Cajun Music Hall of Fame in Eunice, in 2009 he was inducted into The Louisiana Music Hall of Fame. He continued to tour and appear at the Grand Ole Opry, making his last appearance on the show on June 6, 2014. In 2006, he joined a select group of entertainers. Newman and his wife made their home on their 670-acre ranch outside of Nashville near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Newman died of cancer, in Nashville, on June 21, 2014. A"A Fallen Star" peaked at No. 23 on the Billboard Hot 100. B"Born to Love You" peaked at No. 35 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in Canada. Seemann, Charlie. "Jimmy C. Newman". In The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Paul Kingsbury, Editor. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 379. Jimmy C. Newman at AllMusic Jimmy C. Newman discography at Discogs Jimmy C. Newman on IMDb

Chemotroph

Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments. These molecules can be inorganic; the chemotroph designation is in contrast to phototrophs. Chemotrophs can be either heterotrophic. Chemotrophs are found in ocean floors where sunlight cannot reach them because they are not dependent on solar energy. Ocean floors contain underwater volcanos that can provide heat as a substitute for sunlight's warmth. Chemoautotrophs, in addition to deriving energy from chemical reactions, synthesize all necessary organic compounds from carbon dioxide. Chemoautotrophs use inorganic energy sources such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, ferrous iron, molecular hydrogen, ammonia. Most chemoautotrophs are extremophiles, bacteria or archaea that live in hostile environments and are the primary producers in such ecosystems. Chemoautotrophs fall into several groups: methanogens, sulfur oxidizers and reducers, anammox bacteria, thermoacidophiles. An example of one of these prokaryotes would be Sulfolobus.

Chemolithotrophic growth can be fast, such as Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus with a doubling time around one hour. The term "chemosynthesis", coined in 1897 by Wilhelm Pfeffer was defined as the energy production by oxidation of inorganic substances in association with autotrophy—what would be named today as chemolithoautotrophy; the term would include the chemoorganoautotrophy, that is, it can be seen as a synonym of chemoautotrophy. Chemoheterotrophs are unable to fix carbon to form their own organic compounds. Chemoheterotrophs can be chemolithoheterotrophs, utilizing inorganic energy sources such as sulfur or chemoorganoheterotrophs, utilizing organic energy sources such as carbohydrates and proteins. Most animals and fungi are examples of chemoheterotrophs. In the deep oceans, iron-oxidizing bacteria derive their energy needs by oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron; the electron conserved from this reaction reduces the respiratory chain and can be thus used in the synthesis of ATP by forward electron transport or NADH by reverse electron transport, replacing or augmenting traditional phototrophism.

In general, iron-oxidizing bacteria can exist only in areas with high ferrous iron concentrations, such as new lava beds or areas of hydrothermal activity. Most of the ocean is devoid of ferrous iron, due to both the oxidative effect of dissolved oxygen in the water and the tendency of bacteria to take up the iron. Lava beds supply bacteria with ferrous iron straight from the Earth's mantle, but only newly formed igneous rocks have high enough levels of ferrous iron. In addition, because oxygen is necessary for the reaction, these bacteria are much more common in the upper ocean, where oxygen is more abundant. What is still unknown is how iron bacteria extract iron from rock, it is accepted that some mechanism exists that eats away at the rock through specialized enzymes or compounds that bring more FeO to the surface. It has been long debated about how much of the weathering of the rock is due to biotic components and how much can be attributed to abiotic components. Hydrothermal vents release large quantities of dissolved iron into the deep ocean, allowing bacteria to survive.

In addition, the high thermal gradient around vent systems means a wide variety of bacteria can coexist, each with its own specialized temperature niche. Regardless of the catalytic method used, chemoautotrophic bacteria provide a significant but overlooked food source for deep sea ecosystems - which otherwise receive limited sunlight and organic nutrients. Manganese-oxidizing bacteria make use of igneous lava rocks in much the same way. Manganese is more scarce than iron oceanic crust, but is much easier for bacteria to extract from igneous glass. In addition, each manganese oxidation donates two electrons to the cell versus one for each iron oxidation, though the amount of ATP or NADH that can be synthesised in couple to these reactions varies with pH and specific reaction thermodynamics in terms of how much of a Gibbs free energy change there is during the oxidation reactions versus the energy change required for the formation of ATP or NADH, all of which vary with concentration, pH etc.

Much still remains unknown about manganese-oxidizing bacteria because they have not been cultured and documented to any great extent. Autotroph Chemoautotroph Photoautotroph Heterotroph Chemoheterotroph Photoheterotroph Chemosynthesis Lithotroph RISE project Expedition that discovered high temperature vent communities 1. Katrina Edwards. Microbiology of a Sediment Pond and the Underlying Young, Hydrologically Active Ridge Flank. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 2. Coupled Photochemical and Enzymatic Mn Oxidation Pathways of a Planktonic Roseobacter-Like Bacterium Colleen M. Hansel and Chris A. Francis* Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305-2115 Received 28 September 2005/ Accepted 17 February 2006