The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Helen Catherine Goodman is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for Bishop Auckland since 2005. She was the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in the Department for Work and Pensions until 2010 with responsibility for child poverty and childcare. Goodman's mother was a Danish immigrant and her father was an architect, she grew up in Derbyshire and was educated at her village school and Lady Manners School, Derbyshire, which at the time was a Grammar School. She studied PPE at Oxford. Upon graduating from the University of Oxford, she worked as a researcher for the Labour MP Phillip Whitehead, she worked in HM Treasury as a fast stream administrator holding many posts including on the Energy Desk, the Exchange Rate Desk, Central Budget Unit, Overseas Finance and she was the head of strategy. In 1990–91, she was seconded to the Office of the Czechoslovak Prime Minister to advise on their economic transition after the Velvet Revolution. From 1997, she was the director of the Commission on the Future for MultiEthnic Britain.
She was appointed the Head of Strategy at The Children's Society in 1998, where she was involved in lobbying on policies to cut child poverty. From 2002 until her election to the House of Commons, she was the chief executive of the National Association of Toy and Leisure Libraries which supported 1,000 projects across Great Britain, she is a member of the GMB Union and the Christian Socialist Movement, Amnesty International and Friends of the Earth. She has published numerous articles including in the Political Quarterly. Goodman was selected as the Labour Party candidate for the County Durham seat of Bishop Auckland at the 2005 general election through an All-Women Shortlist, following the retirement of the veteran Labour MP Derek Foster. Goodman held the seat with a majority of 10,047 votes and made her maiden speech in the Commons on 25 May 2005, she was re-elected in 2015 and 2017, although with a majority of less than 600 votes. She was a member of the Public Accounts Committee from May 2005 to April 2007 before becoming a Parliamentary Private Secretary at the Ministry of Justice.
In June 2007, she was appointed Deputy Leader of the House of Commons, before being made a whip in October 2008. She left this role in June 2009 to become a Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department for Work and Pensions. In this role, she steered the Child Poverty Act alongside Stephen Timms. After the 2010 general election, Goodman nominated Ed Miliband for the leadership of the Labour Party. After his election as party leader, she was appointed as opposition spokesman in Labour's Justice team with special responsibility for Prisons and Sentencing policy. In October 2011, she became Shadow Minister for Media. In this role she has campaigned for better child protection online. In October 2013, she was given responsibility for Labour's Arts policy. In 2010, she ran a successful campaign in conjunction with The Northern Echo to save the Zurbarán paintings at Auckland Castle when the Commissioners of the Church of England threatened to sell them. In February 2013, appalled at the impact of the "bedroom tax" on her constituents, she tried to live for a week on £18.
On 3 December 2014, she became Shadow Minister for Welfare Reform as part of a small Shadow Cabinet reshuffle by Ed Miliband. Since February 2016, Goodman has served as a member of the Advisory Board at Polar Research and Policy Initiative. From 9 June 2016 to 12 June 2016 she attended the 64th annual Bilderberg Conference in Dresden, Germany. Goodman supported Remain in the June 2016 EU referendum campaign, her constituency voted for Brexit. This was noted by the Conservative Party in their ‘Respect the Result’ campaign. In 2017, she took part in a campaign to save the DWP office in Bishop Auckland from closure, she raised questions in Parliament regarding the proposed office closure and took part in a match and Rally opposing the closure on 18 March 2017 In July 2017, Goodman was appointed as a junior minister in Jeremy Corbyn’s Shadow Foreign Affairs team. In December 2018, Goodman supported the United Kingdom remaining in a customs union with the European Union. In March 2019, during the indicative vote held by MPs to decide which version of Brexit that they supported, Goodman voted to remain in the customs union.
In May 2009, the Daily Telegraph revealed that Goodman had claimed £519.31 for use of a cottage in her own constituency on her expenses, had submitted hotel bills dated two months prior to being elected to the House of Commons. Goodman argued that she was carrying out Parliamentary business when using the cottage and thus her claim was accepted, the claim for the hotel stay –, rejected – was a mistake, she claimed a £600 fee for advice from her management consultant husband. Goodman pointed out that the independent inquiry by Thomas Legg into MPs expenses had given her "an clean bill of health and concluded that none of my claims required further explanation or clarification.” In June 2014, Goodman was invited to give a speech at the opening of a village fayre at Ingleton, County Durham, in the parliamentary constituency which she had represented for nine years. During her speech, she praised the village for the beauty of its waterfalls and caves and for its connection with the author, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
None of these features applied to the County Durham village, but were, in fact, references to the village of Ingleton, situated seventy miles away in North Yorkshire. The speech "baffled" the audience and after five minutes she was called away from the microphone and informed of her mistake. In October 2015, Goodman attracted criticism from fellow MPs over a tweet mentioning Jeremy Hunt's wife
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons. The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament.
Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. By the 1830s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.
The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world. The Prime Minister is the head of the United Kingdom government; as such, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.
The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing
Civil Service (United Kingdom)
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive. As in other states that employ the Westminster political system, Her Majesty's Home Civil Service forms an inseparable part of the British government; the executive decisions of government ministers are implemented by HM Civil Service. Civil servants are employees of the Crown and not of the British parliament. Civil servants have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament.
In general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector employees. As such, the civil service does not include government ministers, members of the British Armed Forces, the police, officers of local government authorities or quangos of the Houses of Parliament, employees of the National Health Service, or staff of the Royal Household; as at the end of March 2018 there were 430,075 civil servants in the Home Civil Service, this is up 2.5% on the previous year. There are two other administratively separate civil services in the United Kingdom. One is for Northern Ireland; the heads of these services are members of the Permanent Secretaries Management Group. The Offices of State grew in England, the United Kingdom; as in other countries, they were little more than secretariats for their leaders, who held positions at court. They were chosen by the king on the advice of a patron, replaced when their patron lost influence. In the 18th century, in response to the growth of the British Empire and economic changes, institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board grew large.
Each had its own system and staff were appointed by purchase or patronage. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were not working. In 1806, the East India Company, a private company that ruled only in India, established a college, the East India Company College, near London; the purpose of this college was to train administrators. The civil service, based on examination similar to the Chinese system, was advocated by a number of Englishmen over the next several decades. William Ewart Gladstone a junior minister, in 1850 sought a more efficient system based on expertise rather than favouritism; the East India Company provided a model for Stafford Northcote, the private Secretary to Gladstone, who with Charles Trevelyan drafted the key report in 1854. A permanent and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments were made on merit, was introduced on the recommendations of the Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854, which recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine work, those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.
The report was not implemented, but it came at a time when the bureaucratic chaos in the Crimean War demonstrated that the military was as backward as the civil service. A Civil Service Commission was set up in 1855 to end patronage. Prime Minister Gladstone took the decisive step in 1870 with his Order in Council to implement the Northcote-Trevelyan proposals; this system was broadly endorsed by Commissions chaired by Playfair, MacDonnell and Priestley. The Northcote–Trevelyan model remained stable for a hundred years; this was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services, responding to political change. Patrick Diamond argues: The Northcote-Trevelyan model was characterised by a hierarchical mode of Weberian bureaucracy; this bequeathed a set of theories and practices to subsequent generations of administrators in the central state. The Irish Civil Service was separate from the British civil service; the Irish Office in Whitehall liaised with Dublin Castle. Some British departments' area of operation extended to Ireland, while in other fields the Dublin department was separate from the Whitehall equivalent.
Following the Second World War, demands for change again grew. There was a concern that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant wit
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, since the 1880s, has been used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States, "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not used. Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines. Mining at this scale requires the use of draglines, conveyors, hydraulic jacks and shearers. Small-scale mining of surface deposits dates back thousands of years. For example, in Roman Britain, the Romans were exploiting most of the major coalfields by the late 2nd century AD.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the 18th century and spread to continental Europe and North America, was based on the availability of coal to power steam engines. International trade expanded when coal-fed steam engines were built for the railways and steamships; until the late nineteenth century coal was mined underground using a pick and shovel, children were employed underground in dangerous conditions. Coal-cutting machines were introduced in the 1880s. By 1912, surface mining was conducted with steam shovels designed for coal mining; the most economical method of coal extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams, the geology and environmental factors. Coal mining processes are differentiated by whether they operate on the underground. Many coals extracted from both surface and underground mines require washing in a coal preparation plant. Technical and economic feasibility are evaluated based on the following: regional geological conditions.
Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two basic methods of mining. The choice of mining method depends on depth, density and thickness of the coal seam. Coal that occurs at depths of 180 to 300 ft are deep mined, but in some cases surface mining techniques can be used. For example, some western U. S. coal that occur at depths in excess of 200 ft are mined by the open pit methods, due to thickness of the seam 60–90 feet. Coals occurring below 300 ft are deep mined. However, there are open pit mining operations working on coal seams up to 1,000–1,500 feet below ground level, for instance Tagebau Hambach in Germany; when coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut mining methods. Open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited; this equipment can include the following: Draglines which operate by removing the overburden, power shovels, large trucks in which transport overburden and coal, bucket wheel excavators, conveyors.
In this mining method, explosives are first used in order to break through the surface or overburden, of the mining area. The overburden is removed by draglines or by shovel and truck. Once the coal seam is exposed, it is drilled and mined in strips; the coal is loaded onto large trucks or conveyors for transport to either the coal preparation plant or directly to where it will be used. Most open cast mines in the United States extract bituminous coal. In Canada and South Africa, open cast mining is used for both thermal and metallurgical coals. In New South Wales open casting for steam coal and anthracite is practiced. Surface mining accounts for around 80 percent of production in Australia, while in the US it is used for about 67 percent of production. Globally, about 40 percent of coal production involves surface mining. Strip mining exposes coal by removing earth above each coal seam; this earth is removed in long strips. The overburden from the first strip is deposited in an area outside the planned mining area and referred to as out-of-pit dumping.
Overburden from subsequent strips are deposited in the void left from mining the coal and overburden from the previous strip. This is referred to as in-pit dumping, it is necessary to fragment the overburden by use of explosives. This is accomplished by drilling holes into the overburden, filling the holes with explosives, detonating the explosive; the overburden is removed, using large earth-moving equipment, such as draglines and trucks, excavator and trucks, or bucket-wheels and conveyors. This overburden is put into the mined strip; when all the overburden is removed, the underlying coal seam will be exposed. This block of coal may be drilled and blasted or otherwise loaded onto trucks or conveyors for transport to th
Stephen Hepburn is a British Labour politician, the Member of Parliament for Jarrow since 1997. Stephen Hepburn was born in Jarrow, the son of a shipyard worker, educated at Springfield School and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne where he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree, he worked as a personal assistant to the MP for Jarrow Donald Dixon from 1979 until he succeeded Dixon as the local MP. He was elected as a councillor to the South Tyneside Borough Council in 1985, becoming the deputy leader for seven years in 1990, he has remained a councillor whilst serving as an MP, he served as the chairman of the Tyne and Wear Pensions for eight years from 1989. In the 1990s Hepburn was fined £75 for an assault on fellow councillor Iain Malcolm, he was elected to the British House of Commons for Jarrow following Dixon's retirement at the 1997 General Election. Hepburn has remained the MP there since, he made his maiden speech on 21 May 1997, in which he mentioned Ellen Wilkinson and the 1936 Jarrow March.
In parliament he served on both the administration and the defence select committees for four years from 1997. He joined the Accommodation and Works Committee in 2003 until the 2005 General Election, since when he has served on the Northern Ireland select committee, he serves as the chairman of the all party group on shipbuilding and ship repair, is secretary of the all party group on football. Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
Jennifer Chapman is a British Labour Party politician, first elected as the Member of Parliament for Darlington in 2010. Chapman was born in Surrey but moved to Darlington at a young age where she attended Hummersknott School and Queen Elizabeth Sixth Form College, before studying psychology at Brunel University, took an MA in archaeology at Durham University, she had work placements attached to prison psychology departments whilst studying for her undergraduate degree. She married fellow Labour MP Nick Smith in July 2014, she has two children from a previous relationship. Chapman worked as constituency office manager for Darlington Labour MP Alan Milburn. After a career break for children, she returned to politics at Darlington Borough Council when she was elected as borough councillor for the Cockerton West ward in 2007. In November 2009, Chapman was shortlisted as one of four candidates to succeed Milburn as Labour's parliamentary candidate for Darlington on an open shortlist, she was selected to stand for parliament by the local constituency party the following month.
Chapman said: "This shows that the people of Darlington want to choose a Darlington person who will put the town first." She was elected Darlington MP in the 2010 general election with a majority of 3,388. As a result of her election victory, she decided to stand down as a councillor. Chapman made her maiden speech in Parliament on 7 June 2010, during which she asked for social network services to be regulated to stop paedophiles, she backed the Building Schools for the Future programme. In 2011, Chapman was appointed as Shadow Prisons Minister, she had written policy recommendations on the subject of incarceration including a recommendation that prison officers should receive training to help them rehabilitate inmates. Chapman became the Shadow Minister for Childcare and Early Years in January 2016, but resigned in the summer of the same year among dozens of Labour frontbench colleagues, she has since rejoined the shadow frontbench as Shadow Minister for Exiting the European Union alongside Keir Starmer.
The department was set up as a consequence of Britain voting leave during the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 on 23 June 2016. Chapman is a former vice-chair of Progress. Official website Old website Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou