Phenothiazine, abbreviated PTZ, is an organic compound that has the formula S2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds. Derivatives of phenothiazine are bioactive and have widespread use and rich history; the derivatives chlorpromazine and promethazine revolutionized the field of psychiatry and allergy treatment, respectively. An earlier derivative, methylene blue, was one of the first antimalarial drugs, derivatives are under investigation as possible anti-infective drugs. Phenothiazine is a prototypical pharmaceutical lead structure in medicinal chemistry. Phenothiazine itself is only of theoretical interest, but its derivatives revolutionized psychiatry, other fields of medicine, pest management. Other derivatives have been studied for possible use in advanced batteries and fuel cells. In 1876, methylene blue, a derivative of phenothiazine, was synthesized by Heinrich Caro at BASF; the structure was deduced in 1885 by Heinrich August Bernthsen. Bernthsen synthesized phenothiazine in 1883.
In the mid 1880s, Paul Ehrlich began to use methylene blue in his cell staining experiments that led to pioneering discoveries about different cell types. He was awarded a Nobel Prize based in part on that work, he became interested in its use to stain bacteria and parasites such as Plasmodiidae – the genus that includes the malaria pathogen – and found that it could be stained with methylene blue. He thought methylene blue could be used in the treatment of malaria, tested it clinically, by the 1890s methylene blue was being used for that purpose. For the next several decades, research on derivatives lapsed until phenothiazine itself came to market as an insecticide and deworming drug. In the 1940s, chemists working with Paul Charpentier at Rhone-Poulenc Laboratories in Paris, began making derivatives; this work led to promethazine which had no activity against infective organisms, but did have good antihistamine activity, with a strong sedative effect. It went to market for anesthesia; as of 2012 it was still on the market.
At the end of the 1940s the same lab produced chlorpromazine which had an stronger sedative and soothing effect, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker attempted to use it on their psychiatric patients, publishing their results in the early 1950s. The strong effects they found opened the door of the modern field of psychiatry and led to a proliferation of work on phenothiazine derivatives; the systematic research conducted by chemists to explore phenothiazine derivatives and their activity was a pioneering example of medicinal chemistry. The term "phenothiazines" describes the largest of the five main classes of antipsychotic drugs; these drugs have antipsychotic and antiemetic properties, although they may cause severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms, hyperprolactinaemia, the rare but fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome, as well as substantial weight gain. Use of phenothiazines has been associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, but no causal relationship has been established. Phenothiazine antipsychotics are classified into three groups that differ with respect to the substituent on nitrogen: the aliphatic compounds, the "piperidines", the piperazine.
The synthetic dye methylene blue, containing the structure, was described in 1876. Many water-soluble phenothiazine derivatives, such as methylene blue, methylene green and others, can be electropolymerized into conductive polymers used as electrocatalysts for NADH oxidation in enzymatic biosensors and biofuel cells. Phenothiazine is used as an anaerobic inhibitor for acrylic acid polymerization used as an in-process inhibitor during the purification of acrylic acid. Like many commercially significant compounds, phenothiazine has numerous trade names, including AFI-Tiazin, Antiverm, Dibenzothiazine, Lethelmin, Nemazene, Padophene, Fentiazine, Fenothiazine, Ieeno, ENT 38, Helmetine, Penthazine, XL-50, Wurm-thional, Phenovis and Reconox. Phenothiazine was used as an insecticide and as a drug to treat infections with parasitic worms in livestock and people, but its use for those purposes has been superseded by other chemicals. Phenothiazine was introduced by DuPont as an insecticide in 1935. About 3,500,000 pounds were sold in the US in 1944.
However, because it was degraded by sunlight and air, it was difficult to determine how much to use in the field, its use waned in the 1940s with the arrival of new pesticides like DDT that were more durable. As of July 2015 it is not registered for pesticide use in Europe, or Australia, it was introduced as anthelminthic in livestock in 1940 and is considered, with thiabendazole, to be the first modern anthelminthic. The first instances of resistance were noted in 1961. Uses for this purpose in the US are still described but it has "virtually disappeared from the market."In the 1940s it was introduced as antihelminthic for humans. Phenothiazine was superseded by other drugs in the 1950s; the central C4SN ring is folded in phenothiazines. The compound was prepared by Bernthsen in 1883 via the reaction of diphenylamine with sulfur, but more recent syntheses rely on the cyclization of 2-substituted diphenyl sulfides. Few pharmaceutically significant phenothiazines ar
The Tordera is a river of Catalonia. It flows through the town of Tordera; the river is 55 kilometres long. Its source is in the Montseny Massif, it discharges in the Mediterranean Sea; the river's average discharge is 5.01 cubic metres per second. Its main tributaries are the Riera de Gualba, Riera de Arbúcies, Riera de Santa Coloma and the Riera de Valmanya; the river runs through the protected areas of the Parc Natural del Montseny and the Parc Natural del Montnegre i el Corredor. The last stretch of the Tordera is a wide sandy bed subject to seasonal flow; the brackish lagoon in its final delta area is an important area for migratory birds. In the last week of January 1939 the 77th Division of the Spanish Republican Army, together with the 242nd Mixed Brigade —which had not been ascribed to any division—, tried to establish a planned defensive line along the course of the Tordera River in order to halt the massive rebel offensive; the units took position along the course of the river east of the Montseny Massif on 27 January.
The effort, proved futile and in practice it became impossible for the Republican forces to put up any meaningful resistance since the young and ill-equipped 242rd Mixed Brigade —posted at the lower course of the river— was not prepared for the battle and fell into disarray and was overrun. In the face of the powerful and steady enemy advance the 77th Division abandoned the defensive line along the Tordera and withdrew to the town of Vic, which it lost on 1 February. Montseny brook newt List of rivers of Catalonia List of rivers of Spain Santa Fe Reservoir Media related to Tordera River at Wikimedia Commons Montseny Natural Park
Hajah Fuziah binti Salleh, is a Malaysian politician and the current Member of Parliament for Kuantan. Fuziah Salleh grew up in Pahang, she had her early education at the Methodist Girls School in Kuantan. Fuziah went on to obtain a bachelor's degree in Counseling Psychology from the University of Reading, followed by a Master of Business Administration from the University of Wales in the United Kingdom. Fuziah is married to Professor Dr. Haji Russly Bin Abdul Rahman with six children. Before entering politics, Fuziah was a corporate trainer and training consultant for multinationals, corporate institutions and NGOs in the area of human resource development and women's empowerment, she is experienced in counselling various interest groups in both the UK and Malaysia, ranging from youth, married couples, women involved in domestic violence. In the mid-90s, she was attached to a state government institution as a counsellor and was responsible for setting up a voluntary counselling unit, named Unit Kaunseling Islah JIM where she became the advisor and trainer for the volunteers there.
In the early stage of Reformasi movement in Malaysia, Fuziah Salleh was one of the leaders of an Islamic NGO, Jamaah Islah Malaysia and the "early bath group" joined National Justice Party, established on 4 April 1999. National Justice Party was merged with the older Malaysian People's Party to establish the People's Justice Party on 3 August 2003. Pahang PKR Chief Vice-President Central Political Bureau Member Kuantan Division Chief Pahang Election Director Pahang Training Director Pahang Deputy Election Director Pahang Women Chief Started as Deputy National Women Chief when National Justice Party was formed in 1999 Fuziah Salleh ran unsuccessfully for Malaysian Parliament twice, before winning a parliament seat of Kuantan in the 12th General Election of Malaysia. On 8 March 2008, Fuziah defeated incumbent Malaysian Chinese Association heavyweight Datuk Fu Ah Kiow, the incumbent Deputy Internal Security Minister. In the 13th General Election, MCA loaned the Kuantan parliamentary seat to the United Malays National Organisation, to capitalise on the increase in Malay voters who now made up 63 per cent of Kuantan's over 55,000 voters.
The Kuatan seat loan was perceived as a tactical move by Barisan Nasional to counter the Chinese community still against the controversial Lynas rare earth plant in Kuantan. Despite facing stiff competition from UMNO, on 5 May 2013, PKR vice-president Fuziah Salleh not only retained the Kuantan seat for the second term but with an increased majority of 4,515 votes, after defeating Datuk Mohamed Suffian Awang. Datuk Mohamed Suffian Awang was Kuantan UMNO Youth Chief and the Political Secretary to the BN chairman and the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Datuk Seri Mohammad Najib Abdul Razak. Both UMNO and MCA are the major component parties of the BN ruling coalition. Committee member of ASEAN Inter Parliamentary Assembly Deputy Chairperson of the Women's Caucus in Parliament Pakatan Rakyat Committee on Environment Member of Delegation of the Malaysian Parliament for the AIPA meeting in Singapore on 13–18 August 2008 Member of Delegation of the Malaysian Parliament to the IPU Assembly in Geneva on 11–16 October 2009– Debated in the Forum Climate Change, Sustainable Development and Renewable Energies, during the assemblyRepresented the Malaysian Parliament to the IPU Regional Seminar in Cambodia in April 2009 Member of Delegation of the Malaysian Parliament for the AIPA meeting in Pattaya, Thailand on 2–8 August 2009 Delegation from Malaysia to the 8th Workshop of the IPU Forum on Security Sector Governance in South East Asia, Indonesia Earlier days of Fuziah's involvement in the community, she was involved in NGOs.
In the UK, where she headed a youth organisation The Young Muslims UK, whose members were British born Muslim youths from different nationalities in the UK On returning to Malaysia, Fuziah channelled her contributions in an Islamic NGO, Jamaah Islah Malaysia. Fuziah Salleh was the first Head of JIM's Women Wing from 1993 to 1999 – she together with a few other women activists of JIM had founded this institution. Supreme Council Member of National Council of Women's Organization in 1995–1997 Member of Women Agenda for Change and involved in the Formulation of Women's Agenda For Change in 1999 To initiate work on a shelter home for young girls, Raudhatus Sakinah, of which until today has operated for more than a decade Founder member for Women's Institute for Research Development and Advancement Fuziah Salleh has spearheaded the "Stop Lynas Rare Earth Refinery" campaign in Kuantan after being elected as the Member of Parliament for Kuantan in 2008. Fuziah has been raising her concern over the risks of having Lynas Advanced Materials Plant near Kuantan in the Parliament of Malaysia since 18 November 2008."Concerned Citizen of Kuantan" was a civil society group initiated by Fuziah in December 2008 to discuss actions should be taken by the Kuantan community against the hazardous Lynas rare earth refinery project.
Committee of "Concerned Citizen of Kuantan" was formed after a meeting held by Fuziah to discuss the LAMP issues with about 20 residents and professionals from different ethnic groups and NGOs near Kuantan. The awareness campaign about the hazardous LAMP organised between 2008 and 2010 was taxing with limited organisatio
Michel Mortier was a French furniture designer, interior designer and architect, known for his modern designs. Michel Mortier was born in Paris in 1925, he was admitted to the École des arts appliqués à l’industrie, where he studied under René Gabriel and Louis Sognot. He joined the Studium-Louvre in 1944, the workshop for modern decorative art run by Etienne-Henri Martin for the Grands Magasins du Louvre department store; the workshop produced designs for the growing number of customers who wanted modern styles of decoration. Mortier's association with Martin led to work with the furniture department of the Bon Marché in Brussels. Mortier was discovered by Marcel Gascoin, a central figure in French post-war design who surrounded himself with young talent to produce furniture sets. In 1949 Gascoin founded ARHEC, Aménagement rationnel de l'habitation et des collectivités, to produce and distribute furniture sets. From 1949 to 1954 Michel Mortier was the first director of Arhec. Mortier won the Gold Medal at the Milan Triennale in 1954.
That year he formed an association called the Atelier de Recherche Plastique with Pierre Guariche and Joseph-André Motte, whom he had met in Gascoin's studio. The ARP had an exhibit at the Salon des arts ménagers in 1954, where Mortier showed a modular storage unit with an ingenious assembly system, the origin for a range of products by Minvielle, a leading brand in the 1950s and 1960s. For about three years the ARP designed a wide range of furniture for the living room, parent's bedroom and child's bedroom for the manufacturer Charles Minvielle; the ARP partnership broke up in 1957. Mortier became artistic director of the store La Maison Française 55, designed many products for leading manufacturers including chairs for Steiner and lights for Disderot and Verre Lumière. In 1959 Mortier founded his own interior design agency, the Habitation esthétique industrielle mobilier, he moved to Canada where he was introduced to graphisme in Montreal and taught at JM Blier Furniture & Design. He worked as a freelance journalist in his spare time.
In 1963 he won the Prix René Gabriel, awarded annually to the designer of a furniture series that combined quality and economy. He participated in the Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada. Self-taught, Mortier designed several elegant private homes in the 1970s, in 1977 obtained a diploma as an architect from the Île-de-France regional architecture council, he taught interior design at the École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs in Paris, the École des arts appliqués and the École supérieure d’arts graphiques Penninghen. He became a painter towards the end of his life. Michel Mortier died on 22 May 2015 at the age of 90, he was survived by his children Richard Mortier and Charlotte Mortier. Mortier was among the young post-war designers who rejected Art Deco and the popular neo-Louis XVI and Louis XIII styles; the work of the three young designers in ARP was unusual for the time, leading to modern concepts. Mortier developed a child's room in the 1970s, considered avant-garde at the time, with flat colored surfaces that define the different uses of the built-in units: storage and play.
His creations, with elegant lines influenced by Danish design, drew wide praise from the press. His best known product is the Lampe 10576 produced by Verre Lumière, his work is held in major public collections including the Centre national des arts plastiques, the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain de Saint-Etienne Métropole and the Collection nationale des arts décoratifs
Seán O'Mahony's Gaelic Football Club is a Gaelic football club based in Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland. The club was founded in 1938, was named after the Irish republican Seán O'Mahony, they won the 2014 Louth Intermediate Football Championship, going on to win the 2014 Leinster Intermediate Club Football Championship. In 2015 they reached the final of the Louth Senior Football Championship for the first time, won it in 2016, when Seán O'Mahony's advanced to the 2016–17 All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship, defeating Baltinglass and Newbridge Sarsfields before losing to Rhode in the Leinster semi-final. Several players are members of the 27 Infantry Battalion, based at nearby Aiken Barracks. David Crawley John O'Brien Louth Senior Football Championship: 2016 Louth Intermediate Football Championship: 1992, 1998, 2014 Louth Junior Football Championship: 1941, 1973, 1974, 1982 Leinster Intermediate Club Football Championship: 2014
The California Conservation Corps, or the CCC, is a department of the government of California, falling under the state cabinet-level California Resources Agency. The CCC is a voluntary work development program for men and women between the ages of 18 to 25, offering work in environmental conservation, fire protection, land maintenance, emergency response to natural disasters. Members of the CCC are referred to as "Corpsmembers", as of 2018, are paid a monthly stipend of $1,905; the bill to create the California Conservation Corps was co-authored by California State Senator Ruben Ayala. The legislation was signed into law by Governor Jerry Brown on July 7, 1976, modeling the corps after the federal Civilian Conservation Corps that started with Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal in the 1930s. Brown envisioned a department marketed to the state's young people as "a combination Jesuit seminary, Israeli kibbutz, Marine Corps boot camp." The CCC replaced the California Ecology Corps, created by executive order of Governor Ronald Reagan in 1971 as an "alternative service" option for Conscientious Objectors during the Vietnam War.
Following the end of his governorship, Brown's successor, Governor George Deukmejian, signed legislation to eliminate the CCC's sunset clause by making it a permanent department under the California Resources Agency in 1983. The duties of operation falling to the CCC include trail maintenance, riparian zone restoration, tree planting and exotic plant species removal and emergency flood and wildfire response. Other organizations pay the CCC to do the work. Corps-members are offered the chance to complete their high school diploma through independent CCC schools and are trained in cooking, office work and vehicle maintenance; the CCC encourages corpsmembers to seek higher education or vocational training by offering scholarships. Since 1992, the California Department of Finance has allotted less funding to the CCC, forcing the closure of numerous residential centers throughout the state; the CCC has received presidential praise as well as numerous awards for its work. There are Fourteen local conservation corps groups in California that are certified annually by the CCC to offer similar job training and environmental projects in other areas of California.
Cesar Chavez Environmental Corps – Tehachapi, CA Civicorps – Oakland, CA Conservation Corps North Bay – San Rafael, CA Conservation Corps of Long Beach – Long Beach, CA Fresno Local Conservation Corps – Fresno, CA Greater Valley Conservation Corps – Stockton, CA Los Angeles Conservation Corps – Los Angeles, CA Orange County Conservation Corps – Anaheim, CA Sacramento Regional Conservation Corps – Sacramento, CA San Francisco Conservation Corps – San Francisco, CA San Jose Conservation Corps – San Jose, CA Sequoia Community Corps – Visalia, CA Urban Conservation Corps of the Inland Empire – San Bernardino, CA Urban Corps of San Diego County – San Diego, CA The San Diego local corps was founded in 1989 with help from former Representative Lynn Schenk and then-Mayor Maureen O'Connor, with an initial budget of $125,000. They engage in a variety of community service and conservation projects, including stadium cleanup, trash pickup and graffiti removal. There are about 200 Corpsmembers employed at any given time.
California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection California Conservation Corps Foundation California Conservation Corps Official Website CCC Facebook Page CCC Foundation Website The California Conservation Corps State Museum Joe Hawkins's CCC Page Recollections of a Placer Fire Center member c. 1980-81