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Pherae

Pherae was a city and polis in southeastern Ancient Thessaly. One of the oldest Thessalian cities, it was located in the southeast corner of Pelasgiotis. According to Strabo, it was near Lake Boebeïs 90 stadia from Pagasae, its harbor on the Gulf of Pagasae; the site is in the modern community of Velestino. In Homer Pherae was his wife, Alcestis, as well as their son Eumelus. Thucydides lists Pherae among the early Thessalian supporters of Athens at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. Toward the end of the war Lycophron established a tyranny at Pherae. On his death his son Jason became dictator and by around 374 B. C. E. extended his rule throughout Thessaly. After Jason's assassination and that of his two successors Alexander ruled Pherae with great harshness until he was killed by his wife, Thebe, in 359 B. C. E. and Thessaly was conquered by the Thebans. Philip of Macedon conquered Pherae in 352 B. C. E. and subjected Thessaly to Macedonian rule. In Roman times Pherae was conquered by Antiochus the Great of Syria in 191 B.

C. E, but lost it that same year to the Roman consul of the year Manius Acilius Glabrio. The famous Messeis spring was at Pherae. Modern Feres, Magnesia Pharae, the modern Kalamata Pharae, in Achaea

Hermannsburg School

The Hermannsburg School is an art movement, or art style, which began at the Hermannsburg Mission in the 1930s. The best known artist of the style is Albert Namatjira; the movement is characterised by watercolours of western-style landscapes that depict the striking colours of the Australian outback. Located 125 km west of Alice Springs, in Central Australia, Hermannsburg was founded by Lutheran missionaries in 1877; the Western Arrernte people have lived in this region for thousands of years. In 1941 Rex Battarbee founded the Aranda Art Group, which controlled the supply of materials and helped handle the business affairs of the emerging artists.™ The Hermannsburg painters' work is characterised by soft hues water colours, of their Western Arrernte landscape, which European settlers named the Western Macdonnell Ranges. Western Arrernte people had only used art in a ceremonial sense, as topographical interpretations of their country and their particular Dreamings, painted using symbols. Early works by Albert conveyed this spiritual connection with the land.

They shared an intimate knowledge of the land. The Ghost Gum features prominently in the works, a sacred and important part of Western Arrernte mythology. In the best works by Otto Pareroultja trees were painted as ancestral beings with body-like trunks & arm-like branches. Albert Namatjira began his distinctive style after seeing an exhibition by travelling artists to the mission, Rex Battarbee and John Gardner, in the 1930s. Other artists from the Hermannsburg school include Wenten Rubuntja, Walter Ebatarinja, Otto Pareroultja, his brothers Ruben and Edwin, not to mention Albert's sons, Oscar, Ewald and Keith and his grandson Gabriel. Other members of the school include the Herbert Raberaba brothers; the Hermannsburg School represented a major change of direction for Australian aboriginal art. The works produced by the movement were accessible to collectors who were more familiar with western-style landscapes, it was a successful economic model for aboriginal communities. Today Hermannsburg is well known for its potters its women.

Australian Aboriginal Art The Hermannsburg Potters – female descendants of the original school History of the Hermannsburg School Hermannsburg School paintings at the National Gallery of Australia

John FitzGerald, de facto 12th Earl of Desmond

John FitzGerald, de facto 12th Earl of Desmond was the brother of Thomas FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Desmond. Upon his brother's death in 1534, John disputed the title to the earldom of his brother's grandson, James FitzGerald, de jure 12th Earl of Desmond. According to the Annals of the Four Masters, John FitzThomas FitzGerald was believed to have instigated the murder of his older brother, James FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Desmond in 1487, had been expelled by his brother Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Desmond. John died in 1536, his grandnephew, the de jure earl, died in 1540, was succeeded by John's son, James FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond. Alfred Webb tells us of this earl; this Sir John died about Christmas 1536."