Abrasive blasting, more known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants. A pressurised fluid compressed air, or a centrifugal wheel is used to propel the blasting material; the first abrasive blasting process was patented by Benjamin Chew Tilghman on 18 October 1870. There are several variants of the process; the most abrasive are shot sandblasting. Moderately abrasive variants include glass bead blasting and plastic media blasting with ground-up plastic stock or walnut shells and corncobs; some of these substances can cause anaphylactic shock to both passers by. A mild version is sodablasting. In addition, there are alternatives that are abrasive or nonabrasive, such as ice blasting and dry-ice blasting. Sand blasting is known as bead blasting and abrasive blasting, a generic term for the process of smoothing and cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds.
Sandblasting can occur usually as a result of particles blown by wind causing aeolian erosion, or artificially, using compressed air. An artificial sandblasting process was patented by Benjamin Chew Tilghman on 18 October 1870. Sandblasting equipment consists of a chamber in which sand and air are mixed; the mixture travels through a hand-held nozzle to direct the particles toward the surface or work piece. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes and materials. Boron carbide is a popular material for nozzles. One of the original pioneers of the wet abrasive process was Norman Ashworth who found the advantages of using a wet process a strong alternative to dry blasting; the process is available in all conventional formats including hand cabinets, walk-in booths, automated production machinery and total loss portable blasting units. Advantages include the ability to use fine or coarse media with densities ranging from plastic to steel and the ability to use hot water and soap to allow simultaneous degreasing and blasting.
The reduction in dust makes it safer to use silicacious materials for blasting, or to remove hazardous material such as asbestos, radioactive or poisonous products. Process speeds are not as fast as conventional dry abrasive blasting when using the equivalent size and type of media, in part because the presence of water between the media and the substrate being processed creates a lubricating cushion that can protect both the surface and the media, reducing breakdown rates. Reduced impregnation of blasting material into the surface, dust reduction and the elimination of static cling can result in a clean surface; however wet blasting of mild steel will result in immediate or'flash' corrosion of the blasted steel substrate due to the presence of water. The lack of surface recontamination allows the use of single equipment for multiple blasting operations—e.g. Stainless steel and mild steel items can be processed in the same equipment with the same media without problems. Bead blasting is the process of removing surface deposits by applying fine glass beads at a high pressure without damaging the surface.
It is used to clean calcium deposits from pool tiles or any other surfaces, remove embedded fungus, brighten grout color. It is used in auto body work to remove paint. In removing paint for auto body work, bead blasting is preferred over sand blasting, as sand blasting tends to create a greater surface profile than bead blasting. Bead blasting is used in creating a uniform surface finish on machined parts, it is additionally used in cleaning mineral specimens, most of which have a Mohs hardness of 7 or less and would thus be damaged by sand. In wheel blasting, a spinning wheel propels the abrasive against an object, it is categorized as an airless blasting operation because there is no propellant used. A wheel machine is a high-efficiency blasting operation with recyclable abrasive. Specialized wheel blast machines propel plastic abrasive in a cryogenic chamber, is used for deflashing plastic and rubber components; the size of the wheel blast machine, the number and power of the wheels vary depending on the parts to be blasted as well as on the expected result and efficiency.
The first blast wheel was patented by Wheelabrator in 1932. Hydro blasting is not a form of abrasive blasting. Hydro-blasting known as water blasting, is used because it requires only one operator. In hydro-blasting, a pressured stream of water is used to remove old paint, chemicals, or buildup without damaging the original surface; this method is ideal for cleaning internal and external surfaces because the operator is able to send the stream of water into places that are difficult to reach using other methods. Another benefit of hydro-blasting is the ability to recapture and reuse the water, reducing waste and mitigating environmental impact. Micro-abrasive blasting is dry abrasive blasting process that uses small nozzles to deliver a fine stream of abrasive to a small part or a small area on a larger part; the area to be blasted is from about 1
Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Bucks County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 625,249, making it the fourth-most populous county in Pennsylvania and the 99th-most populous county in the United States; the county seat is Doylestown. The county is named after the English county of Buckinghamshire or more its shortname. Bucks County constitutes part of the northern boundary of the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, more known as the Delaware Valley, it is located northeast of Philadelphia and forms part of the southern tip of the eastern state border. Bucks County is one of the three original counties created by colonial proprietor William Penn in 1682. Penn named the county after Buckinghamshire, the county, he built a country estate called Pennsbury Manor in Bucks County. Some places in Bucks County were named after locations in Buckinghamshire, including Buckingham Township, named after the county town of Buckinghamshire.
Bucks County was much larger than it is today. Northampton County was formed in 1752 from part of Bucks County, Lehigh County was formed in 1812 from part of Northampton County. General George Washington and his troops camped in Bucks County as they prepared to cross the Delaware River to take Trenton, New Jersey, by surprise on the morning of December 26, 1776, their successful attack on Britain's Hessian forces was a turning point in the American War of Independence. The town of Washington Crossing and Washington Crossing Historic Park were named to commemorate the event. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water; the southern third of the county between Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey called Lower Bucks, resides in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is flat and near sea level, the county's most populated and industrialized area. Bucks County shares a western border with Montgomery County, borders Philadelphia to the southwest, Northampton and Lehigh Counties to the north.
From north to south, it is linked to Warren, Hunterdon and Burlington Counties in New Jersey by bridges. Tohickon Creek and Neshaminy Creek are the largest tributaries of the Delaware in Bucks County. Tohickon Creek empties into the river at Point Neshaminy at Croydon. Lehigh County Northampton County Warren County, New Jersey Hunterdon County, New Jersey Mercer County, New Jersey Burlington County, New Jersey Philadelphia County Montgomery County Relatively speaking, Bucks County experiences warm/hot and humid summers with chilly/cold and somewhat snowy winters. Episodes of high humidity occur every year during or close to the summer months occasionally reaching extreme levels; when high humidity combines with air temperatures in the mid-upper 90's, dangerous heat index values of >= 105 °F can sometimes result. Winter minimum air temperatures fall into the single digits to below 0 °F; when the coldest temperatures combine with higher winds, wind chill values can sometimes plummet below 0 °F to as cold as -20 °F. Spring and fall are comparatively tranquil.
The climate cools as one moves from the lower elevation, dense suburban areas in southern Bucks County, to the higher elevation, rural areas of northern Bucks. Precipitation is well-distributed throughout the year; the average seasonal snowfall, which can occur from as early as October to as late as April, is around 2 feet in extreme southern Bucks, around 3 feet in the highest elevations of far northern Bucks. The fall foliage season peaks in mid-October in northern Bucks, mid-late October in central Bucks, late-October/early-November in southern Bucks; these dates correlate with the typical date of first freeze. Peak spring foliage occurs during the month of April, which correlates with the typical date of last freeze. Bucks County has four distinct seasons and has a hot-summer humid continental climate except for some far southern lowlands including Bristol which have a humid subtropical climate; the hardiness zones are 7a. Monthly climatic averages for Quakertown, upper Bucks County, PA. Monthly climatic averages for Doylestown, central Bucks County, PA.
Monthly climatic averages for Bristol, lower Bucks County, PA. As of the 2010 census, there were 625,249 people; the population density was 1,034.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.6% White non-Hispanic, 3.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.7% were of two or more races, 1.5% were of other races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 218,725 households, 160,981 families residing in the county. There were 225,498 housing units at an average density of 371 per square mile. 20.1 % were of 19.1 % Irish, 14.0 % Italian, 7.5 % English and 5.9 % Polish ancestry. There were 218,725 households, out of which 35.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.20% were married coup
Old Pine Street Church
Old Pine Street Church is a Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania built in 1768. Old Pine became known as the "Church of the Patriots", because many of the parishioners such as John Adams, stood with George Washington. George Duffield served as pastor from 1772 until 1790; the churchyard dates to the congregation’s place in the American Revolution. The church counts those buried to include A signer of the United States Constitution 3 Continental Congress attendees 2 colonial printers Over 200 Revolutionary War soldiers 1 Tory Ringer of the Liberty Bell 9 members of the Carpenter’s Company of PhiladelphiaThe cemetery includes medical doctors, sea captains, stonemasons, tavern keepers and everyday citizens from the Colonial era; the last interment in the churchyard was in 1958 for In Ho Oh, a murdered University of Pennsylvania student. Old Pine is now the only remaining Presbyterian building in Philadelphia from before the American Revolutionary War. Continuing our more than 200 years of community activism, Old Piners were among the first to respond to the problem of the homeless on the streets of our city.
In 1982, it founded and, in the beginning, sheltered the Philadelphia Committee for the Homeless. In 1978, Old Pine started its Saturday for Seniors program to provide a weekend hot lunch and take-home snack for the city’s elderly—a Philadelphia first. With no charge and no means test, SFS has become a vital weekend home for more than 100 older people from all over the city. Old Pine continues its commitment to serve the poor in the 21st century; the congregation participates in a local Habitat for Humanity project in the Point Breeze neighborhood of Philadelphia, joining with other Presbyterian congregations to jump start development there and in surrounding blocks. In addition, it sends members to communities impacted by natural disasters: the Gulf Coast to help the clean-up and rebuilding effort in the wake of the disastrous Hurricane Katrina. Official website https://archive.org/details/oldpinestreetch00churgoog
Penn's Landing is a waterfront area of Center City Philadelphia along the Delaware River. Its name commemorates the landing of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania in 1682; the actual landing site is further south in Pennsylvania. The city of Philadelphia purchased the right to use the name. Penn's Landing is bounded by Front Street to the west, the Delaware River to the east, Spring Garden Street to the north, Washington Avenue to the south, is focused on the Christopher Columbus Boulevard corridor. Development of the area is handled by the Delaware River Waterfront Corporation; the corporation is a non-profit, established in 2009 to manage the publicly owned land on the central waterfront on behalf of the City of Philadelphia and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Penn's Landing serves as the site for several summertime events in the city; the main public space at Penn's Landing is The Great Plaza, a concrete labyrinth located along the Delaware River at Christopher Columbus Boulevard and Chestnut Street.
During the summer months, Festival Pier at Spring Garden Street serves as a venue for outdoor concerts and has a capacity of approx. 6,500 people. Several historic ships are moored at Penn's Landing; the barque Moshulu is a floating restaurant. The RiverLink Ferry links Penn's Landing with the Camden Waterfront across the river in Camden, New Jersey; the Blue Cross RiverRink is outdoor event facility located at Penns Landing. During the winter months it operates as an ice skating rink, hosts the Blue Cross RiverRink WinterFest, featuring winter-themed decorations, fire pits, an outdoor beer garden; the first Winterfest was held in 2013, concepted by Avram Hornik of FCM Hospitality, who owns the neighboring outdoor waterfront restaurant, Morgan's Pier. During the summer months, the ice rink is converted into a roller skating rink under the name SummerFest. Sterling Helicopter operates the only public-use heliport in Philadelphia at Pier 36. Spruce Street Harbor Park is one of the main attractions at Penn's Landing.
It is an urban beach park. The park has boardwalk along the Delaware River with a beachfront atmosphere with chairs and hammocks; the park is only open seasonally in the summer or warm months, closed during the winter. There are many statues and monuments located in Penn's Landing: The Irish Memorial, history of the Great Famine and subsequent Irish immigration to America, dedicated in 2003, sculpted by Glenna Goodacre Monument to Scottish Immigrants, dedicated in 2011, honors the contributions of Scottish immigrants to the United States Vietnam Veterans Memorial, dedicated in 1987 and designed by Perry M. Morgan Korean War Memorial dedicated in 2002 Christopher Columbus Memorial, dedicated in 1992, an obelisk designed by Venturi Scott Brown to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the Americas A bronze plaque monument marking the 250th anniversary of the 1747 creation of the "Associators", the predecessor of the Pennsylvania National Guard. From 1982 until 1995 a heritage trolley line operated in Penn's Landing, on weekends and holidays from about April to October each year.
Intended to attract tourists and help spur redevelopment of the area, the trolley line was established along a 1.1-mile section of disused ex-Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad freight railroad track, from the Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Pier 51. Grants from the city and Fidelity Bank funded the installation of overhead trolley wire and supporting poles, along with an electrical substation to provide power. Operation began on September 5, 1982, was run by volunteers from the Buckingham Valley Trolley Association; the service used historic trolley cars on loan from museums. When not in use, the cars were stored in a building on city-owned Pier 51; the service ran for the last time on December 17, 1995, the trolley wire and poles were removed by March 1996. The Delaware River Port Authority has considered re-opening the Franklin Square PATCO Speedline station and with a connection to a new trolley route on Delaware Avenue/Columbus Road operated by PATCO. Samuel Carpenter bought a lot extending from King Street to Front Street and on to Second Street in 1683.
This lot extends to Ton Alley. On the east side of this lot he built a wharf, or "a fair key" as mentioned by William Penn, the first wharf built in Philadelphia, it could handle ships of 500 tons or more. Over the years it was expanded and would now be under Interstate-95 where the highway passes Penn's Landing. Penn's Landing Corporation Penn's Landing at US History.org Blue Cross RiverRink Sippin By The River Jam on the River
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Dock Street Market
The Dock Street Market was Philadelphia’s wholesale produce market. It was located on Dock Street in Society Hill. Dock Street is three blocks long, runs from Sansom Street to Spruce Street, between Third and Front Streets; the market was busiest between midnight and eight in the morning when produce was loaded and offloaded between delivery trucks and warehouses. The Dock Street Market was the center of the region's wholesale produce distribution when the market closed and moved to the Food Distribution Center in South Philadelphia in 1959; the area around Dock Creek was first settled in the seventeenth century. William Penn thought the mouth of the creek a good site to dock ships. Leather tanners had used Dock Creek since the city's early days, both as a water source in which to soak animal hides, for refuse disposal. Benjamin Franklin and others petitioned to remove the tanners to a more remote part of the city in 1739; the city built a covered sewer with a brick arch, in two stages, in 1765 and 1784.
In 1763, the creek was used as an open sewer and described as "a Receptacle for the Carcasses of dead Dogs, other Carrion, Filth of various kinds, which laying exposed to the Sun and Air putrify and become offensive and injurious to the Health of the Inhabitants." Residents covered the creek above Second Street by 1769 and Dock Creek was covered to its outlet at the Delaware by 1784. The sewer became inadequate in the 1840s and overflowed to the streets above; the city built a culvert under the streets to carry the stream. During the redevelopment of Dock Street in the 1960s, new sewer lines were constructed in the area and archaeologists investigated the site. Dock Street continues to run on top of the old stream bed. In June 1842, Philadelphia's municipal council referred to the Committee on Police a proposal, "...asking that the stands for Market Wagons, vending their produce, may be changed from to Dock street, between Second and Front."In 1958, Dock Street was one of four major produce markets in Philadelphia alongside the Callowhill Street Market, the Baltimore and Ohio Produce Terminal, the Pennsylvania Railroad.
In the late 1950s, Society Hill was considered a slum neighborhood, the market had come to be known for its congestion and noise in the early morning hours, the infestation of vermin that fed on the discarded produce. Edmund Bacon, city planning director, convinced the city to spend $17 million to acquire land and invest in infrastructure; the Philadelphia City Planning Commission and the Redevelopment Authority targeted Society Hill including the market From 1957-1959, the Greater Philadelphia Movement, the Redevelopment Authority and the Old Philadelphia Development Corporation bought 31 acres around Dock Street. They relocated and demolished the Dock Street market, setting aside 5 acres of land that would become the Society Hill Towers; the United States Department of Agriculture published a study in 1951 supporting the move of the market to Delaware and Oregon Avenues in South Philadelphia. In June 1959, the Dock Street Market merchants moved to the new Food Distribution Center on South Galloway Street in South Philadelphia.
The move from Dock Street to the Food Distribution Center in 1959 changed the structure of the wholesale produce market by centralizing distribution through a fewer number of larger wholesalers. Alfred Joseph Burns wrote in 1968, Most of the 1958-64 decline in the number of wholesalers was among small firms. In 1958 there were 117 small firms handling less than 3,000 tons of produce a year, 35 medium-sized firms handling from 3,000 to 7,500 tons, 55 large firms handling over 7,500 tons. In 1964 there were 64 small, 39 medium-sized, 51 large firms. An art project in 2008 investigated the former course of Dock Creek between Third and Fifth Streets, in what is now Independence National Historical Park; the Dock Street Market was the subject of "Hucksters: The Tumult of Dock Street" at the Independence Seaport Museum in 2015. Cresson, John C.. Report of the Topographical Commissioners appointed by the Committee on Public Highways, March 15, 1849, To Make a Survey of the region of Dock Street, with a view to ascertain the best system of Drainage.
Read in the Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia. Philly H2O. Retrieved 2016-07-31. Perrine, William. "Dock Street". Evening Bulletin. Philadelphia. Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-07-31. Philadelphia Wholesale Produce Market: History
United States Army Nurse Corps
The United States Army Nurse Corps was formally established by the U. S. Congress in 1901, it is one of the six medical special branches of officers which – along with medical enlisted soldiers – comprise the Army Medical Department. The ANC is the nursing service for the U. S. Army and provides qualified nursing staff in support of the Department of Defense medical plans; this ANC is composed of registered nurses. All actions and tasks must lead and work toward promoting the wellness of Warriors and their families, supporting the delivery of Warrior and family healthcare, all those entrusted to our care and positioning the Army Nurse Corps as a force multiplier for the future of military medicine. I am a member of the Army Nursing Team. My patients trust me to provide compassionate and proficient care always. I offer courage and hope to those in despair. I protect the dignity of every individual put in my charge. I tend to the physical and psychological wounds of our Warriors and support the health and welfare of every retired Veteran.
I am an advocate for family members who sustain their Soldier during times of War. It is a privilege to care for each of these individuals and I will always strive to be attentive and respectful of their needs and honor their uniquely divine human spirit. We are the Army Nursing Team. We live the Soldier values. We believe resiliency in difficult times is the cornerstone of Army Nursing. We embrace the diversity of our team and implicitly understand that we must maintain a unified, authentically positive culture and support each other's physical and environmental well-being. We have a collective responsibility to mentor and foster the professional growth of our newest Team members so they may mentor those who follow. We remember those nursing professionals who came before us and honor their legacy and sacrifice. We are fundamentally committed to provide exceptional care to past and future generations who bravely defend and protect our Nation; the Army Nursing Team: Courage to Care, Courage to Connect, Courage to Change AR 135-100, AR 135-101, AR 601-100, applicable Army Nurse Corps circulars in the DA Circular 601-FY-X series list qualifications for entry.
The U. S. Army Nurse Corps consists of commissioned officers. Nurses who wish to serve as an Army Nurse are required to hold an unrestricted Registered Nurse license prior to receiving a commission. For the Active Army and the Reserve Component, a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree is required; as of 2012, the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps was Major General Jimmie O. Keenan. Public Health Nurse – 66B Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse – 66C Peri-Operative Nurse – 66E Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist – 66F Obstetrics-Gynecological Nurse – 66G Medical-Surgical Nursing – 66H Generalist Nurse – 66N. Family Nurse Practitioner – 66P Additional skill identifiers. 7T – Clinical Nurse Specialist 8A – Critical Care Nurse 8D – Nurse Midwife M5 – Emergency Nurse M8 – Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner M9 – Nurse Case ManagerN1 – Aviation Medicine Nurse Practitioner The Army Nurse Corps became a permanent corps of the Medical Department under the Army Reorganization Act passed by Congress on 2 February 1901.
Nurses served in Washington's Army during the Revolutionary War. An Army Department circular order established the designation of Nurse. During the American Civil War, the United States Sanitary Commission, a federal civilian agency, handled most of the medical and nursing care of the Union armies, together with necessary acquisition and transportation of medical supplies. Dorothea Dix, serving as the Commission's Superintendent, was able to convince the medical corps of the value of women working in their hospitals. A famous figure was Clara Barton, whose Civil War nursing efforts had earned her the names "Angel of the Battlefield" or the "American Nightingale." In 1882, Barton helped found and served as the first president of the American Chapters of the International Red Cross. During the 1898 Spanish–American War, the Army hired female civilian nurses to help with the wounded. Dr. Anita Newcomb McGee was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon in the U. S. Army - the only woman at this time. After the war ended, McGee pursued the establishment of a permanent nurse corps.
She wrote the section of the Army Reorganization Act legislation pertaining to nursing and is now known as the founder of the Army Nurse Corps. In all, more than 1,500 women nurses worked as contract nurses during that 1898 conflict. Race and sex played central roles; the ANC was for white women only, fought hard to exclude or minimize the numbers of black women until 1947. They excluded all men until the Korean war when male doctors began to emphasize the need for nurses in the front lines, this meant male nurses. Professionalization was a dominant theme during the Progressive Era, because it valued expertise and hierarchy over ad-hoc volunteering in the name of civic duty. Congress established the Army Nurse Corps in 1901 and the Navy Nurse Corps in 1908; the Red Cross became a quasi-official federal agency in 1905 and took upon itself primary responsibility for recruiting and assigning nurses. In Worl