Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the countrys first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism, ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born in Mvezo to the Thembu royal family and he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943, after the National Partys white-only government established apartheid—a system of racial segregation that privileged whites—he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANCs Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial.
Influenced by Marxism, he joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, in 1962, he was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk negotiated an end to apartheid and organised the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory, internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a presidential term and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy. Mandela became a statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Mandela was a figure for much of his life. Widely regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba. Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning troublemaker, in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba. His patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africas modern Eastern Cape province, one of Ngubengcukas sons, named Mandela, was Nelsons grandfather and the source of his surname. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrates unreasonable demands
The Philadelphia Blazers were an ice hockey franchise in the World Hockey Association for the 1972–73 WHA season that was based in Philadelphia, United States. The teams home ice was the Philadelphia Convention Hall and Civic Center, the franchise was originally intended to be based in Miami, but due to money problems, and a lack of a suitable arena, they never played a game in Miami. The franchise instead moved to Philadelphia, where it debuted in 1972 as the Philadelphia Blazers, after only one season in Philadelphia, the team relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia, for the start of the 1973–74 WHA season and became the Vancouver Blazers. Two years the franchise was relocated, this time to Calgary, Alberta. Two years later, the franchise folded, in June 1972, Bernard Brown and James Cooper were granted the rights to the Miami Screaming Eagles along with the players that were under contract with the team, from Herb Martin. Brown and Cooper relocated to Philadelphia and renamed the team the Philadelphia Blazers, the signing caused a great deal of publicity, but controversy as well, as many hockey pundits asserted that Sanderson was nowhere near enough of a preeminent star to warrant such a payout.
The Blazers had high hopes going into the inaugural WHA season with such stars as Parent and fellow ex-Bruin John McKenzie, but their hopes were soon dashed as McKenzie suffered an injury in a pre-season game and Parent and Sanderson suffered from injuries. The teams first home game on Friday, October 13,1972 was a disaster, the team started out with a 1-6 record. Philadelphia went on to drop 10 of their next 13 games, by which time Parent, by Sanderson was long gone. After only eight games in Philadelphia and considerable controversy, the owners paid Sanderson one million dollars to void his contract, despite a rough early season, things actually improved for the Blazers towards the end. Coupled with Bernie Parents goaltending, the made the playoffs with a record of 38 wins and 40 losses. However, a discontented Parent left the team after the first game of the playoffs, Parents agent, Howard J. Parent returned to the NHL during the offseason, staying in Philadelphia and playing for the Stanley-Cup winning Flyers.
Despite making a decent account of themselves on the ice, the Blazers could not overcome the inadequacy of the Civic Center, after only one season and Cooper sold the Blazers to Jim Pattison, who moved them to Vancouver as the Vancouver Blazers
Drexel University is a private research university with three campuses in Philadelphia. It was founded in 1891 by Anthony J. Drexel, a noted financier, founded as Drexel Institute of Art and Industry, it was renamed Drexel Institute of Technology in 1936, before assuming the name Drexel University in 1970. As of 2015, more than 26,000 students are enrolled in over 70 undergraduate programs and more than 100 masters, Drexel University was founded in 1891 as the Drexel Institute of Art and Industry, by Philadelphia financier and philanthropist Anthony J. Drexel. The original mission of the institution was to provide opportunities in the practical arts. The institution became known as the Drexel Institute of Technology in 1936, the central aspect of Drexel Universitys focus on career preparation, in the form of its cooperative education program, was introduced in 1919. The program became integral to the unique educational experience. Participating students alternate periods of classroom-based study with periods of full-time, practical work experience related to their academic major, Papadakis oversaw Drexels largest expansion in its history, with a 471 percent increase in its endowment and a 102 percent increase in student enrollment.
His leadership guided the university toward improved performance in collegiate rankings, a selective approach to admissions. It was during this period of expansion that Drexel acquired and assumed management of the former MCP Hahnemann University, in 2006, the university established the Thomas R. Kline School of Law, and in 2011 the School of Law achieved full accreditation by the American Bar Association. Dr. Constantine Papadakis died of pneumonia in April 2009 while still employed as the universitys president and his successor, John Anderson Fry, was formerly the president of Franklin & Marshall College and served as the Executive Vice President of the University of Pennsylvania. Under Frys leadership, Drexel has continued its expansion, including the July 2011 acquisition of The Academy of Natural Sciences, the College of Arts and Sciences was formed in 1990 when Drexel merged the two existing College of Sciences and College of Humanities together. The College of Media Arts and design fosters the study and management of the arts, design, the performing and visual.
The college offers sixteen undergraduate programs, and 6 graduate programs, in art and design fields that range from graphic design and dance to fashion design. The Bennett S. LeBow College of Business history dates to the founding in 1891 of the Drexel Institute, that became Drexel University, the LeBow College of Business has been ranked as the 38th best private business school in the nation. Its online MBA program is ranked 14th in the world by the Financial Times, the part-time MBA program ranks 1st in academic quality in the 2015 edition of Business Insiders rankings. Undergraduate and graduate programs are ranked 19th in the country by the Princeton Review. Economics programs at the LeBow College of Business are housed within the School of Economics, in addition to the undergraduate program in economics, the school is home to a recently launched M. S. in Economics program as well as a PhD program in economics. Faculty members in the School of Economics have been published in the American Economic Review, Rand Journal of Economics, the school has been ranked among the best in the world for its extensive research into matters of international trade
Pennsylvania Convention Center
The L-shaped complex occupies four city blocks. In the latter part of the 20th century, the Philadelphia Civic Center became outmoded, with the opening of the Spectrum in South Philadelphia, fewer big sporting and entertainment events used the Civic Center. Political conventions, outgrew the capacity of the Civic Center to host them, by the 1980s, regional and state leaders had begun to plan for a new convention center in the heart of Center City. As a result of the construction of the Pennsylvania Convention Center, the headhouse entrance to the Convention Center is located at 12th and Market Streets in Center City. The A, B, and C exhibit halls extend across 12th Street, one story up from the street level, at the south side of the A exhibit hall, a walkway extend over Arch Street, south into the grand hall. The opposite end of the hall provides a gated entrance into the headhouse lobby for the Marriott Hotel that occupies the old office spaces of Reading Railroad. Access to an adjoining Marriott Hotel is gained from this lobby by means of another second-story walkway over 12th Street, the hotel, designed by BLT Architects with completion in 1995, is connected to the Market East Transportation Center via a skybridge to the historic Reading Terminal.
The 1, 200-room hotel offers restaurants, a center, and various-sized ballrooms and pre-function areas for meetings, convention activities. In 1999, designs by BLT Architects to expand the Marriott Hotel at the Pennsylvania Convention Center were completed, the grand ballroom occupies the Reading Railroad Company’s original waiting room. Reading Terminal consists of three parts, the headhouse, a 9-story office building fronting on Market Street, that contained the passenger station and the Reading Railroad company headquarters. It was designed in 1891 by New York architect Francis H. Kimball, the trainshed, directly north of the headhouse, was designed by the Philadelphia architecture/engineering firm of Wilson Brothers & Company. The tracks were raised on a viaduct and entered the great arched shed about 20 feet above street level and its single-span arched roof structure is touted as the worlds oldest surviving. Reading Terminal Market, which had rights to the railroads right-of-way for the property use, was built below the trainshed.
The terminal opened in 1893 and served to enhance the companys power and prominence. When Reading Company ceased to exist as an owner and operator, it sold the headhouse and train shed to SEPTA. SEPTA operated its regional trains out of the shed until 1984, when they developed a station that bypassed the terminal by running under it. City and state officials pondered on a means to reuse the facility, public reaction to redevelopment prompted the new authority to preserve the market and the train shed in its design of the new convention center. It currently oversees the operation and maintenance of the convention center, the expansion was completed in March 2011
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The original line-up consisted of Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued as a touring member until his death in 1985. Jones left the less than a month prior to his death in 1969, having already been replaced by Mick Taylor. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and has been on guitar in tandem with Richards ever since, following Wymans departure in 1993, Darryl Jones joined as their touring bassist. Other touring keyboardists for the band have been Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, the band was first led by Jones, but after teaming as the bands songwriters and Richards assumed leadership while Jones dealt with legal and personal troubles. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the US in 1964, and identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the group began a period of musical experimentation in the mid-1960s that peaked with the psychedelic album Their Satanic Majesties Request. During this period, they were first introduced on stage as The Worlds Greatest Rock, the band continued to release commercially successful records in the 1970s and sold many albums, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, which were their most popular albums worldwide. From 1983 to 1987, tensions between Jagger and Richards almost caused the band to split, they managed to patch up their friendship in 1987. They separated temporarily to work on projects and experienced a comeback with Steel Wheels. Since the 1990s, new recorded material from the group has been increasingly less well-received, despite this, the Rolling Stones have continued to be a huge attraction on the live circuit, with stadium tours in the 1990s and 2000s. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time, Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang Tour.
The Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time list and their estimated album sales are above 250 million. They have released 30 studio albums,18 live albums and numerous compilations, Let It Bleed was their first of five consecutive number one studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight number one studio albums in the US. In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart, in 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger were childhood friends and classmates in Dartford, Jagger had formed a garage band with Dick Taylor, mainly playing Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Howlin Wolf and Bo Diddley material. Jagger met Richards again in 1960 on platform two of Dartford railway station, the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records that Jagger carried revealed a common interest that prompted their musical partnership
Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine
The $302-million project was designed by Rafael Viñoly Architects and completed in 2008. It is the largest capital project ever undertaken by the University of Pennsylvania Health System, the Center is home to Penn Medicines Abramson Cancer Center, radiation oncology, cardiovascular medicine and an outpatient surgical pavilion. One of the most important parts of the Center for Advanced Medicine is the Roberts Proton Therapy Center which houses the largest proton therapy center associated with a center in the world. The proton therapy center will be used by both the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, as well as the Penn Health System to treat cancer patients, of noted importance is center glass atrium which delivers daylight throughout the building. This design element is part of a mission that seeks to coordinate diagnosis. In addition to providing patient-focused design and care, the Perelman Centers is designed to anticipate, Penn plans for the Perelman Center will accommodate the rapid increase in outpatient surgery and house the most advanced medical technology available.
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine Video University of Pennsylvania eastern expansion website Roberts Proton Therapy Center
Temple University is a state-related-public doctoral university located in Philadelphia, United States. It was founded in 1884 by Baptist Minister Russell Conwell, in 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students, dubbed night owls, were taught in the basement of Conwells Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the universitys name, by 1907, the institution revised its institutional status and incorporated as a university. In 2015, Temple received $227.5 million in funding, ranking it 93rd out of 905 institutions in the NSF’s Higher Education Research. Temple is among the nations largest providers of education, preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Conwell came to Pennsylvania in 1882 to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students, dubbed night owls, were taught in the basement of Conwells Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the universitys name, the Grace Baptist Church quickly grew popular within the North Philadelphia area.
A temporary board of trustees was created to handle the rapidly growing formalities associated with the churchs programs, when the board conducted its first meeting they named Russell H. Conwell president of The Temple College. Within the following months, Grace Baptist Church appointed a new board of trustees, printed official admissions files, regardless of whether they had the resources to support the school, Conwell’s desire was “to give education to those who were unable to get it through the usual channels”. Philadelphia granted a charter in 1888 to establish “The Temple College of Philadelphia”, by 1888, the enrollment of the college was nearly 600. It was in 1907 that Temple College revised its institutional status, Legal recognition as a university enhanced Temple in noticeable ways including its reputation and graduate programs, overall enrollment, and financial support. Over time, Temple expanded, Samaritan Hospital was founded, a Medical School was added, after the merger, Temple officially reincorporated as Temple University on December 12,1907.
Today, Temple is a Pennsylvania state-related university, meaning the university receives state funds, subject to state appropriations, but is independently operated. In U. S. News & World Reports 2017 rankings, Temple is tied for 56th among U. S. public universities, tied for 118th among all national universities, Temple undergraduate college is among the top colleges profiled in The Princeton Reviews The Best 379 colleges. Temples Social Science faculty is ranked 76-100 in the world in 2015 by ARWU, Temple is ranked 94th out of 643 US institutions in National Science Foundations 2013 Higher education Research and Development Survey. Tylers graduate programs are highly selective, maintaining their reputation for providing one of the finest programs in the nation, as of 2015, Tyler’s overall ranking is 13th in the nation. Tyler’s individual graduate programs, as of 2015, ranked highly in their fields and drawing, printmaking, ceramics. Temples Fox School of Business, founded in 1918, is one of the largest business schools in the country, the Fox School offers 13 undergraduate majors,10 professional masters programs, two PhD programs, and the school has a variety of international partnerships
David Morse (actor)
David Bowditch Morse is an American actor, singer and writer. He first came to attention as Dr. Jack Boomer Morrison in the medical drama series St. Elsewhere. He continued his career with roles in The Negotiator, The Green Mile, The Long Kiss Goodnight. In 2006, Morse had a role as Detective Michael Tritter on the medical drama series House. He portrayed George Washington in the 2008 HBO miniseries John Adams and he has received acclaim for his portrayal of Uncle Peck on the Off-Broadway play How I Learned to Drive, earning a Drama Desk Award and Obie Award. He had success on Broadway too, portraying James Sharky Harkin in The Seafarer, from 2010 to 2013, he portrayed Terry Colson, an honest police officer in a corrupt New Orleans police department, on the HBO series Treme. He currently stars in the WGN America series Outsiders, Morse was born October 11,1953, in Beverly, the son of Jacquelyn, a school teacher, and Charles Morse, a sales manager. He was raised in Essex and Hamilton, Massachusetts and his middle name, comes from mathematician Nathaniel Bowditch.
After graduating from school in 1971, Morse studied acting at the William Esper Studio. He began his career in the theater as a player for the Boston Repertory Theatre in the early 1970s. In the mid-1970s, Esquire Jauchem, artistic director of the Boston Repertory Theater and that starred 18-year-old David Morse as Oblio. The production toured to the Trinity Square Repertory Company in Providence and he spent some time in New Yorks theater community in the early 1980s, before moving into television and film. During that time, Morse was listed as one of the twelve most Promising New Actors of 1980 in John A. Willis Screen World, morses big break came in 1982 when he was cast in the television medical drama St. Elsewhere. He played Dr. Jack Boomer Morrison, a physician who is forced to deal with the death of his wife. Morse appeared in a number of supporting roles following the finale of St. Elsewhere in 1988 and he is quoted as saying, I made the decision that I didnt care if there was any money in the role or not.
I had to find roles that were different from what I had been doing and his turn in Desperate Hours as antagonist showed a darker Morse. He starred in The Indian Runner and The Crossing Guard and he has appeared in three adaptations of Stephen King stories, The Langoliers, Hearts in Atlantis, and The Green Mile. He was a guest star on Homicide, Life on the Street, in 2002, Morse starred as Mike Olshansky, an ex-Philadelphia police officer turned cab driver, in the television film Hack
Philadelphia Commercial Museum
The Philadelphia Commercial Museum was established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Situated at 332 South Fourth Street, its purpose was to promote domestic and foreign commerce as well as to collect products and it was the first US institution that actively promoted the countrys industry and business in foreign markets. In 1893, the botanist, William P. Wilson, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, attended the Worlds Columbian Exposition and he purchased much of the fairs exhibits and after shipping them back to Philadelphia, the museum opened in temporary spaces. Four years after Wilson founded the museum, its building opened. William Pepper was the first president of the board of trustees and it was Peppers idea to have the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the Commercial Museum situated near each other, on the plan of the South Kensington Museum. To this end, the City Councils, in 1896, passed an ordinance giving over to the trustees of the Commercial Museum 16 acres of land for the erection of suitable buildings, the buildings cost US$1,000,000 to erect.
Of this amount Congress appropriated $300,000, with the understanding that the permanent buildings were to become, after the Export Exposition, the state of Pennsylvania appropriated $75,000, the city of Philadelphia, $200,000. Other sums were brought together by general subscriptions from the citizens of Philadelphia, of Pennsylvania, the institution had a name change to the Museum of the Philadelphia Civic Center in 1966. The museum closed on July 1,1994 and this article incorporates text from a work in the public domain, Bonnier Corporations Popular Science This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain, A. Johnson, C. Bickford, W. Hudson, N. Doles Cyclopedic Review of Current History
The Philadelphia Firebirds were a minor league professional ice hockey team that played in Philadelphia, from 1974 to 1979. From 1974 to 1977 the Firebirds were a club of the North American Hockey League winning the leagues Lockhart Cup play-off championship in 1976. The Firebirds featured several key players during their time in Philadelphia, goaltender Rejean Lemelin moved on from the Firebirds to a long career with Calgary and Boston in the NHL. The tandem of center Bobby Collyard and right wing Gordie Brooks were consistently among the scorers in both the NAHL and AHL during their Firebird careers. The Firebirds played a free-wheeling, high-scoring brand of hockey, Philadelphia averaged over 4.50 goals scored per game during their three NAHL seasons, and averaged 5.94 goals scored per game during the 16 games of their Lockhart Cup championship run in 1976. One playoff game in 1976 between the Firebirds and the Johnstown Jets ended with the Firebirds winning 14-10, when the NAHL folded in 1977, the Firebirds, along with the Broome Dusters, joined the then-struggling American Hockey League.
The Firebirds played all five seasons in Philadelphia at the Philadelphia Civic Center, the Firebirds were affiliated with the NHL Detroit Red Wings in 1977–78 and the Colorado Rockies in 1978–79. However, minor league hockey placement of prospects was much less structured in the 1970s. The Firebirds lost their first 10 games of the 1978-79 season before defeating the Hershey Bears on November 10,1978, following the 1979 season, the franchise moved to Syracuse, New York, where the club played one final season as the Syracuse Firebirds before folding. Philadelphia Firebirds 1974–1977 Philadelphia Firebirds 1977–1979 Syracuse Firebirds 1979–1980 A Brief History of The American Hockey League & Minor League Pro Hockey in Philadelphia,1927 -2005
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the major mens professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier mens professional basketball league in the world. It has 30 teams, and is a member of USA Basketball. The NBA is one of the four professional sports leagues in the United States. NBA players are the worlds best paid athletes by average annual salary per player, the league was founded in New York City on June 6,1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3,1949, the leagues several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in New York City. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada. On November 1,1946, in Toronto, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, the first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers.
During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that leagues 1948 title, Following the 1948–49 season, the BAA took in the remainder of the NBL, Anderson, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as arenas and smaller gymnasiums. The process of contraction saw the leagues smaller-city franchises move to larger cities, the Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, and to St. Louis in 1955. The Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957, japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks. He remained the only player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships, to encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, russells rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports. The 1960s were dominated by the Celtics, led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States