SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Phenylpiperazine

1-Phenylpiperazine is a simple chemical compound featuring a phenyl group bound to a piperazine ring. The suffix ‘-piprazole’ is sometimes used in the names of drugs to indicate they belong to this class. A number of phenylpiperazine derivatives are drugs, including: Pharmaceuticals: Research chemicals: Designer drugs: Substituted piperazine Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor Benzylpiperazine Diphenylpiperazine Diphenylmethylpiperazine Pyridinylpiperazine Pyrimidinylpiperazine Media related to Phenylpiperazine at Wikimedia Commons

Tombs of the Kings (Jerusalem)

The Tombs of the Kings are a collection of rock cut tombs in East Jerusalem believed to be the burial site of Queen Helene of Adiabene. The tombs are located 820 meters north of Jerusalem's Old City walls in the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood The grandeur of the site led to the belief that the tombs had once been the burial place of the kings of Judah, hence the name Tombs of the Kings. According to this theory, Queen Helena chose the site to bury her son Isates and others of her dynasty; the site is located east of the intersection of Saladin Street. The gate of the property is marked "Tombeau des Rois," French for "Tomb of the Kings." On May 15, 2019, Hekdesh, a Jewish organization, hired Gilles-William Goldnadel, a French lawyer, took the French government to court to prove that the site was purchased in 1878 by a Jewish woman, Berthe Amélie Bertrand Goldnadel hopes to reclaim the sarcophagus of queen Helena of Adiabene, presently housed at the Louvre Museum. On June 27, 2019, the French consulate in Jerusalem reopened the site to visitors purchasing tickets in advance.

The tomb is mentioned by the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus in the first century C. E, he writes about Queen Helena of Adiabene. Her family converted to Judaism and built a palace in the City of David at the end of the Second Temple Period. Helena’s son Monobaz II had her remains and those of his brother buried “three stadia from Jerusalem.” Medieval Europeans mistakenly identified the tomb as belonging to the Kings of Judah. In 1847, the Turkish governor ordered a search for treasures in the tomb but none were found. In 1863, the French archaeologist Felicien de Saulcy was given permission to excavate the tomb; the German architect Conrad Schick drew up a map of the site. De Saulcy found sarcophagi, one of, inscribed with a Hebrew inscription, “Queen Tzaddah.” He believed this was the sarcophagus of the wife of the last king of Judah. After human bones were found, the Jewish community appealed to Sir Moses Montefiore to persuade the Ottomans to halt the excavations. De Saulcy smuggled out some of his findings.

In 1864, the French-Jewish banker Isaac Péreire attempted to purchase the site but without success. In the 1870s, a French Jewish woman, Amalya Bertrand, paid 30,000 francs for it, it was registered as French property under the trusteeship of the French consul. Bertrand declared: “I am of the firm opinion that this property, the field and the burial cave of the kings, will become the land in perpetuity of the Jewish community, to be preserved from desecration and abomination, will never again be damaged by foreigners.” She had a guard post built around the site. In 1886, Bertrand's heirs donated it to the French government; the Tomb of the Kings was a popular tourist site. It was described by the Greek geographer Pausanias as the second most beautiful tomb in the world; the Jews of Jerusalem referred to it as the "tomb of Kalba Savua,” Rabbi Akiva’s father-in-law. According to another tradition it was the tomb of Caleb son of Jephunneh, one of the Twelve Spies in the Bible; the tomb has been called the "tomb of the Sultans.”

A small stone house was built on top of the tomb by a Jerusalemite family. From the house there is a 9 meter wide staircase, paved and leads to a forecourt; the rain water is collected in baths, which are carved in the steps, carried via a channel system to the water wells. At the bottom of the stairs there is a stone wall to the left with a gate; this gate leads to a courtyard, cut from the rock at the same date. The dimensions of this courtyard are 27 meters long from north to south and 25 meters wide from west to east; the entrance to the tombs is via this courtyard. The tombs are entered via a rock-cut arch in the western side; the 28-meter facade was crowned with three pyramids, which no longer exist, decorated with reliefs of grapes, plexus leaves and fruit, reflecting the Greek architectural style. The architrave was supported by two pillars, fragments of which were found in the excavations; the tombs are arranged on two levels around a central chamber, with four rooms upstairs and three rooms downstairs.

The central chamber itself is entered from the courtyard via an antechamber that goes down into a dimly lit maze of chambers. The access from the antechamber to the exterior courtyard could be sealed closed by rolling a round stone across it, the stone still remains in-situ. In the first century C. E. a "secret mechanism" operated by water pressure moved the stone. A small amount of water pressure activated a system of weights to open the tomb. Two of the eight burial chambers have arcosolia, resting places made of a bench with an arch over it; some of the arcosolia have triangular niches where oil lamps were placed to give light during the burial process. The two most common types of tombs in the first century CE are found in this tomb complex. Shaft tombs were long narrow shafts in which the deceased were placed and closed with a stone slab which had the name of the occupant inscribed on it. Channels in the center of the shafts were carved to drain the water that seeped through the rock; the tombs are now empty, but housed a number of sarcophagi.

Opinion polling for the 2015 Spanish local elections

In the run up to the 2015 Spanish local elections, various organisations carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intention in Spain. Results of such polls are displayed in this article; the date range for these opinion polls are from the previous local elections, held on 22 May 2011, to the day the next elections were held, on 24 May 2015. Polls are listed in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead; the highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages; the "Lead" columns on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. Color key: Exit poll Color key: Exit poll VoteSeats VoteSeats Color key: Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls Exit poll VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats VoteSeats Color key: Exit poll