Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis is a retired English actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship. Born and raised in London, he excelled on stage at the National Youth Theatre, before being accepted at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which he attended for three years. Day-Lewis has been hailed by many as one of the greatest and most respected actors of his generation, one of the greatest actors of all time. Despite his traditional training at the Bristol Old Vic, Day-Lewis is considered a method actor, known for his constant devotion to and research of his roles. Displaying a “mercurial intensity“, he would remain in character throughout the shooting schedules of his films to the point of adversely affecting his health, he is one of the most selective actors in the film industry, having starred in only six films since 1998, with as many as five years between roles. Protective of his private life, he gives interviews, makes few public appearances. In June 2014, he received a knighthood for services to drama.
Day-Lewis announced his retirement in 2017, following the completion of his starring role in Phantom Thread. Day-Lewis shifted between theatre and film for most of the early 1980s, joining the Royal Shakespeare Company and playing Romeo in Romeo and Juliet and Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream, before appearing in the 1984 film The Bounty, he starred in My Beautiful Laundrette, his first critically acclaimed role, gained further public notice with A Room with a View. He assumed leading man status with The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Day-Lewis has earned numerous awards throughout his career; those awards include Academy Awards for Best Actor for his performances in My Left Foot, There Will Be Blood, Lincoln making him the only male actor in history to have three wins in the Best Actor category and one of only three male actors to win three Oscars. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his work in In the Name of the Father, Gangs of New York, Phantom Thread. Day-Lewis has won four BAFTA Awards for Best Actor, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, two Golden Globe Awards.
Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis was born in Kensington, the second child of poet Cecil Day-Lewis and his second wife, actress Jill Balcon. His older sister, Tamasin Day-Lewis, is a television food critic, his father, born in the Irish town of Ballintubbert, County Laois, was of Protestant Anglo-Irish descent, lived in England from the age of two, was appointed Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom. Daniel's mother was Jewish. Day-Lewis' maternal grandfather, Sir Michael Balcon, became the head of Ealing Studios, helping develop the new British film industry. Two years after Day-Lewis' birth, he moved with his family to Crooms Hill in Greenwich via Port Clarence Middlesbrough, he and his older sister did not see much of their older two half-brothers, teenagers when Day-Lewis' father divorced their mother. Living in Greenwich, Day-Lewis had to deal with tough South London children. Identified as Jewish and "posh", he was bullied, he mastered the local accent and mannerisms, credits that as being his first convincing performance.
In life, he has been known to speak of himself as much a disorderly character in his younger years in trouble for shoplifting and other petty crimes. In 1968, Day-Lewis' parents, finding his behaviour to be too wild, sent him as a boarder to the independent Sevenoaks School in Kent. At the school, he was introduced to his three most prominent interests: woodworking and fishing. However, his disdain for the school grew, after two years at Sevenoaks, he was transferred to another independent school, Bedales in Petersfield, Hampshire, his sister was a student there, it had a more relaxed and creative ethos. He made his film debut at the age of 14 in Sunday Bloody Sunday, in which he played a vandal in an uncredited role, he described the experience as "heaven" for getting paid £2 to vandalise expensive cars parked outside his local church. For a few weeks in 1972, the Day-Lewis family lived at Lemmons, the north London home of Kingsley Amis and Elizabeth Jane Howard. Day-Lewis' father had pancreatic cancer, Howard invited the family to Lemmons as a place they could use to rest and recuperate.
His father died there in May that year. By the time he left Bedales in 1975, Day-Lewis' unruly attitude had diminished and he needed to make a career choice. Although he had excelled on stage at the National Youth Theatre in London, he applied for a five-year apprenticeship as a cabinet-maker, he was rejected due to lack of experience. He was accepted at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which he attended for three years along with Miranda Richardson performing at the Bristol Old Vic itself. At one point he played understudy to Pete Postlethwaite, with whom he would co-star in the film In the Name of the Father. John Hartoch, Day-Lewis' acting teacher at Bristol Old Vic, recalled: There was something about him then, he was quiet and polite, but he was focused on his acting—he had a burning quality. He seemed to have something burning beneath the surface. There was a lot going on beneath that quiet appearance. There was one performance in particular, when the students put on a play called Class Energy, when he seemed to shine—and it became obvious to us, the staff, that we had someone rather special on our hands.
During the early 1980s, Day-Lewis worked in theatre and television, including Frost
Royal Shakespeare Company
The Royal Shakespeare Company is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The company produces around 20 productions a year; the RSC plays in London, Newcastle upon Tyne and on tour across the UK and internationally. The company's home is in Stratford-upon-Avon, where it has redeveloped its Royal Shakespeare and Swan theatres as part of a £112.8-million "Transformation" project. The theatres re-opened in November 2010, having closed in 2007; the new buildings attracted 18,000 visitors within the first week and received a positive media response both upon opening, following the first full Shakespeare performances. Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon continued throughout the Transformation project at the temporary Courtyard Theatre; as well as the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, the RSC produces new work from living artists and develops creative links with theatre-makers from around the world, as well as working with teachers to inspire a lifelong love of William Shakespeare in young people and running events for everyone to explore and participate in its work.
The RSC celebrated its fiftieth birthday season from April–December 2011, with two companies of actors presenting the first productions designed for the new Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatre stages. The 2011-season began with performances of Macbeth and a re-imagined lost play The History of Cardenio; the fiftieth birthday season featured The Merchant of Venice with Sir Patrick Stewart and revivals of some of the RSC's greatest plays, including a new staging of Marat/Sade. For the London 2012 Festival as part of the Cultural Olympiad, the RSC produced the World Shakespeare Festival, featuring artists from across the world performing in venues around the UK. In 2013, the company began live screenings of its Shakespeare productions – called Live from Stratford-upon-Avon – which are screened around the world. In 2016, the company collaborated with Intel and The Imaginarium Studios to stage The Tempest, bringing performance capture to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre for the first time. There have been theatrical performances in Stratford-upon-Avon since at least Shakespeare's day, though the first recorded performance of a play written by Shakespeare himself was in 1746 when Parson Joseph Greene, master of Stratford Grammar School, organised a charitable production to fund the restoration of Shakespeare's funerary monument.
John Ward's Birmingham-based company, the Warwickshire Company of Comedians, agreed to perform it. A surviving copy of the playbill records; the first building erected to commemorate Shakespeare was David Garrick's Jubilee Pavilion in 1769, there have been at least 17 buildings used to perform Shakespeare's plays since. The first permanent commemorative building to Shakespeare's works in the town was a theatre built in 1827, in the gardens of New Place, but has long since been demolished; the RSC's history began with the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, the brainchild of a local brewer, Charles Edward Flower. He donated a two-acre site by the River Avon and in 1875 launched an international campaign to build a theatre in the town of Shakespeare's birth; the theatre, a Victorian-Gothic building seating just over 700 people, opened on 23 April 1879, with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing, a title which gave ammunition to several critics. The Memorial, a red brick Gothic cathedral, designed by Dodgshun and Unsworth of Westminster, was unkindly described by Bernard Shaw as "an admirable building, adaptable to every purpose except that of a theatre."
From 1919, under the direction of William Bridges-Adams and after a slow start, its resident New Shakespeare Company became one of the most prestigious in Britain. The theatre received a Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1925. On the afternoon of 6 March 1926, when a new season was about to commence rehearsals, smoke was seen. Fire broke out, the mass of half-timbering chosen to ornament the interior provided dry tinder. By the following morning the theatre was a blackened shell; the company transferred its Shakespeare festivals to a converted local cinema. Fund-raising began for the rebuilding of the theatre, with generous donations arriving from philanthropists in America. In January 1928, following an open competition, 29-year-old Elisabeth Scott was unanimously appointed architect for the new theatre which became the first important work erected in the United Kingdom from the designs of a woman architect. George Bernard Shaw commented, her modernist plans for an art deco structure came under fire from many directions but the new building was opened triumphantly on William Shakespeare's birthday, 23 April 1932.
It came under the direction of Sir Barry Jackson in 1945, Anthony Quayle from 1948 to 1956 and Glen Byam Shaw 1957–1959, with an impressive roll-call of actors. Scott's building, with some minor adjustments to the stage, remained in constant use until 2007 when it was closed for a major refit of the interior. Timeline: 1932 – new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens, abutting the remains of the old. 1961 – chartered name of the corporation and the Stratford theatre becomes ‘Royal Shakespeare.’ 1974 – The Other Place opened, created from a prefabricated former store/rehearsal room in Stratford. 1986 – the Swan Theatre opened, created from the shell of the 1879 Memorial Theatre. 1991 – Purpose-built new Other Place, designed by Michael Reardon, opens. September 2004 – The vision for the renewal of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre transformation is announced. July 2006 – The Courtyard Theatre opens with a staging of Michael Boyd’s Histories. November 2010 – The Royal Shakespeare and Swan T
Highgate is a suburban area of north London at the north-eastern corner of Hampstead Heath, 4.5 miles north north-west of Charing Cross. Highgate is one of the most expensive London suburbs in, it has the Highgate Society, to protect its character. Until late Victorian times it was a distinct village outside London, sitting astride the main road to the north; the area retains many green expanses including the eastern part of Hampstead Heath, three ancient woods, Waterlow Park and the eastern-facing slopes known as Highgate bowl. At its centre is Highgate village, a collection of Georgian shops, pubs and residential streets, interspersed with diverse landmarks such as St Michael's Church and steeple, St. Joseph's Church and its green copper dome, Highgate School, Jacksons Lane arts centre housed in a Grade II listed former church, the Gatehouse Inn dating from 1670 which houses the theatre Upstairs at the Gatehouse and Berthold Lubetkin's 1930s Highpoint buildings. Highgate contains the Victorian cemetery in which the Communist philosopher Karl Marx is buried, many other notable people.
The village is at the top of North Hill which provides views across London: it is 129 metres above sea level at its highest point. The area is divided among three London boroughs: Haringey in the north, Camden in the south and west, Islington in the south and east; the postal district is N6. Highgate adjoined the Bishop of London's hunting estate. Highgate gets its name from these hunting grounds, as there was a high, deer-proof hedge surrounding the estate:'the gate in the hedge'; the bishop kept a toll-house. A number of pubs sprang up along the route, one of which, the Gatehouse, commemorates the toll-house. In centuries Highgate was associated with the highwayman Dick Turpin. Hampstead Lane and Highgate Hill contain the red brick Victorian buildings of Highgate School and its adjacent Chapel of St Michael; the school has played a paramount role in the life of the village and has existed on its site since its founding was permitted by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I in 1565. The area north of the High Street and Hampstead Lane was part of Hornsey parish and later the Municipal Borough of Hornsey and the seat of that borough's governing body for many years.
Highgate Hill, the steep street linking Archway and Highgate village, was the route of the first cable car to be built in Europe. It operated between 1884 and 1909. Like much of London, Highgate suffered damage during World War II by German air raids; the local tube station was used as a bomb shelter. Archway Crouch End Dartmouth Park East Finchley Finchley Hampstead Hornsey Kentish Town Muswell Hill Tufnell Park Upper Holloway Highgate tube station Archway tube station East Finchley tube station Highgate is known for its pubs which line the old high street and surrounding streets; some notable favourites are the Flask, the Duke's Head and the Wrestlers. Highgate Cemetery Highgate School Highgate Wood Jacksons Lane Kenwood House Highpoint I and II Athlone House formally known as Caen Wood Towers - Archway Bridge Furnival House St Michael's Church St Joseph's Church The name of the village is commonly; the 2011 census showed. The Highgate ward of Camden meanwhile was 80% white, 3% Black African.
For details of education in the Haringey portion of Highgate see the London Borough of Haringey article. Highgate's main Church of England parish church, St Michael's, is situated close to the summit of the hill, is the highest church in Greater London, it was built as one of the Commissioners' churches in 1831 and consecrated and opened on 8 November 1832. The architect was Lewis Vulliamy, in 1831 his original drawings for the church were exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts. From the late 17th century until 1830 Ashhurst House, the home of former Lord Mayor of London Sir William Ashhurst, stood on the site of the church; the remains of the house's cellar now form part of the church's crypt. The church's spire, built of Bath stone, with a cross of Portland stone, is a landmark on London's northern skyline. Inside, the chancel and choir stalls were done by G. E. Street in 1880; the pulpit dates from 1848. The present bench pews date from 1879; the present organ is by Hill and Davidson, installed in 1885, replacing an earlier instrument of 1842.
It was overhauled in 1985. There is a monument to Samuel Taylor Coleridge and his family in the form of a slate slab in the middle of the church; the church was damaged in the Second World War by enemy air raids and the present stained glass window at the east end was installed in 1954, replacing a window broken in the Blitz. It depicts the Last Supper. Further down Highgate Hill is the town's Roman Catholic parish church, St Joseph's, it was designed by Albert Vickers, built in 1888, replacing an earlier, smaller church of 1861. Although St Joseph's Church was opened in 1889 by the Bishop of Liverpool, it was not until 1932, when its debts were cleared, that it was consecrated; the church has a distinctive copper dome with a green patina, the interior of the dome was painted by Nathaniel Westlake in 1891. The organ is by William Hill and Sons, installed in 1945 as a memorial to the local victims of the Second World War. On Friday
Procter & Gamble
The Procter & Gamble Company is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, founded in 1837 by English American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble. It specializes in a wide range of personal health/consumer health, personal care and hygiene products. Before the sale of Pringles to the Kellogg Company, its product portfolio included foods and beverages. In 2014, P&G recorded $83.1 billion in sales. On August 1, 2014, P&G announced it was streamlining the company and selling off around 100 brands from its product portfolio in order to focus on the remaining 65 brands, which produced 95% of the company's profits. A. G. Lafley—the company's chairman, CEO until October 31, 2015—said the future P&G would be "a much simpler, much less complex company of leading brands that's easier to manage and operate". David Taylor is the current CEO of Procter & Gamble. Candlemaker William Procter, born in England, soapmaker James Gamble, born in Ireland, both emigrated from the United Kingdom.
They settled in Cincinnati and met when they married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris. Alexander Norris, their father-in-law, called a meeting in which he persuaded his new sons-in-law to become business partners. On October 31, 1837, as a result of the suggestion, Procter & Gamble was created. In 1858–1859, sales reached $1 million. By that point, about 80 employees worked for Gamble. During the American Civil War, the company won contracts to supply the Union Army with soap and candles. In addition to the increased profits experienced during the war, the military contracts introduced soldiers from all over the country to Procter & Gamble's products. In the 1880s, Procter & Gamble began to market a new product, an inexpensive soap that floats in water; the company called the soap Ivory. William Arnett Procter, William Procter's grandson, began a profit-sharing program for the company's workforce in 1887. By giving the workers a stake in the company, he assumed that they would be less to go on strike.
The company began to build factories in other locations in the United States because the demand for products had outgrown the capacity of the Cincinnati facilities. The company's leaders began to diversify its products, as well, in 1911, began producing Crisco, a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats; as radio became more popular in the 1920s and 1930s, the company sponsored a number of radio programs. As a result, these shows became known as "soap operas"; the company moved into other countries, both in terms of manufacturing and product sales, becoming an international corporation with its 1930 acquisition of the Thomas Hedley Co. based in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. After this acquisition, Procter & Gamble had their UK Headquarters at'Hedley House' in Newcastle upon Tyne, until quite recently. Numerous new products and brand names were introduced over time, Procter & Gamble began branching out into new areas; the company introduced Tide laundry detergent in 1946 and Prell shampoo in 1947.
In 1955, Procter & Gamble began selling the first toothpaste to contain fluoride, known as Crest. Branching out once again in 1957, the company purchased Charmin paper mills and began manufacturing toilet paper and other tissue paper products. Once again focusing on laundry, Procter & Gamble began making Downy fabric softener in 1960 and Bounce fabric softener sheets in 1972. One of the most revolutionary products to come out on the market was the company's disposable Pampers diaper, first test-marketed in 1961, the same year Procter & Gamble came out with Head & Shoulders. Prior to this point, disposable diapers were not popular, although Johnson & Johnson had developed a product called Chux. Babies always wore cloth diapers, which were labor-intensive to wash. Pampers provided a convenient alternative, albeit at the environmental cost of more waste requiring landfilling. Amid the recent concerns parents have voiced on the ingredients in diapers, Pampers launch Pampers Pure collection in 2018, a "natural" diaper alternative.
Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and increased profits. These acquisitions included Folgers Coffee, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Richardson-Vicks, Shulton's Old Spice, Max Factor, the Iams Company, Pantene, among others. In 1994, the company made headlines for big losses resulting from levered positions in interest rate derivatives, subsequently sued Bankers Trust for fraud. In 1996, P&G again made headlines when the Food and Drug Administration approved a new product developed by the company, Olestra. Known by its brand name'Olean', Olestra is a lower-calorie substitute for fat in cooking potato chips and other snacks. In January 2005, P&G announced the acquisition of Gillette, forming the largest consumer goods company and placing Unilever into second place; this added brands such as Gillette razors, Duracell and Oral-B to their stable. The acquisition was approved by the European Union and the Federal Trade Commission, with conditions to a spinoff of certain overlapping brands.
P&G agreed to sell its SpinBrush battery-operated electric toothbrush business to Church & Dwight, Gillette's Rembrandt toothpaste line to Johnson & Johnson. The deodorant brands Right Guard and Dri, Dry Idea were sold to Dial Corporation; the compa
Quadrophenia is a 1979 British drama film, loosely based on The Who's 1973 rock opera of the same name. It was directed by Franc Roddam in his feature directing début. Unlike the adaptation of Tommy, Quadrophenia is not a musical film, the band does not appear live in the film; the film stars Phil Daniels as Jimmy, a young 1960s London-based Mod who escapes from his dead-end job as a mailroom boy by dancing, taking amphetamines, riding his scooter, brawling with the motorcycle-riding Rockers. After he and his friends participate in a huge brawl with the Rockers at the seaside town of Brighton, he is arrested and his life starts to spiral out of control. In 1964, Jimmy Cooper is a young London Mod, disillusioned by his parents and a dull job as a post room boy in an advertising firm. Jimmy finds an outlet for his teenage angst by taking amphetamines, riding scooters and brawling with Rockers, accompanied by his Mod friends Dave and Spider. One of the rival Rockers is in fact Jimmy's childhood friend Kevin.
An attack by hostile Rockers on Spider leads to a retaliation attack on Kevin. Jimmy participates in the beating, but when he realises the victim is Kevin, he berates the other attackers but does not stop them, instead riding away on his scooter revving his engine loudly in frustration. A planned bank holiday weekend away provides the excuse for the rivalry between Mods and Rockers to escalate, as both groups descend upon the seaside town of Brighton. Jimmy plans to be noticed as a'face', hints to Steph – a girl on whom he has a crush – to ride with him, but she confirms plans to ride with Pete, an older, well-heeled Mod instead, they both agree "...he's a bit flash" Steph asks Jimmy "Eh, you jealous?...". In preparation for the weekend, the pals try to buy some recreational drugs from a London gangster, Harry North, but are cheated with fake pills. After vandalising the drug-seller's car in retaliation, in desperation, they rob a pharmacy, finding a large quantity of their favourite'blues'.
After an early morning group ride from London to the south coast, the friends gather on the seafront, where Jimmy first sees a flamboyant scooter-riding Mod he describes as Ace Face. In a dance hall, Jimmy suggests that he will help Steph, whose escort is now chatting to an attractive American female, to dance with Ace Face, but on the dance floor ushers her away to dance with himself. Steph leaves Jimmy to dance with Ace Face, whereupon Jimmy plots to gain attention by climbing up on to the balcony-edge and dancing with much applause, to the annoyance of Ace Face. After diving into the audience, Jimmy is ejected by bouncers. Steph's escort leaves with the American female, once again Jimmy tries to get with Steph, this time for the night, but she has arranged accommodation with a female friend; the lads spend the night sleeping rough, meet up at a Cafe on the following morning proceed along the promenade, where a series of running battles ensue. As the police close in on the rioters, Jimmy escapes down an alleyway with Steph and they have casual sex.
When the pair emerge, they find themselves in the middle of the melee just as police are detaining rioters. Jimmy is detained with the volatile Ace Face; when fined £75, Ace Face mocks the magistrate by offering to pay on the spot with a cheque, to the amusement of the fellow Mods. Back in London, Jimmy becomes depressed, he is thrown out of his house by his mother. Arriving at work a day late after being detained he quits his job, spends his severance package on more pills, finds out that Steph has become the girlfriend of his friend Dave. After a brief fight with Dave, the following morning his rejection is confirmed by Steph and with his beloved Lambretta scooter accidentally destroyed in a crash, Jimmy takes a train back to Brighton, becoming more unstable with increasing pill-taking. In an attempt to relive the recent excitement, he revisits the scenes of the riots and of his encounter with Steph. To his horror, Jimmy discovers that his idol, Ace Face, is in reality an undistinguished bellboy at a Brighton hotel.
Jimmy heads out to Beachy Head, riding close to the cliff-edge. The scooter is seen crashing over the cliff-top, where the film begins, with Jimmy walking back from the cliff-top with a sunset back drop. John Lydon screen-tested for the role of Jimmy; the distributors of the film refused to insure him for the part and he was replaced by Phil Daniels. Most of the cast were reunited after 28 years at Earls Court on 1 and 2 September 2007 as part of The Quadrophenia Reunion at the London Film & Comic Con run by Quadcon.co.uk. Subsequently, the cast agreed to be part of a Quadrophenia Convention at Brighton in 2009. Quadrophenia is the soundtrack album to the 1979 film of the same name, which refers to the 1973 rock opera Quadrophenia, it was released on Polydor Records in 1979 as a cassette and LP and was re-released as a compact disc in 1993 and 2001. The album was dedicated to Peter Meaden, a prominent Mod and first manager of The Who, who had died a year prior to the album's release; the album contains ten of the seventeen tracks from the original rock opera Quadrophenia.
These are different mixes than those that appear on the 1973 album as they were remixed in 1979 by John Entwistle. The most notable difference is the track "The Real Me"
Thurrock is a unitary authority area with borough status in the English ceremonial county of Essex. It is part of the London commuter belt and an area of regeneration within the Thames Gateway redevelopment zone; the local authority is Thurrock Council. It lies on the River Thames just to the east of London. With over 18 miles of riverfront it covers an area of 64 square miles, with more than half defined as Green Belt. With Greater London to the west and the river to the south, the county of Essex abuts the Borough to the north and east, across the river lies Kent; the local authority is Thurrock Council. Elections are held 3 out of every 4 years. In 2016, the Conservative Party took control of the council, albeit as a minority-party administration. Thurrock is covered by two parliamentary constituencies. Thurrock includes most of the borough while South Basildon and East Thurrock includes some wards in the east of the borough. Both seats were Conservative gains from Labour at the 2010 general election.
The Council is led by Cllr Rob Gledhill as of May 2016. The Mayor is Cllr Barbara Rice. Thurrock has a population of 157,500 people living in 90,500 homes; the Metropolitan Green Belt covers 70% of the borough. There are 494 acres of land available for industrial use. There are seven conservation areas, 19 scheduled ancient monuments, including the dovecote at High House Purfleet, 239 listed buildings; the borough contains ten sites of special scientific interest: Globe Pit, Grays Grays Chalk Pit Lion Pit, Grays Purfleet Chalk Pits West Thurrock Lagoon and Marshes Inner Thames Marshes Vange and Fobbing Marshes Basildon Meadows Mucking Flats and Marshes Hangman's Wood and DeneholesDespite much of the borough being protected Green Belt land, Thurrock provides localised opportunities for further industrial and commercial development. The borough forms part of the Thames Gateway regeneration area, a corridor of opportunity, identified by central government as the area with greatest development and commercial potential in the country.
Thurrock Development Corporation took over much of the borough's planning functions from its creation in 2005 until its demise in March 2011. Much of the population and commercial activity is centred along the riverfront; this includes many large and important industrial sites, including two large oil refineries, manufacturing industries, a container port, cruise liner terminal, distribution warehousing and one of Britain's largest refuse disposal sites at the appropriately named settlement of Mucking. Thurrock is home to the Lakeside Shopping Centre. There is one multiplex cinema attached to the Lakeside Shopping Centre, the Thameside Theatre in Grays. Live shows are held at the Circus Tavern in Purfleet. Open space includes Chafford Gorges Nature Park, Langdon Hills Country Park and Grove House Wood, managed by Essex Wildlife Trust. Museums and historic buildings include Coalhouse Fort at East Tilbury, Tilbury Fort in Tilbury, Purfleet Heritage and Military Centre, High House, Purfleet with its historic farm buildings, the Royal Opera House's Bob and Tamar Manoukian Production Workshop, The Backstage Centre and ACME artists' studios, Thurrock Museum and Walton Hall Farm Museum.
Next to Lakeside Shopping Centre is Arena Essex, a motor sports complex, where speedway and stock car racing takes place. Thurrock in Bloom is a voluntary group that works in partnership with Thurrock Council and co-sponsors such as Sandown Nursery and Elm Horticulture to promote floral displays, it is part of a more general "in bloom" initiative organised by the Royal Horticultural Society. The Thurrock initiative includes an annual sponsorship of roundabouts. Award winners include Woodside Primary School which has received silver and gold awards for its wildlife garden. Mammoths once grazed in the Thurrock area and archaeologists unearthed the remains of a jungle cat. Man has been in the area since prehistoric times and the land has been farmed by the Romans and Anglo-Saxons Thurrock has numerous archaeological sites including the major excavation at Mucking. Horndon-on-the-Hill was the site of an 11th century mint as well as the 15th century woolmarket which gives an indication of the area's wealth in the 15th century.
The narrowing of the river where Tilbury now stands meant it was important in the defence of London, Henry VIII built three blockhouses, two on the Tilbury side and another on the Gravesend side of the river, following the end of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. In 1381, villagers from Fobbing and Stanford-le-Hope instigated the Peasant's Revolt when they were called to Brentwood to pay the poll tax; when they refused to pay, a riot ensued, the catalyst for a mass protest across Essex and Kent. In 1588 Elizabeth I addressed her troops not far from the Tilbury blockhouse as the Spanish Armada sailed up the English Channel. Between 1670 and 1682, the Tilbury blockhouse was rebuilt into a much larger fortification and Coalhouse Fort was built further down river, close to the second blockhouse; the importance of the forts in defending the country continued through Napoleonic times and into the two world wars. The land where Tilbury Town now stands was farmland and marsh grazing until the building of the docks in the 1890s.
Thurrock includes the Bata village, built for workers of the shoe company in 1933. Eight homes and the factory are listed; the area was renowned for mineral extraction, including clay and notably the digging of huge amounts of chalk from the West Thurrock area for use in the now defunct cement industries. When chalk extraction ceased one of the disused pits was redeveloped as Lakeside Shopping Centre. A number of former pits have been used to form the Chafford Gorge
The Bounty (1984 film)
The Bounty is a 1984 British historical drama film directed by Roger Donaldson, starring Mel Gibson and Anthony Hopkins, produced by Bernard Williams with Dino De Laurentiis as executive producer. It is the fifth film version of the story of the mutiny on the Bounty; the film features Laurence Olivier, Daniel Day-Lewis and Liam Neeson. The screenplay by Robert Bolt was based on the book Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian by Richard Hough; the film was made by Dino De Laurentiis Productions and distributed by Orion Pictures Corporation and Thorn EMI Screen Entertainment. The music score was composed by the cinematography designed by Arthur Ibbetson; the film is set as flashbacks from the court martial at Greenwich of Commanding Lieutenant William Bligh for the loss of HMS Bounty to mutineers led by his friend Fletcher Christian, during its expedition to Tahiti to gather breadfruit pods for transplantation in the Caribbean. Bligh sets out from Great Britain in December 1787, electing to sail the Bounty west round the tip of South America in an attempt to use the expedition to fulfill an ambition to circumnavigate the globe.
The attempt to round Cape Horn fails due to harsh weather, the ship is obliged to take the longer eastern route. Arriving in Tahiti in October 1788, Bligh finds that due to the delays, the wind is against them for a quick return journey and they must stay on the island for four months longer than planned. During their stay in Tahiti, ship discipline becomes problematic. Bligh, at the same time, subjects the crew to pressure reaching breaking point; when the ship leaves Tahiti, Fletcher is forced to leave his native wife, behind. The resumption of naval discipline on the return voyage turns Bligh into a tyrant not willing to tolerate any disobedience whatsoever, creating an atmosphere of tension and violence. Bligh insists that the ship is orders the crew to clean up several times a day. Many of the men, including Christian, are singled out for tongue-lashings by Bligh. Playing on Christian's resentment against Bligh's treatment of both him and the men, the more militant members of the crew persuade Christian to take control of the ship.
Bligh is roused from his bed and arrested, along with those considered loyal to him, they are forced into a ship's boat, minimally supplied, cast adrift. The film follows both the efforts of Fletcher Christian to get his men beyond the reach of British punishment and the epic voyage of Bligh to get his loyalists safely to the Dutch East Indies in a longboat. Bligh, through courage and excellent seamanship, a return of his good character and leadership qualities manages to reach civilisation after a harrowing journey without navigational charts nor firearms. One man, however, is killed by natives as the crew stop for supplies on a hostile island. Bligh is portrayed as a man who, on the one hand takes his sense of discipline and command too far, exceeding the limits of the ship's company, but whose character successfully protects his loyal non-mutineers and guides their overcrowded boat to safety; the mutineers sail back to Tahiti to collect their wives and native friends. King Tynah, however, is concerned that their presence on the island could incite King George to declare war against Tahiti and his people.
Realising the folly of staying, they sail away to try to find a safe refuge. Christian pleads with Tynah to allow Mauatua to decide her own destiny. Tynah concedes, Mauatua chooses the uncertainty of a life with Christian over remaining with her father; the search for a safe haven is long and impossible, as they realise that any pursuing Royal Navy vessels will search all known islands and coastlines to find them. At this point, those who remained on board the Bounty are so frustrated that they are ready to rebel against Christian to turn the ship back towards Tahiti. After Christian forces the crew to continue on, they find Pitcairn Island, a place which Christian realises is not marked on British maps of the region; as the crew of the Bounty burn the ship to keep it from being found, the judgment of Bligh's court martial is read: Bligh is found to have not been responsible for the loss of the Bounty, is commended for the voyage of the open boat. Meanwhile, Fletcher Christian and his men realise.
This version was a longstanding project of director David Lean and his frequent collaborator, Robert Bolt, who worked on it from 1977 until 1980. It was to have been released as a two-part film, one named The Lawbreakers that dealt with the voyage out to Tahiti and the subsequent mutiny, the second, to have been named The Long Arm, a study of the journey and the mutineers after the mutiny, as well as the admiralty's response in sending out the frigate HMS Pandora. Lean could not find financial backing for both films. For Lean, the project suffered a further setback when Bolt suffered a massive stroke and was unable to continue writing. Melvyn Bragg ended up writing a considerable portion of the script. Lean was forced to abandon the project after overseeing casting and the construction of the Bounty replica.